BARNABITES (Clerici regulares S. Barnabae): A congregation of regular clerics founded in the city and diocese of Milan in 1530 by a nobleman of Cremona, Antonio Maria Zaccaria (b. 1502;


Barnabites THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 488 Baronius educated at Padua and a physician by profession; ordained priest, 1528; d. 1539), with the help of his friends, Giacomo Antonio Morigia and Bartolo meo Ferrari, and two priests, Francesco Lucco and Giacomo Casco. The region was then suffering severely from the wars between Charles V and Fran cis I, and the purpose was stated in the constitution to be the promotion of a love of divine service and the true Christian life by means of preaching and the frequent administration of the sacraments. The original and official name was Clerici regulares S. Pauli deco", which is found in the brief of Clement VII (1533) confirming the congregation as well as in the edict of Paul III (1535) which exempted the society from episcopal jurisdiction. In 1538 the grand old monastery of St. Barnabas by the city wall of Milan was given to the congrega tion as their main seat, and thenceforth they were known as the Regular Clerics of St. Barnabas. After the death of Zaccaria they were favored and protected by Archbishop Carlo Borromeo of Milan and later by Francis of Sales because of their suc cessful missionary work in Upper Italy. They entered France under Henry IV in 1608, and Austria under Ferdinand II in 1626. In the last-named country they still have six monasteries, the chief being at Vienna. In Italy their houses are larger and more numerous (twenty in all), and that con nected. pith the Church of S. Carlo a' Catanari in Rome is the most prominent and richest. The Order can boast of eminent scholars, as Gavanti, Niceron, Gerdil, Lambruschini, and Vercellone in the past, and Savi, Semeria, and others in the pres- ent. O. Z6csr,ERt.

BrBLi068APHr: Helyot, Ordsw momatiques, iv, 100-116; KL, i, 2030-34; J. Hergenr5ther, Allpemeine Kirdhen Oeschichte, iii. 278-277, Freiburg, 1886; Heimbucher, Orden and Konpregahonan, i, 490, 519-520, ii, 266 sqq. On the life of the founder consult F. 8. Bianchi; Brew vita A. M. Zaccaria, Bologna, 1875.

BARNARD, JOHN: Congregational minister; b. at Boston Nov. 6, 1681; d. at Marblehead Jan. 24, 1770. He was graduated at Harvard in 1700; accompanied the expedition to Port Royal as chaplain in 1707; was ordained minister at Marblehead in 1716, where he developed a great activity both for the moral and the material welfare of his flock. He published A New Version o f the Psalms of David (Boston, 1752), and some sermons which show an incipient deviation from Calvinism.

BIBwooaAPHy: His autobiography, written in his 86th year, is published in the CoUectiona of the Afaaachusetu Historical Society, 3d series, vol. v, Boston, 1836.

BARNES, ALBERT: Presbyterian; b. at Rome, N. Y., Dec. 1, 1798; d. at West Philadelphia Dec. 24, 1870. He was graduated at Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y., in 1820, and at Princeton Theological Seminary, 1823; was ordained pastor of the Presbyterian church at Morristown, N. J., 1825; was pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, 1830-67, when he resigned and was made pastor emeritus. He was an advocate of total abstinence and the abolition of slavery and worked actively in the Sunday-school cause. In 1835 he was brought to trial for heresy by the Second Presbytery of Philadelphia ulxrr. ten specifications

(given in E. H. Gillett, History of the Presbyterian Church, revised ed., ii, Philadelphia, n.d., pp. 473474), but was acquitted. Appeal was then made to the Synod of Philadelphia (1835) and he was suspended from the ministry until he should repent of his errors. He appealed to the General Assembly of 1836 and the decision of the Synod was reversed. The agitation still continued and the trial was one of the active causes of the disruption of the Presbyterian church in the United States in 1837 (see PREsByTERIANB) and Mr. Barnes was a leader of the New School party; yet he lived to rejoice in the reunion in 1870. His Notes on the entire New Testament and on portions of the Old (Notes Explanatory and Practical on the New Testament, 11 vols., Philar delphia, 1832-53; revised edition, 6 vols., New York, 1872; Isaiah, 2 vols., 1840; Job, 2 vols., 1844; Daniel, 1853; The Book of Psalms, 3 vols., 1868), designed originally for his congregation in Philadelphia, were eminently fitted for popular use and more than one million copies were sold; they are not original, but show much patient and conscientious labor. Other publications were Scriptural Views of Slavery (Philadelphia, 1846); The Church and Slavery (1857); The Atonement in its Relation to Law and Moral Government (1859); The Way of Salvation (1863); Lectures on the Evidences of Christianity in the Nineteenth Century (New York, 1868); Prayers for the Use o f Families (1870); Life at Three Score and Ten (1871).

BARNES, ARTHUR STAPYLTON: Roman Catholic; b. at Kussouli (20 m. s.w. of Simla), India, May 31, 1861. - He was educated at Eton (1874-77), Royal Military Academy, Woolwich (1877-78), and University College, Oxford (B.A., 1883), and was a lieutenant in the Royal Artillery in 1877-79. He later studied theology and was ordained to the Anglican priesthood. In 1889 he became vicar of St. Ives, Hunts, with Woodhurst and Oldhurst, and was vicar of the Hospital of St. Mary and St. Thomas, Ilford, from 1893 to 1895, when he entered the Roman Catholic Church. He then studied at Rome for the priesthood and was engaged in diocesan work at Westminster until his appointment as Roman Catholic chaplain to Cambridge University. He has also been a Private Chamberlain to the Pope since 1904. In addition to numerous briefer studies, he has written The Popes and the Ordinal (London, 1896) and St. Peter at Rome (1899).

BARNES, ROBERT: Church of England; b. at or near Lynn (26 m. n.e. of Ely), Norfolk, 1540; d. at the stake as a Protestant martyr, London, July 30, 1540. He studied at Cambridge, where he became an Augustinian friar, and at Louvain, where he proceeded doctor of divinity. Returning to Cambridge, he rose to be master of the house of the Augustiniane. In 1526 he began to advocate Protestant views with great boldness, and so quickly got into trouble. Though treated leniently he was imprisoned from 1526 to 1528, when he escaped to the Continent, where he lived till 1531, and called himself Antonius Anglus. He enjoyed the friendship of the German Reformers. In Wittenberg in 1530 he published his first book, a collection of passages


489 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Bwrnabitee Baronius from the doctors of the Church-all in Latin which supported, as he claimed, the Protestant position. In 1531 a German translation of these passages appeared in Nuremberg. In that year he returned to England and was employed on diplomatic journeys by Henry VIII and Thomas Cromwell, for instance to arrange the marriage between Henry and Anne of Cleves. He was always outspoken, and showed more zeal than prudence in propagating his Protestant views. So at last he was cast into prison in the Tower and, although no definite charge was laid against him, was burnt at Smithfield as a heretic. In 1573 John Foxe printed his English works (London) which display his courage, clearness, and comprehensiveness; selec tions were issued by Legh Richmond in his Fathers of the English Church (London, 1807~-in both the account of Barnes reprinted from Foxe's Monu ments will be found. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources for his life are in the Calendar of Letters and Papers . . of Henry V111, vol. v, ed. J. S. Brewer and J. Gairdner, in Rolls Series, 11 vols., 1862 88. Luther's Preface to Barnes's Confession in Luther's works, Erlangen ed., Ixiii, 396-400. Consult the biog raphy in DNB, iii, 253-256. BARNES, WILLIAM EMERY: Church of Eng land; b. at London May 26, 1859. He was edu cated at Peterhouse, Cambridge (B.A., 1881), and was ordered deacon in 1883 and ordained priest in the following year. He was curate of St. John's, Waterloo Road, Lambeth, in 1883-85, assistant theological lecturer at Clare College, Cambridge, in 1885.-94, and assistant tutor at Peterhouse in 1891-1904. Since the latter year he has been Hulsean professor of divinity at Cam bridge. He has also been chaplain of Peterhouse since 1885 and fellow since 1889, as well as exam ining chaplain to the bishop of London since 1903. In addition to numerous briefer contributions and his work as editor of the Journal of Theological Studies from 1899 to 1904, he has written Canonical and Uncanonical Gospels (London, 1893); The Peshitta Text of Chronicles (1897); Chronicles with Notes, in The Cambridge Bible for Schools (1899); Isaiah Explained, in The Churchman's Bible (1901); The Psalms in the Peshitta Text (1904); and The Creed of St. Athanasius (1905). BARNETT, SAMUEL AUGUSTUS: Church of England; b. at Bristol Feb. 8, 1844. He was edu cated at Wadham College, Oxford (B.A., 1865), and was ordered deacon in 1867 and priested in the following year. He was curate of St. Mary's, Bryanston Square, London, in 1867-72, vicar of St. Jude's, Whitechapel, in 1872-93, and curate of the wane church in 1897-1903. In 1884 he founded Toynbee Hall, Whitechapel, of which he has since been warden, as well as chairman of the White chapel Board of Guardians, of the Children's Country Holiday Fund, and of the Pupil Teachers' Scholarship Fund. In 1893 he was appointed a canon of Bristol Cathedral, and was also select preacher at Oxford in 1896-97 and at Cambridge in 1900. In addition to minor contributions, he has written Practicable Socialism (in collaboration with his wife, London, 1893) and The Service of God (1895).

BARNUM, HENRY SAMUEL: Presbyterian; b. at Stratford, Conn., Aug. 13, 1837. He was educated at Yale College (B.A., 1862) and Auburn Theological Seminary, from which he was graduated in 1867. In the same year he was ordained to the Presbyterian ministry, and for five years was a missionary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions at Harpoot, Turkey. Since 1872 he has been a missionary of the same organization at Van, Turkey, and since 1884 has also edited a weekly in Armenian and Turkish. He has likewise written a number of commentaries in Armenian.

BARD (BARON), PETER: Anti-Calvinist; b. at lutampes (35 m. s.s.w. of Paris) Dec., 1534; d. in London Apr. 17, 1599. He studied law at Bourges, and began in 1557 to plead in the court of the Parliament of Paris, but retired in 1560 to Geneva, where he studied theology and was or dained by Calvin. In 1572 he returned to France, but soon fled from persecution to England and in 1574 was appointed Lady Margaret professor of divinity at Cambridge. He fell out with the rigid Calvinists; and a sermon on the Lambeth articles, preached Jan. 12, 1596, gave so much offense that he was compelled to renounce his chair in the university and retire to London. Among his works are In Jonam prophetam prtelectiones (London, 1579); Summa trium de prtedestinatione aenten tiarum (Hardwyck, 1613), translated in Nichols's Works o f James Armihius, i (London, 1825), 92-100.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: His autobiography is found abridged in R. Masters, Memoirs of the Life and Writings of T. Baker, pp. 127-130, Cambridge, 1784. Consult C. H. Cooper, ildsaa Cantabrlpianrea, ii, 274-278, London, 1861; DNB, iii, 265-267.

BARO'NIUS, CAESAR (Cesare de Barono): The

father of church history sarong Roman Catholics

since the Reformation; b. at Sore (56 m. e.s.e. of

Rome), in the kingdom of Naples, Oct. 31, 1538;

d. in Rome June 30, 1607. His family was ancient

and distinguished for piety. He was educated

first at Veroli, then at Naples, where he studied

theology and law. He went to Rome in 1557,

just at the time when Paul IV was attempting to

restore the papacy to its medieval splendor and

dominion; but he felt less attraction to public

policy than to a life of scholarly retire

Life. ment. This he found in the new

Congregation of the Oratory under

Philip Neri (q.v.) whose system prepared the young

man, without his knowledge, for the great work he

was to do. The Omtorians were directed by their

founder to occupy the morning hours with studies

in ecclesiastical matters, but in a manner which

should conduce to instruction as well as to edifica

tion. More and more attracted by the study of

church history thus required, Baronius began

diligently to collect and compare materials for its

prosecution, and worked for thirty years amidst

the vast mass of unpublished material which the

Vatican archives contained. He had apparently

no far-reaching literary plans until he was called

upon by his superior, by Cardinal Caraffa, and by

other friends to utilize his stores of knowledge in

the defense of the Church against the powerful


Baronius THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 490 Barrmel

attack which had been made upon it in the " Magdeburg Centuries " (q.v.) and to provide a complete Roman Catholic church history such as did not then exist,-a desideratum which his Annales ecclesiastici supplied with no small credit to the author, considering the conditions of historical writing in the sixteenth century. The fame which he acquired by the execution of his task drew him unwillingly from his retirement. He was made prothonotary of the apostolic see and later, by Clement VIII in 1596, a cardinal, as well as librarian of the Vatican. At both the papal elections which occurred in 1605 he was a candidate against his will, and came near being chosen. But the exhausting labor involved in the completion of his huge work really caused his death two years later.

The Annales ecclesiastici begin with the birth of Christ and come down to 1198. In form they resemble the ordinary medieval chronicle, the events of each year being grouped together under the date without regard to any other connection. This form would have been well adapted to the author's purpose of offering the great mass of historical material to the reader as sources arranged in order, if it had been carried out with strict application of critical principles and the utmost exactness. Baronius tried, indeed, to meet

The An- these requirements; but with all his nales Eccle- pains he did not altogether succeed.

siastici. To say nothing of the limitations inseparable from his fundamental beliefs and polemical attitude, the errors in non contentious points, such as dates, are so numerous as to make great care necessary in using the Annales. Nevertheless they are a storehouse of learning. Though the work was occasioned by the appaarance of the " Magdeburg Centuries," it is not directly con troversial. The opposition appears rather in the simple fundamental conception that true history can only be written by the sad of the documents to which he had access, guaranteed by the authority of the Roman Church, and that it is only necessary for these documents to be known in order to secure universal recognition of the claims of that Church. He agrees with the Centuriators as to the purity of the Church of the first six centuries; but while they endeavor to show that the Christianity of the Middle Ages was an actual apostasy from that happy state, Baronius does his best to demonstrate the continuity of Catholicism and the early existence of a distinctively Roman character in Christianity. His other writings are of far secondary importance.

The first edition of the Annales appeased in 12 volumes at Rome, 1588-1607; the Mainz edition, 1601-05, was revised by Baronius himself; that of Antwerp, 1597-1609, is noteworthy because Philip III suppressed vol. xi within his dominions because of the Tractatua de monarchia Sicilim contained in it [separately printed, Paris 1609]. The Annales have been continued (1) from 1198 to 1565 by Abraham Bzoviua (8 vols., Rome, 1616 eqq.; 9 vols., Cologne, 1621-30); (2) from 1198 to 1640 by Henricus Spondanus (Paris, 1640 sqq.; Leyden, 1678); (3) from 1199 to 1565 by the Oratorian Odoricus Raynaldus (9 vols., Rome, 1646-77; Cologne, 1693-1727; 14 vols., Lucca, 1740 sqq.),

the best continuation; (4) from 1566 to 1571 by Jacobus Laderchius (3 vols., Rome, 1728-37; Cologne, 1738 sqq.); (5) from 1572 to 1583 by Augustin Theiner (3 vols., Rome, 1856 sqq.). The Critica historico-chronologica in universos Ctesaris Baronii annales of F. Pagi (4 vola., Antwerp, 1705 sqq.; 1724) are an indispensable companion to the work. The moat convenient edition is that of Mansi (38 vols., Lucca, 1738-57), which has Pagi's emendations appended to the text, the continuation of Raynaldus, and three volumes of valuable indices. The most recent edition (incomplete), with all continuations, appeared, vols. i-xxviii at Bar-leDuc, 1864-75, vols. xxix-xxxvii at Paris, 1876-83. (CARL MIRBT.)

BIHwoaaAPHY: 6arra, Vita del . . . Cesare Baronio, Rome, 1862. On his history consult F. C. Baur, Die Epochen der kirehlichen Geschiahtaacauebung, pp. 7284, Ttibingen, 1852; P. Schaff, History of the Apostolic Church, pp. 5657, New York, 1874; C. de $medt, Introductio generalis in historiam ecclesiastieam, pp. 461 eqq. Ghent 1876; H. Hurter, Nomenclator literarius recentioris theologies catholicm, i, pp. 209-212, Innsbruck, 1892; J. F. Hurst, History of the Christian Church, i, 42, 52, 723, 751, ii, 668, New York 1900; Cambridge Modern History, The Renaissance, p. 609, London, 1902.

BARRETT, BENJAMIN FISK: Swedenborgian; b. at Dresden, Me., June 24, 1808; d. at German town, Penn., Aug. 6, 1892. He was graduated at Bowdoin, 1832, and at the Harvard Divinity School, 1838; became a Swedenborgian, 1839; was pastor of the New Church Society, New York, 1840-48; in Cincinnati 1848-50; after a temporary retirement because of ill health became pastor in Philadelphia; president and corresponding secre tary of the Swedenborg Publishing Association, Philadelphia, 1871. He was editor of The Swedenborgian, 1858--60, and of The New Church Monthly, 1867-70 (when it was merged in The New Church Independent). He compiled and edited The Swedenborg Library, giving the sub stance of Swedenborg's theological teachings (12 vols., Philadelphia, 1876-81). His books include a Life o f Emanuel Swedenborg (New York, 1841); Lectures on the Doctrines o f the New Church (1842; title afterward changed to Lectures on the New Dispensation); Beauty for Ashes, or the old and new doctrine concerning the state o f infants after death contrasted (1855); The Golden Reed, or the true measure of a true church (1855); The Question concerning the Visible Church (1856; new ed., with title The Apocalyptic New Jerusalem, Phila delphia, 1883); Catholicity of the New Church (1863); The New View of Hell (1870); The Golden City (1874); The New Church, its nature and whereabouts (1877); Swedenborg and Channing (1879); The Question [what are the doctrines of the New Church?] Answered (1883); Heaven Revealed (1885).

BIHLIooBAPHY: J. R. Irelan, From Difjsreni Points of Visor: B. F. Basretc, Preacher. Writer, Theologian, and Philosopher, Germantown, 1896.


BARROW (BARROWE), HENRY: English Separatist; hanged at Tyburn, London, Apr. 6, 1593. He came of good family in Norfolk, studied at Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1566-70, studied law, and was admitted a member of Gray's Inn in 1576. He


491 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Baronius Barruel belonged to the court circle and is said to have led a dissolute life until converted by a chance sermon. Probably through the influence of John Greenwood (q.v.) he adopted the views of the Brownists. After Greenwood's arrest, Barrow visited him in prison and was himself illegally detained, Nov., 1586, and kept in confinement thenceforth till his execution. While in prison, in collaboration with Greenwood, he wrote several books and pamphlets, including A True Description out of the Word of God of the Visible Church (1589; cf. W. Walker, Creeds and Platforms of Congrega tionalism, New York, 1893, 28-40) and A Brief Discovery o f the False Church (1590). Dr. Dexter's suggestion (Congregationalism of the Last Three Hundred Years, New York, 1880, 192--202) that he wrote the Marprelate Tracts (q.v.) has not met with general acceptance. He differed from Robert Browne in placing the government of the Church in the hands of elders rather than the entire congregation, fearing too much democracy. See CONGREGATIONALISTS, 1, 1, § 3 . After the erratic leader of the Separatists had submitted to the Church, he turned his invective sagainst Barrow and Greenwood, who remained Separatists consistently to the end (see BROWNE, ROBERT).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Egerton Papers, ed. J. P. Collier for Camden Society, pp. 166-179, London, 1840; DNB, iii. 297298 (has excellent list of references); Champlin Burrage. The True Story of Robert Browne, pp. 480, Oxford, 1906.

BARROW, ISAAC: Church of England; b. in London Oct., 1630; d. there May 4. 1677. He studied at Trinity College, Cambridge; traveled in Europe and the East, 1655-59, residing for more than a year in Turkey; was ordained on his return to England, and after the Restoration was made professor of Greek at Cambridge; became pro fessor of mathematics in 1663, but resigned in 1669 in favor of his famous pupil, Isaac Newton, and devoted himself to theology. Charles II made him his chaplain and in 1673 appointed him master of Trinity; in 1675 he was made vice-chancellor of the university. His reputation is deservedly high as a scholar, mathematician, and scientist; his Treatise o f the Pope's Supremacy (London, 1680) shows much skill in controversy; his sermons are elaborate and exhaustive, but ponderous in style and inordinately long. His theological works edited by John Tillotson appeared in four volumes at London, 1683-87; they have been several times reissued, the best edition being that by A. Napier (9 vols., Cambridge, 1859).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The best account of his life is by W. Whewell, prefixed to vo1. ix of Barrow's works, ut sup.; a critical account is given DNB, iii, 299-305. His Treatise o/ the Pope's Supremacy has been reprinted by the Cambridge University Press and the 9. P. C. K.

BARROWS, JOHN HENRY: Congregationalist; b. at Medina, Mich., July 11. 1847; d. at Oberlin, Ohio, June 3, 1902. He was graduated at Olivet College, Michigan, 1867; studied theology at the Yale Divinity School and Union Theological Seminary, New York, 1867-69, and at Andover, 187475; was ordained pastor of the Eliot Congregational

Church, Lawrence, Mass., 1875; was pastor of Maverick Church, East Boston, 1880-81; of the First Presbyterian Church, Chicago, 1881-96; president of Oberlin College, Jan., 1899, till his death. He was chairman of the committee on religious conferences of the Columbian exposition of 1893, organized the Parliament of Religions at Chicago in that year, and published an account of it (2 vols., Chicago, 1893); his Haskell lectures at the University of Chicago, 1895, were repeated, with many other addresses, in India and Japan the following year and were published under the title Christianity the World Religion (1897); in 1898 he was Morse lecturer at the Union Theological Seminary upon the topic The Christian. Conquest of Asia (New York, 1899).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Mary E. Barrows, John Henry Barrows, a Memoir, New York, 1905 (by his daughter).

BARROWS, SAMUEL JUNE: Unitarian; b. in New York City May 26, 1845. After being for a time a journalist and stenographer, he studied theology at Harvard Divinity School (B.D., 1875) and studied for a year at Leipsic. He was pastor of the First Church (Unitarian), Dorchester, Mass., from 1876 to 1880, and was editor of the Christian Register from 1881 to 1897. He has been since 1896 the United States representative on the International Prison Commission, and since 1900 the corresponding secretary of the Prison Association of New York. In 1897-99 he was a member of Congress for the tenth district of Massachusetts. His writings include: Life and Letters of Thomas J. Mumford (Boston, 1879); The Doom of the Majority of Mankind (1883); Ezra Abbott (Cambridge, 1884); A Baptist Meeting House (Boston, 1885); and Isles and Shrines of Greece (1898).

BARRUEL, AUGUSTIN: French politico-religious writer; b. at Villeneuve-de-Berg (95 m. n.w. of Marseilles), Ardkhe, Oct. 2, 1741; d. at Paris Oct. 5, 1820. He was teaching in the Jesuit college in Toulouse when the order was suppressed in France (1764), and thereupon undertook extensive travels in Europe; returned to France in 1774 and wrote against the infidelity of the age as associate editor of the Annge litt6raire, after 1788 as editor of the Journal eccl6ssimtique, and in his book, Les Helviennes ou lettrea provinciales philosophiques (5 vols., Amsterdam, 1784-88). In August, 1792, he fled from the Revolution to England and remained there till 1800. He published at London an Histoire du clerg6 pendant la R6volution frangaise (2 vols., 1793); Mfmoirm pour servir a Mistoire du Jacobinisme (5 vole., Amsterdam, 1796-99; Eng. transl., 4 vole., 1798); L't4vangile et le clerge? franfais (1800). After his return to France he published Du pape et de see droits religieux (2 vole., Paris, 1803), which gave the Ultramontanes occasion to say that he had sold himself to Bonaparte. His work in general is marked by exaggeration and bitterness and he goes to an absurd extreme in opposition to the freemasons and- secret societies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Dussault, Notice cur la vie et lee ouvrapee de Barruel. Paris, 1825.



BARRY, ALFRED: Church of England, suffragan bishop in West London; b. at London Jan. 15, 1826. He was educated at King's College, London, and Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 1848), where he was elected fellow in 1849. He was subwarden of Trinity College, Glenalmond, in 1849-54, headmaster of Leeds Grammar School in 1854-62, principal of Cheltenham College in 1862-68, and principal of King's College, London, in 1868-83. Having been ordained deacon in 1850 and priest in 1853, he was canon of Worcester in 1871-81 and of Westminster in 1881-84, in addition to being chaplain to the queen in 1875.-84. In 1884 he was consecrated bishop of Sydney and primate of Australia, but resigned in 1889, and until 1891 was suffragan bishop in the diocese of Rochester. He was then appointed canon of Windsor, and was rector of St. James's, Piccadilly, from 1895 to 1900. He was consecrated suffragan bishop in West London in 1897. In addition to numerous volumes of sermons, he has written Introduction to the Old Testament (London, 1850); The Atonement of Christ (1871); What is Natural Theology f (Boyle Lectures for 1876); The Manifold Witness for Christ ((Boyle Lectures for 187778); Teacher's Prayer Book (1882); First Words in. Australia (1884); Parables of the Old Testament (1889); Christianity and Socialism (1891); Light o f Science on the Faith (Bampton Lectures for 1892); England's Message to Indus (1894); Ecclesiastical Expansion o f England (Hulsean Lectures for 189495); The Position of the Laity (1903); and The Christian Sunday (1904).

BARRY, WILLIAM FRANCIS: English Roman Catholic; b. at London Apr. 21, 1849. He was educated at St. Mary's College, Oscott, English College, Rome, and Gregorian University, Rome (D.D., 1873). He was ordained to the priesthood at St. John Lateran, Rome, in 1873, and from that year until 1877 was vice-president and professor of philosophy at the Birmingham Diocesan Seminary. He was then appointed to the professorship of theology at St. Mary's College, Oscott, where he remained until 1880. From 1881 to 1883 he was curate at Snow Hill, Wolverhampton, and since the latter year has been rector of St. Birinus, Dorchester, Oxfordshire. He was a delegate to the Temperance Convention at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893, and lectured before the Royal Institution, London, in 1896. Since 1889 he has been a member and lecturer of the Catholic Truth Society, and in 1897 was elected vice-president of the Irish Literary Society of London. In addition to numerous briefer studies and contributions to periodicals, he has written The New Antigone (London, 1887); The Two Standards (1899); Arden Massiter (1900); The Wizard's Knot (1901); The Papal Monarchy (1902); The Day Spring (1903); Cardinal Newman (1903); Perils of Revolt (1904); Ernest Renan (1905); and The Tradition of Scripture (1906; put upon the Index).

BARSU'MAS: 1. Archimandrite or abbot of a Syrian monastery, adherent of Eutychee and his doctrine. At the Robber Synod of Ephesus (449) he appeared at the head of a thousand rough and

turbulent monks, and took part personally in the tumults which disgraced that assembly (see EuTYCHrnrrism). Two years later he presented himself at the Council of Chalcedon but was refused admittance. He continued to work for Eutychisuism till his death in 458. By the Jacobites he is honored as a saint and miracle-worker.

2. Bishop of Nisibis 435-189. See Nz$TORIANs. BARTH, bait, CHRISTIAN GOTTLIEB: Pastor and friend of missions; b. in Stuttgart July 13, 1799; d. at Calw (20 m. w. of Stuttgart) Nov. 12, 1862. He studied theology at Tiibingen, became pastor of M6ttlingen, near Calw, in 1824, but retired in 1838 to Calw, and devoted himself entirely to the missionary cause. He founded the missionary society of Wurttemberg, and brought it in active cooperation with Basel and all the great missionary societies of the Christian world. He wrote some of the best German missionary hymns. He edited the Calwer Missionsblatt and wrote a great number of works of practical Christianity, and stories for children and youth, some of which met with an almost unparalleled success. Several were translated into English, e.g., The Autobiography of Thomas Platter (London, 1839); Bible Stories for the Young (1845); Stories for Christian Children (2 series, 185-1 and 1854).

Bi8moanApErA K. Werner, C. (3. Barth, mach wines Leben and Wirken pezeichnet, 3 vols., Calw. 1885-89; G.Weitbrecht, Dr. Barth mach minem Leben and W4rken, Stuttgart, 1875; W. Kopp, C. (7. Barth's Lebsn and Wirken, Calw, 1888.

BARTH, JACOB: Judea-German Semitic scholar; b. at Flehingen (a village of Baden) Mar. 3, 1851. He was educated at the universities of Leipsic, Strasburg, and Berlin, and since 1874 has taught Hebrew, exegesis, and the philosophy of religion at the rabbinical seminary in Berlin, and has also lectured for many years on Semitic and Jewish literature at the Veitel Heine Ephraim Institute in the same city. In 1880 he was appointed associate professor of Semitic languages in the University of Berlin. He has written Beitrdge zur Erklarung des Buches Hiob (Berlin, 1876); Maimonides Commentar zum Traetat Makkoth (1880); Beitrage zur Brklarung des Jesaja (1885); Die Nominalbildung in den semitischen Sprachen (2 vols., Leipsie, 1889-91); Etymologische Studien zum semitischen, snabeso»dere rum hebraischen Lexikon (1893); Wurzeluntersuchungen zum hebraischen and aramaiseheA Lexikon (1902); and a large number of contributions to various learned periodicals. He has also edited the Kitab al-Faaih of Thalab (Leyden, 1876); the first two parts of the Leyden edition of the " Annals " of al-Tabari (1879-81); and the Diwan of al-Kutami (1902).

BARTH, MARIE 1yMMM AUGUSTE: French Lutheran; b. at Strasburg Mar. 22, 1834. He was educated at the Co115ge Royal and the academy of his native city, being graduated from the latter in 1855. From 1856 to 1861 he was professor of rhetoric and philosophy at the college of Buchsweiler, Alsace, but has since lived as a private scholar in Paris. He is a chevalier of the Legion of Honor, a grand officer of the Royal Order of Cam-



bodia, and a Commander of the Dragon of Annam. He is a member of learned societies in France, Holland, Russia, Great Britain, and the United States, and in addition to numerous contributions to Oriental and scientific periodicals in France, has written Les Religions de l'Inde (Paris, 1879; Eng. transl., The Religions of India, by J. Wood, London, 1882); Inscriptions aansc°ites du Cambodge (Paris, 1885); and Inscriptions sanscriW du Cambodge et de Campu (1894).

BARTHOLOMEW (Gk. Bartholomaios, Aram. Bar-Talmai, " Son of Talmai "): One of the twelve Apostles, mentioned in Matt. x, 3; Mark iii, 18; Luke vi, 14; Acts i, 13. Nothing is told in the New Testament of his work as an apostle. According to Eusebius (Hilt. eccl., v, 10) and Jerome (De vir. ill., xxxvi), he preached the Gospel in India that is, in what is called India to-day, not, as some have argued, Arabia Felix. Other Asiatic coun tries have been named as the scenes of his labors, especially Armenia, where he is said to have been flayed alive and crucified with his head down. Legend narrates that his body was miraculously conveyed to the island of Lipari, and thence to Benevento. His feast-lay is usually the 24th of August; at Rome, however, it is celebrated on the 25th. An old and wide-spread theory (though Augus tine, for example, did not accept it) identifies Bar tholomew with Nathanael of Cana in Galilee (John i, 45-51; xxi, 2). That John counted Nathanael as an apostle is probable because in the former of these passages he represents him as joining the company of Jesus with the earlier and later apostles, and in the latter passage he mentions him in the company of apostles. In support of the theory, it is noticed that in the lists of the apostles in the syn optic Gospels (though not in the Acts) he is men tioned next to Philip, while Nathanael was brought to Jesus by Philip; and John nowhere mentions Bartholomew, while the synoptists do not mention Nathanael. But, on the other hand, it is remark able that the synoptists do not give the other name for Bartholomew, if he is the same, while John speaks of Nathanael as if the reader would know at once who he was. (K. SCHMIDT.)

BARTHOLOMEW OF BRAGA (known also as Bartholommus de Martyrebus from the church in Lisbon in which he was baptized): Archbishop of Braga 1558-82; b. at Lisbon 1514; d. at Viana (on the coast of Portugal, 40 m. n. of Oporto) July 16, 1590. He belonged to the Dominican order and took part in the Council of Trent, the decisions of which he introduced into Portugal. He founded the first clerical seminary in Portugal and won well-deserved renown by establishing hospitals and hospices. In 1582 Pope Gregory XIII allowed him to resign his office, and thenceforth he lived as simple monk in the monastery of Viana, giving instruction and performing works of mercy. He wrote Biblical commentaries, a Portuguese Catechism, and a Compendium doctrince spiritualis (Lisbon, 1582; many later editions). An edition of his works, with life, by Malachias d'Inguimbert appeared in two volumes at Rome, 1727.

K. BENRATH. BARTHOLOMEW OF BRESCIA: A canonist of the thirteenth century. Little is known with any certainty of his life. He was born about the beginning of the century at Brescia, studied Roman and canon law in Bologna under Laurentius His panus, and afterward taught canon law there. He is principally remembered for his commentary on the Decretum Gratiani (about 1240), but he wrote several other works on canon law, which are usually not much more than revised editions of earlier works. (E. FRIEDBERG.)


BARTHOLOMITES: 1. A society founded at Genoa in 1307 by certain Armenian Basilian monks who had fled thither from persecution in their native land. They built there a church to the Virgin and St. Bartholomew, whence their name. Pope Clement V (1305-14) allowed them to follow their Eastern rite and customs, but in course of time they conformed to Western usages, and in 1356 Innocent VI allowed them to choose a general. They existed at Genoa and in other places in Italy till 1650, when Innocent X suppressed the order.

2. A congregation of secular priests founded at Salzburg about 1643 by Bartholomgus Holzhauser, canon of Salzburg (b. at Langenau, near Ulm, 1613; d. at Bingen May 20, 1658). Their statutes, confirmed by Innocent XI in 1680 (complete text in Holstenius-Brockie, Codex regularum, vi, Augsburg, 1759, 543-595), regulated their life on communistic principles, whence their official name, Institutum clericorum sacularium in communi viventium, and their popular designation as " Communists." For a time the society flourished in the dioceses of South Germany as well as in Hungary, Poland, and Spain, but with the suppression of their last house, at Landshut, in 1804, they went out of existence.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. Heimbucher, Orden and Konpregationen, i, 48. 2. Helyot, Ordrea nwnaniquea, viii (1719), 119126; Heimbucher, Orden and Kongrepationen, ii, 363366; J. P. L. Gaduel, Vie du . . . Barthblemy Holahawer, Orldans, 1892 (contains also a study of the order).

BARTLET, JAMES VERNON: English Congregationalist; b. at Scarborough (37 m. n.e.' of York), Yorkshire, Aug.15,1863. He was educated at Exeter College, Oxford (B.A., 1886), and. at Mansfield College (1886-89), where in 1889 he was appointed fellow and began to lecture on church history, remaining senior tutor in residence until 1900. In the latter year he was appointed professor of church history in the wane institution, and still holds this position. In addition to numerous briefer contributions, he has written Early Church History (London, 1894); The Apostolic Age (Edinburgh, 1900); Commentary on Acts (in The Century Bible, 1901); and The Earlier Pauline Epistles (in The Temple Bible, 1901); and was joint author of The Nets Testament in the Apostolic Fathers (1905).

BARTLETT, SAMUEL COLCORD: Congrega, tionalist; b. at Salisbury, N. H., Nov. 25, 1817; d, in Hanover, N. H., Nov. 16, 1898. He was gradu-


B sedow THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG 494 ated at Dartmouth 1836, and at Andover Theo logical Seminary 1842; was ordained 1843, and was pastor at Munson, Mass., 1843-16; professor of intellectual philosophy and rhetoric in Western Reserve College, Hudson, O., 1846-52; pastor at Manchester, N. H., 1852-57; in Chicago 1857-59; was one of the founders of the Chicago Theological Seminary (Congregational) and professor of Bib lical literature there 1858-77; president of Dart mouth 1877-92, and lecturer on the relation of the Bible to science and history and instructor in natural theology and evidences of Christianity, 1892-98. Besides many articles in the periodicals and ad dresses, he published Life and Death Eternal, a refu tation o f the doctrine o f annihilation (Boston, 1866; 2d ed., 1878); Sketches of the Missions of the A. B. C. F. M. (1872); Future Punishment (1875); From Egypt to Palestine through Sinai (New York, 1879), an account of a journey to explore the desert of the Exodus; Sources o f History in the Pentateuch (1883); The Veracity of the Hexateuch (Chicago, 1897).

BARTOL, CYRUS AUGUSTUS: Unitarian; b. at Freeport, Me., April 30, 1813; d. in Boston Dec. 16, 1900. He was graduated at Bowdoin, 1832, and at the Harvard Divinity School, 1835; in 1837 he was ordained as assistant pastor to Dr. Charles Lowell at the West Church (Unitarian), Boston; after Dr. Lowell's death in 1861 he became pastor, and served till 1888. He was a member of the Transcendental Club and published a number of volumes, chiefly sermons and addresses, among them being Discourses on the Christian Spirit and Life (2d ed., revised, Boston, 1850); Discourses on the Christian Body and Form (1853); Pictures o f Europe (1855); Church and Congregation (1858); Radical Problems (1872); The Rising Faith (1873); Principles and Portraits (1880); Spiritual Sacrifice (1884).

BARTOLI, bar"t6-111, DANIELLO: Italian Jesuit; b. at Ferrara Feb. 12, 1608; d. at Rome Jan. 13, 1685. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1623; was a distinguished preacher and teacher of rhetoric in different cities of Italy; in 1650 he became historian of his order at Rome. He wrote biographies, moral and ascetical works, and books upon physical science. His Istoria della compagnia di Giese2 (5 vols., Rome, 1653-73), especially the part devoted to Asia, is replete with curious information; as an introduction to this work he wrote the Vita a istituto di S. Ignazio (Rome, 1650; Eng. transl., 2 vols., New York, 1856). His collected works were edited by H. Marietti (34 vols., Turin, 1823-44). The life of Ignatius and the moral and ascetical works have been published at Piacenza (9 vols., 1821) and at Milan (3 vols., 1831).

BARTON, ELIZABETH: English impostor of the reign of Henry VIII; b., according to her own statement, in 1506; beheaded in London April 20, 1534. In 1525, while a servant at Aldington, Kent, her ravings in consequence of some nervous disorder gained for her a local reputation as one divinely inspired. She recovered her health after a few months, but her fame remained, and certain monks,

notably one Edward Booking, made use of her to attempt to check the advance of the Reformation. Instructed by them she continued her alleged prophesyings. In 1527 she was taken to the priory of St. Sepulchre at Canterbury, and under the title of the " Nun " or " Holy Maid of Kent " her fame went far and wide and she seems to have been partly or fully believed in by persons of intelligence and influence. When the divorce from Catharine of Aragon was proposed she inveighed against it and ultimately went so far in her threats against the king that she and certain of her abetters were arrested and brought to trial in 1533. Under torture Elizabeth and Booking confessed to fraud; with two friars and two priests they were beheaded at Tyburn, the Nun repeating her confession on the scaffold. Sir Thomas More, Bishop Fisher, and others were implicated and narrowly escaped suffering at the same time.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The sources for a biography are indicated in the long and critical notice in DNB, iii, 343-346.

BARTON, GEORGE AARON: Friend; b. at East Farnham, Canada, Nov. 12, 1859. He was educated at Haverford College, Haverford (B.A., 1882), and Harvard University (Ph.D., 1891). He was teacher of mathematics and classics at the Friends' School, Providence, R. I., in 1884-89, and lecturer on Bible languages in Haverford College in 1891-95, while in 1891 he was appointed professor of Biblical literature and Semitic languages at Bryn Mawr College, a position which he still holds. He has been a member of the American Oriental Society since 1888, of the Society of Biblical Archeology, London, since 1889, of the Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis since 1891, of the Archeological Institute of America since 1900, of the Vorderasiatische Gesellschaft, Berlin, since 1899, of the Victoria Institute, London, since 1902, and of the Orients-Gesellschaft, Berlin, and the Egypt Exploration Fund since 1904. He was president of the Oriental Club of Philadelphia in 1898-99, and a member of the council of the Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis in 1900-03, and in 190304 was one of the executive committee of the American School of Oriental Research in Palestine, of which he was director in the previous year. He was also a delegate to the Inter-Church Conference in 1905, and since 1879 has been unacknowledged minister of the Society of Friends (orthodox). In theology he is in general agreement with the so-called " new theology." In addition to briefer studies and contributions to various religious encyclopedias, he has written The Religious Use of the Bible (Philadelphia, 1900); The Roots of Christian Teaching as Found in the Old Testament (1902); A Sketch of Semitic Origins, Social and Religious (New York, 1902); A Year's Wandering in Bible Lands (Philadelphia, 1904); and The Haverford Library Colleetion of Cuneiform Tablets or Documents from the Temple Archives of Telloh (1905)

BARTON, WILLIAM ELEAZAR: Congregationalist; b. at Sublette, Ill., June 28, 1861. He was educated at Berea College (B.S., 1885) and Oberlin Theological Seminary (B.D., 1890). He


498 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Bartol Basedow was ordained to the Congregational ministry at Berea, Ky., in 1885, and has held successive pas torates at Robbins, Tenn. (1885-87), Litchfield, O. (1887-90), Wellington, O. (1890-93), Shawmut Congregational Church, Boston, Mass. (1893-99), and First Congregational Church, Oak Park, Ill. (since 1899). He is a corporate member of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions and of the Chicago Society of Biblical Research; a director of the Congregational Educa tional Society, of the Chicago Theological Seminary, of the Illinois Home Missionary Society, and for merly of the similar society in Massachusetts; a trustee of Berea College; and vice-president of the Congregational Sunday-school and Publication Society and of the American Peace Society. He is lecturer on applied practical theology at the Chicago Theological Seminary, and was a delegate to the Triennial National Congregational Council in 1895, 1898, and 1904, and to the International Decennial Council of the same denomination in 1899. In theology he is a progressive conservar tive Congregationalist. He is associate editor of the Bibliotheca Sacra, and his writings, in addition to numerous sermons and works of fiction, include: The Psalms and Their Story (Boston, 1898); Old Plantation Hymns (1899); The Improvement of Perfection (Portland, Me., 1900); Faith as Related to Health (Boston, 1901); Consolation (1901); An Elementary Catechism (1902); The Old World in the New Century (1902); 'The Gospel of the Autumn Leaf (Chicago, 1903); A Shining Mark (Phila delphia, 1903); and Jesus of Nazareth, His Life and the Scenes o f His Ministry (Boston, 1904). BARUCH, APOCALYPSE OF. See PSEUD EPIGRAPHA, OLD TESTAMENT, II, 10-11. BOOK of. See APOCRYPHA, A, IV, 5. BASCOM, HENRY BIDLEMAN: Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South; b. at Hancock, Delaware County, New York, May 27, 1796; d. at Louisville, Ky., Sept. 8, 1850. He was licensed to preach 1813; was appointed chap lain to Congress 1823; was president of Madison College, Uniontown, Pennsylvania, 1827-29; agent of the American Colonization Society, 1829-31; elected professor of moral science in Augusta College, Kentucky, 1832, president of the Tran sylvania University, Kentucky, 1842, bishop 1850. He was prominent in the organization of the Method ist Church, South, and from 1846 to 1850 he edited the Southern Methodist Quarterly Review. He published sermons and lectures and a volume upon Methodism and Slavery. His collected works were printed at Nashville (4 vols., 1850-56). BASCOM, JOHN: Congregationalist; b. at Genoa, N. Y., May 1, 1827. He was educated at Williams College (BA., 1849) and Andover Theo logical Serdinaxy (1855). He was a tutor in Will iams College in 1852-53 and professor of rhetoric in the same institution from 1855 to 1874. In the latter year he was chosen president of the University of Wisconsin, where he remained until 1887. He then returned to Williams College as lecturer on sociology, and four years later was appointed professor of political science, holding this position until 1903. He is an adherent of the new theology of the Congregational type, and has written: Political Economy (Andover, 1859); ~Es thetics (New York, 1862); Philosophy o f Rhetoric (1865); Principles of Psychology (1869); Science, Philosophy, and Religion (1871); Philosophy of English Literature (1874); Philosophy of Religion (1876); Growth and Grades of Intelligence (1878); Ethics (1879); Natural Theology (1880); Science of Mind (1881); Words of Christ (1883); Problems in Philosophy (1885); Sociology (1887); The New Theology (1891); Historical Interpretation of Phi losophy (1893); Social Theory (1895); Evolution and Religion (1897); Growth of Nationality in the United States (1899); and God and His Goodness (1901). BASEDOW, bd'Ze-do" (BASSEDAU), JOHANN BERNHARD: German rationalist and innovator in educational methods; b. at Hamburg Sept. 11, 1723; d. at Magdeburg July 25, 1790. After a wilful boyhood he studied theology at Leipsic (1744--46), but followed his studies in very irregular fashion and hampered by poverty; he was tutor to a noble family of Holstein 1749-53; became teacher at the academy of Soro, Denmark, in 1753, and at the gymnasium of Altona in 1761; he was forced to retire from both of these positions because of his unorthodox views freely and offensively expressed in various publications (Praktische Philosophic fiir alle Stande, Copenhagen, 1758; Philalethie: neue Aussichten in die Wahrheiten and Religion der Vernun ft, 2 vols., Altona, 1763-64; Theoretisches System der gesunden Vernunft, 1765; Grundriss der Religion welche durch Nachdenken and Bibelforschen erkannt wird, 1764). After 1767 he abandoned theology for education. Influenced by Rousseau's tmile, he sought to devise a system that should be according to nature and dispense with the exercise of authority on the part of the teacher and with the necessity for work on that of the pupil. His views are set forth in his Vor stellung an Menschen freunde and vermogende Mdnner fiber Schulen, Studien, and ihren Ein fluss in die o f f entliche Wohl f ahrt, mit einem Plane eines Elemen tarbuches der menschlichen Erkenntniss (Hamburg, 1768; new ed., Leipsic, 1894) and his Elementar werk (4 vols., 1774). He had remarkable success in enlisting sympathy and gaining patrons, and in 1774 was able to open an institution for the real ization of his ideas, the " Philanthropin" at Dessau (described in Das in Dessau errichtete Philanthro pinum, Leipsic, 1774). After four years he retired, having shown himself, by loose management and personal bad habits, utterly unfitted for the position. He spent the rest of his life in literary work and private teaching. His writings on theological and educational subjects number more than sixty; the former are crude and coarse, and grossly ration alistic; the latter ill-considered and impracticable, although some of his ideas as developed by others have been productive of good. He was well char acterized by Goethe as a man who undertook to edu cate the world, but himself had no education at all. BIBLIOGRAPHY: ADS, ii, 113-124 (by his great-grandson, Max Miller); R. Diestelmann, J. B. Baaedow, Leipsic, 1897.



BASEL, BISHOPRIC OF: The origin of this diocese probably goes back into the Roman period. Just above Basel, at the present Kaiserauget, lay the Roman city of Augusta Rauricorum, which retained its importance well into the fourth century. Historical analogy justifies the supposition that Christianity was not unknown there. By the end of the fourth century the town must have sunk into decay, since the Notitia provinciarum Gallice does not mention it. As, however, in the seventh century we hear of a bishop Ragnachar of Augusta, we are led to infer the retention of an older title; and when we find him also designated as Bishop of Augusta end Basel, we are able to understand this by the supposition that the see was transferred from the old decayed town to the rising city of Basel, which is mentioned as early as 374 by Ammianus Marcellinus. Apparently, then, Christianity in this region survived all the storms which raged there in the fifth and sixth centuries. After the establishment of Frankish rule, the diocese included the Alemannic districts between the Rhine and the Aar, the Alsatian Sundgau, the Burgundian Sorengau, and the northeastern part of the Elsgau. Its boundary, accordingly, was formed partly by the two rivers, partly by a line drawn from the Aar to the Doubs, thence to the southern slope of the Vosges, then along their crest, then to the Rhine at Breisach. [The Benedictine monk Hatto or Haito (q.v.), bishop c. 805-822, was a trusted counselor of Charlemagne and his envoy to the emperor Nicephorus at Constantinople. At the end of the tenth century the bishopric developed into an imperial principality. It was at Basel that in 1061 Cadalus of Parma was elected by the imperialists as antipope against Alexander II (see HONORIUB II, ANTIPOPE); and Bishop Burkhard of Hasenburg (1071-1107) was one of the most influential counselors of Henry IV. Under the Hohenstaufen emperors also, the bishops of Basel were usually on the imperial side. After the council (see BABEL, COUNCIL OF), the next important event in the history of the diocese is the outbreak of the Reformation, which occurred in the episcopate of the wise and pious Christopher of Utenheim (1502-27), and in spite of his efforts led to much turbulence and the ultimate suppression of the Roman Catholic religion in 1529. The university was suspended, and most of the professors left the town with Erasmus and Glarean. The bishop went to Pruntrut and the chapter to Freiburg, whence it did not return to the diocese until 1678. A succession of zealous prelates strove to undo the work of the Reformation (see JACOB CHRISTOPHER, BISHOP OF BABEL). The territory of the diocese was incorporated with the French Republic, and at the Congress of Vienna with the cantons of Bern and Basel. In 1828 the see was reerected, and at present includes the Roman Catholic population of the cantons of Basel, Solothurn, Bern, Aargau, Zug, Lucerne, Schaffhausen, and Thurgau; the bishop resides in Lucerne.]

(A. HAUCK.) Bmwoaasrat: The Saw episcoporum Bmilumnum to 1000 A.D. is in MOX, Script., nii (1881), 373-374; Monu ments do 1'histoire de 1'aneien irokW de Bills, ed Trouillat, Basel, 1858; J. J. Merian, Ueschiehfe der BischS/e von

Basel, Basel, 1802; E. Egli, KircheWeschichfe der Schweis, Zurich, 1893.

BASEL, CONFESSION OF: A confession of faith submitted to the citizens of Basel for their acceptance on Jan. 21, 1534. It was prepared by Myconius on the basis of a briefer formula put forth by (Ecolampadius in his address at the opening of the synod in September, 1531. It is simple and moderate, occupying an intermediate position between Luther and Zwingli. Until 1826 it was read in the pulpits on Wednesday of Holy Week, but then was made binding on the clergy only; in 1872 it was set aside entirely. The confession was also accepted at Millllhausen and is sometimes called the Mylhusiana; the first Helvetic confession is also called the Second Confession of Basel, because it was written there (see HELvETIc CONFESSIONS).


BIBwoasAPHY: The beet reprint is given by K. R. Hagenbach, in his J. Oskolampad and O. Myeoaius, pp. 405-470, of. 349-530, Elberfeld, 1859. Consult Schaff, Creeds, i, 385-388, where the literature is given.

BASEL, COUNCIL OF: The last of the "re forming councils" of the fifteenth century. By the decrea Frequena of the Council of Con stance (q.v.), a periodical repetition of ecu menical synods was enjoined. The first synod held accordingly at Pavia and Sienna, 1423-24 (see PAVIA, COUNCIL OF; SIENNA, COUNCIL OF), had passed without accomplishing anything. After the execution of John Huss, his victorious and uncompromising followers (see Huss, JOHN, HusslTEs) greatly embarrassed the Roman Church and the German empire, and Pope Martin V felt obliged to convene a new ecumenical council to meet in a German city. Basel was selected. The pope died shortly after, but his successor, Eugenius IV, a Venetian, had to confirm the convocation. His legates opened the council at Basel Aug. 27, 1431. But when it became known that the pope thought of dissolving it at once, as he expected nothing good from it, distrust of the pope filled the members of the council. On Feb. 15, Attitude 1432, the council declared itself to be Toward the a continuation of that of Constance Pope. and therefore an ecumenical one, rep resenting the Holy Catholic Church, and deriving its authority immediately from God;. therefore it could only dissolve itself of its own free will. In fixing the order of business, that of the Council of Constance, where the members were grouped according to nationality, was discarded; and four committees were formed: (1) on matters of faith, (2) on political affairs, (3) on ecclesiastical reforms, and (4) on general business. These com mittees met separately, each having its own presi dent. The agreement of three of them was neces sary to bring a question before a general session. The council was at first presided over by Cardinal Ceearini, or some other cardinal designated by the pope. But much was lacking to make the work of the council effective; the pope distrusted the Fathers of Basel and these distrusted the pope; both were ruled by party-hatred and passion; the highest aim of the council was the subjection of the pope to it. On Apr. 29, 1432, the pope and



his cardinals were invited to come to Basel. As the former did not come, a process was instituted (Sept. 6) against him for contumacy. The council stood at that time in the zenith of its power, since it was recognized by most states, and Eugenius had to yield and expressly recognize the council Aug. 1, 1433.

In the mean time the authority of the council had increased through its negotiations with the Hussites. On Jan. 4, 1433, the Hussites Procopius, the terror of Christendom, and John Rokyczana, the learned and fanatic orator, together with a numerous and brilliant Relations retinue, rode into Basel, not as peni- with the tent heretics, but with proud and fierce Hussites. mien, as guests of the council. The negotiations with them resulted in an agreement in 1434 by which the so-called Com pactata of Prague (see Huss, JOHN), embodying their principal demands, among others the use of the cup in the celebration of the Lord's Supper, were granted with modifications.

Beginning in 1435, the council considered and issued a number of decisions, which concerned the reform of the Church in its head and members and the introduction of a better discipline,

Church but these measures were dictated by Reform. hatred to the curia, rather than by enthusiasm for reform. The annates, the pallium-money, the tax on the papal confirma tion of ecclesiastical promotion, the judicial au thority of the pope, the richest source of the revenues of the curia, were abolished and declared to be simony. Prospects of a compensation were held out, but not fixed. As concerns the spiritual offices the canonical chapter-election was reinstated in its full right, the papal reservations, with a few ex ceptions, were abolished, and strict provisions were made concerning the moral worthiness of those to be elected. The troublesome appeals to Rome were limited, also the election and number of the car dinals and their prebends. But the restriction of the sources of power of the curia when it needed revenues the most, excited the fierce opposition of the whole army of officials. In the council a small but strong party arose which wished to avoid a breach with the curia, a party of legates, headed by Cardinal Cesarini.

Another matter, however, brought about a complete breach. The Greek emperor John Palaeologus had addressed himself to both the pope and the council with a view of obtaining help against the menacing Turks through a union of the Greek and Roman Churches. The pope would

Proposed not concede that the glory of having Union with brought about a union with the Greeks

the Greek should belong to the members of the

Church. council; he and the minority at Basel wished the negotiations with the Greeks to be carried on in a city of Italy, whereas the antipapal majority at Basel wished the negotiations to be carried on there. The party of the legates left the council in 1437 and outwardly also sided with the pope. Of the cardinals only Louis d'Allemand (q.v.) remained and the vacant seats of the bishops were filled by clerics of lower order. L-32

The council became more and more democratic. All regard for the pope now ceased; the council opened the process against him and the cardinals and on Jan. 24, 1438, he was suspended. The pope declared the council to be a company of Satan, excommunicated its members, and convened a countercouncil at Ferrara, which he soon removed to Florence, where he met the Greek emperor and his spiritual and secular retinue (see FERRARA-FLOR ENCE, COUNCIL OF). He brought about the socalled Florentine union, which in itself was delusive and unreal, but greatly enhanced the fame of the pope in the eyes of his contemporaries, while the council at Basel deposed him June 25 as a backsliding heretic.

The governments took advantage of the differences of both parties. In France, the Synod of Bourges (1438) incorporated the decrees of the Council of Basel with the laws of the kingdom, the so-called pragmatic sanction of Bourges (see PRAGMATIC SANCTION). Germany declared in 1439 that it would keep neutral, and observed the neutrality for some time to the great detriment of the curia. Ultimately, however, almost all European governments sided with Eugenius. The council at Decline Basel persisted in its opposition under and End the direction of Allemand. On Nov.

of the 5, 1439, it elected an antipope in the Council. person of the Duke Amadeus of Savoy, who took the name of Felix V (q.v.) and was crowned at Basel with great pageantry. He did not satisfy the expectations of the Fathers at Basel and was not recognized by the princes and nations. The German king, Frederick III, was especially averse to him, and the cunning secretary of the king, 1Eneas Sylvius Piccolomini (see Plus II, POPE) secretly influenced the German church policy in favor of Eugenius, who lived to know, though dying, that the German king and most of the German princes had declared for him Feb. 7, 1447. Great concessions had indeed been wrung from the pope; they were afterward modified or not regarded at all. The tolling of bells and bonfires announced the victory of Rome. The German king withdrew his support of the council, and it decreed June 25, 1448, to meet at Lausanne, where Pope Felix V had his residence. Ten months later the king of France induced the pope to resign, and the council, tired of the unending conflict, made Nicolas V his successor, whom the cardinals at Rome had appointed after the death of Eugenius. In this way it meant to preserve at least a semblance of authority, and in its last session, Apr. 25, 1449, it decreed its own dissolution. In spite of the failure of the council the belief that the Church needed reformation persisted.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The sources for a history are in the Acts of the Council, to be found in Mansi, Concilia, vols. xxix-xxxi, and Harduin, Concilia vols. viii-ix; also in Xnese SYMus, Commentarius de rebus Baailear geetia, used in C. Fes, Pius 11. a calumniis vindicatue, Rome, 1823; Monuments conciliorum penerolium aeculi av, Concilium Basilienae, SaiPtorum i, ii, iii, Vienna, 1857-94; and Con cilium Baailienae: Studien and Quellen our Geachichte des Concile con Basel, ed. J. Haller, G. Beckmann, R. Wackernagel, G. Coggiola, Basel, 1896-1904 (reports on the MSS. still preserved in Basel and Paris, and criticism of jEneas



Sylvius, Ragusa, and Segovia). Consult J. Lenfant, Histoire de la guerre des Husaitea et du Concile de Basle, Amsterdam, 1731; I. H. von Wessenberg, Die grossen Kirchenversammlungen des fenfzehnten and sechezehaten jahrhunderts, vol. ii, 4 vols., Constance, 1840; J. Aschbach, Geschichte des Kaiser Sigmunds, Vol. iv, Hamburg, 1845; G. Voigt, Enea Sylvio Piccolomini ale Papst Paul II, vol. i, Basel, 1856; O. Richter, Organisation and Ge8chttftsordnung des Basler Coneils, Leipsic, 1877; A. Bachmann, Die deutsche K6nige and die kur/iiratlwhe Neutralitltt, Vienna, 1888; P. Joachimsohn, Gregor Heimburg, Munich, 1891; J. F. Hurst, History of the Christian Church, i, 785786, ii, 69, 93, 341, New York, 1897-1900; Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, vol. vii; KL, i, 2085-2110; Pastor, Popes, i, 280-338; Creighton, Papacy, iii, 1-45.

BASHAft, b5'shan: The northeastern part of trans-Jordanic Palestine. The name occurs in the Old Testament in prose and sometimes in poetry with the article (" the Bashan "), indicating that bashan was originally a common noun, and its signification is made evident by the Arabic bathanah, " a fertile plain free from stones." The Greeks had the name in the forms Basan, Basanaitis, the LXX has Basanitis, and Josephus Batanaia and Batanea (cf. Eusebius and Jerome, Onomasticon). The location of the district is clearly noted in the Old Testament as the northern third of the plateau to the east of the Jordan (Deut. iii, 8; Joshua xiii, 11-12), with Gilead (the Yarmuk) as the southern boundary, Hermon on the north, and Salcah on the east.

As soon as the traveler going east from the Sea of Tiberias crosses the Nahr-al-Allan, eighteen miles away, he may note the abrupt change of the structure of the plain. The numerous hillocks, a peculiarity of the Jaulan, disappear, as do the great lava blocks, and in their place one sees a great plain of mellowed, red-brown, fertile soil stretching away east, north, and south. The boundary of this on the northeast is the volcanic, wooded heights of Al-Kunetra and the base of Mt. Hermon, on the north the district of Wadi al-Ajam, on the east the Lejjah and Jebel Druz or Jebel Hauran, and on the south the plateau of Al-Hamad, with the stony Jaulan in the west. It is divided by two great wadies (Dahab and Zadi), which empty into the Yarmuk. Ruins abound, and on some of the hillocks are the graves of the former leaders and chiefs of the districts.

The spongy, easily worked soil is a mixture of disintegrated lava, ashes, and sand from Jebel Hauran. To this composition is due the extraordinary fertility of the region, yielding half crops even in seasons of drought. The plain is almost treeless, the only exceptions being the old terebinths which stand by Arabic holy-places or vilages. The slope of the southern part, which is the granary of Syria, is quite sharp from east to west, while from north to south the altitude is about the same. The boundaries already noted (the steppe of Hamad and the Druz mountains) are prominent. The last are the " Salmon "of Ps. lxviii,1415. The region formed part of the kingdom of Og (Joshua xii, 5). It is celebrated in the Old Testament for its cattle (Deut. xxxii, 14; Ezek. xxxix, 18), and in these times probably served better a pastoral than a nomadic population. The " oaks of Bashan " (Isa. ii, 13; Ezek. xxvii, 6) have disap-

peared except on the foothills of the Hauran and Hermon mountains, where there are small groves, and along the Yarmuk.

The following cities of Bashan are mentioned in the Old Testament: (1 and 2) Ashtaroth and Edrei, capitals of Og (Deut. i, 4, iii, 1; Joshua xii, 4); (3) Ashteroth Karnaim (Eusebius and Jerome, Onomasticon), not far from Job's grave [an Arab sanctuary], and near Shaikh Sad, until 1903 the seat of government; (4) Bozrah (I Mace. v, 26), at the southwest of the Hauran, containing ruins dating from Roman times; (5) Golan (Joshua xxi, 7), one of the Levitical cities of refuge, probably the modern Saham al-Jolan on the western edge of the plateau; (6) Karnain (I Mace. v, 26, perhaps Amos vi, 13, A. V. " horns "), not located; (7) Salcah, modern Salkhad, east from Bozrah, on the watershed, with a castle built in an old crater. These places are all on the edge of the plateau, as are the modern cities.

The Old Testament mentions also the district Argob in Bashan, which had sixty cities (I Kings iv, 13; Deut. iii, 4), a possession of Jair (Deut. iii, 14, but cf. Judges x, 3 sqq., I Kings iv, 13), and in the eastern part of the Jaulan. (H. GuTHE.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. L. Porter, Giant-Cities of Bashan, New York, 1871; id., Pive Years in Damascus, London, 1855; J. G. Wetstein, Reisebericht Uber Hauran and die Trachonen, Berlin, 1860; idem, Das batandische Giebelbirge, Leip sic, 1884; C. J. M. de Vogfid, La Syrie centrals, inscrip tions a6mitiques, 2 vols., Paris, 1868-77; R. F. Drake and C. F. T. Drake, Unexplored Syria, 2 vols., London, 1872; G. Schumacher, Across the Jordan, pp. 20-40, 103-242, ib. 1886; idem, The Jaulan, p. 125, ib. 1888; idem, Das sadliche Basan cum ereten Male aufgenommen und be sehriebcn, Leipsic, 1897; W. M. Thomson, The Land and the Book, 3 vols., New York, 1886; F. Buhl, Geographie won Paldstina, Freiburg, 1896; G. A. Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy Land, pp. 542, 549-553, 575 aqq., 611 aqq., London, 1897; D. W. Freshfield, The Stone Towns of Central Syria, New York, n.d.

BASHFORD, JAMES WHITFORD: Methodist Episcopal bishop; b. at Fayette, Wis., May 25, 1849. He was educated at the University of Wisconsin (B.A., 1873), the Theological School of Boston University (B.D., 1876), the School of Oratory in the same institution (1878), and Boston University (Ph.D., 1881). He was tutor in Greek at the University of Wisconsin in 1873-74, and held successive pastorates at Harrison Square Methodist Episcopal Church, Boston (1875-78), Jamaica Plain, Boston (1878-81), Auburndale, Mass. (188184), Chestnut Street, Portland, Me. (1884-87), and Delaware Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. (1887-89). He was president of Ohio Wesleyan University in 1889-1904, and in the 'atter year was chosen bishop, and in this capacity went to Shanghai, China. In theology he is distinctly liberal, believing that Christianity can be better interpreted from the point of view of evolution than from the older standpoint, and being confident that higher criticism, if used with sound scholarship, will not endanger the fundamentals of Christianity. He has written. Science of Religion (Delaware, O., 1893); Wesley and Goethe (Cincinnati, 1903); and Methodism in China (1906).

BASIL OF ACHRIDA: Archbishop of Thessalonica. He came from Achrida (on the n.e. shore


of the modern Lake Ochrida, 100 m. n. of Janina, in Albania) in Macedonia and became archbishop in 1146. His importance lies in the fact that he wrote and spoke against the union of the Greek Church with the Roman. He wrote a letter on the subject to Pope Adrian IV in 1154. To about the same time belong his dialogues with Anselm of Havelberg, ambassador of Frederick Barbarossa, published by J. Schmidt in Des Basilius aus Achrida bisher unedirte Dialoge (Munich, 1901). Another dialogue with Henry of Benevento is still in manuscript. Vasiljewskij has published an address of Basil's on the death of Irene, first wife of the Emperor Manuel Comnenos, in Vizantijsky Vremnik, 1894, 55-132. His earlier printed writings are in MPG, cxix.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Krumbacher, Geachiehte der byzantinischen Litteratur, pp. 88, 466, Munich, 1897.


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