BEER, bêr, GEORG: German Lutheran; b. at Schweidnitz (31 m. s.w. of Breslau) Nov. 12, 1865. He studied in Berlin and Leipsic (Ph.D., 1887), taught in Erbach 1889-91, and became privat-docent at Breslau in 1892. Two years later he went in the same capacity to Halle, and in 1900 to Strasburg as associate professor of the Old Testament. Became ordinary professor of Old Testament at Heidelberg, 1909. He has written Al-Gazzâli's Makâsid al-falâsifat, i, die Logik (Leyden, 1888); Individualund Gemeinde-psalmen (Marburg, 1894); and Der Text des Buches Hiob untersucht (1897); besides preparing the translation of the Martyrdom of Isaiah and of the Book of Enoch for E. Kautzsch's Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments (Tübingen, 1900).

BEER, RUDOLF: German Protestant; b. at Bielitz (40 m. w.s.w. of Cracow) Dec. 5, 1863. He was educated at the universities of Vienna and Bonn, and since 1893 has been reader in Spanish at the latter university, as well as a custodian at the Imperial and Royal Library at Vienna since 1888. He is a collaborator on the Vienna Corpus patrum ecclesiasticorum latinorum. In theology he advocates "the scientific investigation of Christian revelation." Among his works special mention may be made of his Die Anecdota Borderiana Augustineischer Sermonen (Vienna, 1887); Heilige Höhen der Griechen und Römer (1891); Die Quellen für den liber diurnus concilii Basiliensis des Petrus Bruneti (1891); and Urkundliche Beiträge zu Johannes de Segovia (1896); in addition to editions of Wyclif's De compositione hominis (London, 1887); and De ente prœdicamentali quœstiones tredecim (1891), and of the Monumenta conciliorum generalium (3 vols., Vienna, 1892-96).

BEET, bît, JOSEPH AGAR: English Wesleyan; b. at Sheffield Sept. 27, 1840. He attended Wesley College, Sheffield (1851-56), and took up mining engineering, but afterward studied theology at the Wesleyan College, Richmond (1862-64). He was pastor 1864-85 and professor of systematic theology in Wesleyan College, Richmond, 1885-1905. He was also a member of the faculty of theology in the University of London 1901-05. He delivered the Fernley Lecture on The Credentials of the Gospels in 1889, and lectured in America in 1896. Though long recognized as one of the ablest theologians and exegetes of his denomination, his sympathy with the modern critical school of interpretation and particularly his views on eschatology have occasioned much criticism. In The Last Things (London, 1897; 2d ed., 1905) he opposed the belief that the essential and endless permanence of the soul is taught in the Bible and denied that eternal punishment necessarily means endless torment, holding that the sinner may suffer a relative annihilation of his mental and moral faculties and sink into a dehumanized state. He reiterated these views in The Immortality of the soul (1901). Charges of heresy were brought against him at the Conference of 1902, but he was reelected to his professorship on condition that he refrain from expressing his opinions on immortality and future punishment. To regain liberty of speech in 1904 he gave notice that he would retire from his chair in twelve months. His other works are: Commentary on Romans (London, 1877); Holiness as Understood by the Critics of the Bible (1880); Commentary on Corinthians (1881); Commentary on Galatians


(1883); Commentary on Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon (1890); Through Christ to God (1892); The Firm Foundation of the Christian Faith (1892); The New Life in Christ (1895); Nature and Christ (New York, 1896); Key to Unlock the Bible (1901); Transfiguration of Jesus (1905); and Manual of Theology (1906).


CCEL home page
This document is from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library at
Calvin College. Last modified on 05/10/04. Contact the CCEL.
Calvin seal: My heart I offer you O Lord, promptly and sincerely