BOWNE, BORDEN PARKER: American educator; b. at Leonardville, N. J., Jan. 14, 1847. Died at Brookline, Mass., Apr. 1, 1910. He was educated at the University of New York (B.A., 1871), and studied at Halle, Göttingen, and Paris. From 1876 he was professor of philosophy at Boston


University. He was chairman of the Philosophical Department at the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904 and an honorary member of the Imperial Education Society of Japan. His writings are: The Philosophy of Herbert Spencer (New York, 1874); Studies in Theism (1879); Metaphysics (1882); Philosophy of Theism (1887); Introduction to Psychological Theory (1887); Principles of Ethics (1892); Theory of Thought and Knowledge (1897); The Christian Revelation (Cincinnati, 1898); The Christian Life (1899); The Atonement (1900); Theism (Deems lectures for 1902; New York, 1902); and The Immanence of God (Boston, 1905).

BOWRING, SIR JOHN: English Unitarian; b. at Exeter Oct. 17, 1792; d. there Nov. 23, 1872. He served his country as member of Parliament (1835-37 and 1841-49), in the public service in China and the Far East (1849-59), and as member of various governmental commissions; he was an ardent Utilitarian and first editor of the Westminster Review (1825). He was a remarkable linguist and an enthusiastic student of literature. His writings relate to public affairs, give the results of his travels, and include numerous translations, particularly of the popular poetry of Eastern Europe; he edited the works of Jeremy Bentham with biography (11 vols., London, 1838-43). He is mentioned here for his hymns, many of which are in general use, as "God is love, his mercy brightens," "From the recesses of a lowly spirit," "In the cross of Christ I glory," "Watchman, tell us of the night," "We can not always trace the way," and others.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Autobiographical Recollections, with Memoir by [his son] Lewin Bowring, London, 1877; DNB, vi, 76-80; S. W. Duffield, English Hymns, pp. 263-263, New York, 1886; J. Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, pp. 166-167, London, 1907.

BOY-BISHOP: A popular custom of the Middle Ages to provide a diversion for the boys of a church or cathedral choir or school, and to reward the most deserving. One of the number was chosen "bishop," most commonly on St. Nicholas's day (Dec. 6), and in episcopal dress and attended by his fellows as priests, he went through the streets bestowing his blessing. Often he entered into the church and conducted some part of the service, at times delivering a sermon, prepared for the purpose by an older head (cf. the Concio de puero Jesu of Erasmus, edited by S. Bentley, London, 1816, which was spoken by a boy of St. Paul's School, London, on such an occasion). The boys occupied the seats of the clergy while the latter sat in the lowest places. In some localities the game lasted from St. Nicholas's day until Holy Innocents' day (Dec. 28). It was very popular in England, where it was observed not only in the churches and schools, but at the court and in the castles of the nobility; the boys were called "St. Nicholas's clerks." The custom was forbidden in 1542 but was restored under Mary. It was also common in France, although repeatedly forbidden there (by the papal legate, 1198; the synods of Paris 1212, Cognac 1260, Nantes 1431; the chapter of Troyes 1445). In some places, as Reims and Mainz, it lasted till the eighteenth century. See FOOLS, FEAST OF, and consult the works mentioned in the bibliography of that article.


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