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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Romans: Chapter 8)

8:1 {Therefore now} (\ara nun\). Two particles. Points back to
the triumphant note in 7:25 after the preceding despair. {No
(\ouden katakrima\). As sinners we deserved
condemnation in our unregenerate state in spite of the struggle.
But God offers pardon "to those in Christ Jesus (\tois en
Christōi Iēsou\)
. This is Paul's Gospel. The fire has burned on
and around the Cross of Christ. There and there alone is safety.
Those in Christ Jesus can lead the consecrated, the crucified,
the baptized life.

8:2 {The law of the Spirit of life} (\ho nomos tou pneumatos tēs
. The principle or authority exercised by the Holy Spirit
which bestows life and which rests "in Christ Jesus." {Made me
(\ēleutherōsen me\). First aorist active indicative of the
old verb \eleutheroō\ for which see Ga 5:1. Aleph B have \se\
(thee) instead of \me\. It matters little. We are pardoned, we
are free from the old law of sin and death (7:7-24), we are
able by the help of the Holy Spirit to live the new life in

8:3 {That the law could not do} (\to adunaton tou nomou\).
Literally, "the impossibility of the law" as shown in 7:7-24,
either nominative absolute or accusative of general reference. No
syntactical connection with the rest of the sentence. {In that}
(\en hōi\). "Wherein." {It was weak} (\ēsthenei\). Imperfect
active, continued weak as already shown. {In the likeness of
sinful flesh}
(\en homoiōmati sarkos hamartias\). For "likeness"
see Php 2:7, a real man, but more than man for God's "own Son."
Two genitives "of flesh of sin" (marked by sin), that is the
flesh of man is, but not the flesh of Jesus. {And for sin} (\kai
peri hamartias\)
. Condensed phrase, God sent his Son also
concerning sin (our sin). {Condemned sin in the flesh}
(\katekrine tēn hamartian en tēi sarki\). First aorist active
indicative of \katakrinō\. He condemned the sin of men and the
condemnation took place in the flesh of Jesus. If the article
\tēn\ had been repeated before \en tēi sarki\ Paul would have
affirmed sin in the flesh of Jesus, but he carefully avoided that
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 784).

8:4 {The ordinance of the law} (\to dikaiōma tou nomou\). "The
requirement of the law." {Might be fulfilled} (\hina plerōthēi\).
Purpose of the death of Christ by \hina\ and first aorist passive
subjunctive of \plēroō\. Christ met it all in our stead
(3:21-26). {Not after the flesh, but after the Spirit} (\mē
kata sarka alla kata pneuma\)
. The two laws of life (\kata sarka\
in 7:7-24, \kata pneuma\ 8:1-11)
. Most likely the Holy Spirit
or else the renewed spirit of man.

8:5 {Do mind} (\phronousin\). Present active indicative of
\phroneō\, to think, to put the mind (\phrēn\) on. See Mt 16:23;
Ro 12:16. For the contrast between \sarx\ and \pneuma\, see Ga

8:6 {The mind} (\to phronēma\). The bent or will of the flesh is
death as shown in 7:7-24. {Life} (\zōē\). In contrast with
"death." {Peace} (\eirēnē\). As seen in 5:1-5.

8:7 {Is not subject} (\ouch hupotassetai\). Present passive
indicative of \hupotassō\, late verb, military term for
subjection to orders. Present tense here means continued
insubordination. {Neither indeed can it be} (\oude gar dunatai\).
"For it is not even able to do otherwise." This helpless state of
the unregenerate man Paul has shown above apart from Christ. Hope
lies in Christ (7:25) and the Spirit of life (8:2).

8:8 {Cannot please God} (\theōi aresai ou dunantai\). Because of
the handicap of the lower self in bondage to sin. This does not
mean that the sinner has no responsibility and cannot be saved.
He is responsible and can be saved by the change of heart through
the Holy Spirit.

8:9 {Not in the flesh} (\ouk en sarki\). Not sold under sin
(7:14) any more. {But in the spirit} (\alla en pneumati\).
Probably, "in the Holy Spirit." It is not Pantheism or Buddhism
that Paul here teaches, but the mystical union of the believer
with Christ in the Holy Spirit. {If so be that} (\eiper\). "If as
is the fact" (cf. 3:30). {The Spirit of Christ} (\pneuma
. The same as "the Spirit of God" just before. See also
Php 1:19; 1Pe 1:11. Incidental argument for the Deity of Christ
and probably the meaning of 2Co 3:18 "the Spirit of the Lord."
Condition of first class, assumed as true.

8:10 {The body is dead} (\to men sōma nekron\). Has the seeds of
death in it and will die "because of sin." {The spirit is life}
(\to de pneuma zōē\). The redeemed human spirit. He uses \zōē\
(life) instead of \zōsa\ (living), "God-begotten, God-sustained
life" (Denney), if Christ is in you.

8:11 {Shall quicken} (\zōopoiēsei\). Future active indicative of
\zōopoieō\, late verb from \zōopoios\, making alive. See on ¯1Co
15:22. {Through his Spirit} (\dia tou pneumatos\). B D L have
\dia to pneuma\ (because of the Spirit). Both ideas are true,
though the genitive is slightly more probably correct.

8:12 {We are debtors} (\opheiletai esmen\). See on ¯Ga 5:3; Ro
1:14. {Not to the flesh} (\ou tēi sarki\). Negative \ou\ goes
with preceding verb and \tēi sarki\, not with the infinitive \tou

8:13 {Ye must die} (\mellete apothnēskein\). Present indicative
of \mellō\, to be about to do and present active infinitive of
\apothnēskō\, to die. "Ye are on the point of dying." Eternal
death. {By the spirit} (\pneumati\). Holy Spirit, instrumental
case. {Ye shall live} (\zēsesthe\). Future active indicative of
\zaō\. Eternal life.

8:14 {Sons of God} (\huioi theou\). In the full sense of this
term. In verse 16 we have \tekna theou\ (children of God).
Hence no great distinction can be drawn between \huios\ and
\teknon\. The truth is that \huios\ is used in various ways in
the New Testament. In the highest sense, not true of any one
else, Jesus Christ is God's Son (8:3). But in the widest sense
all men are "the offspring" (\genos\) of God as shown in Ac
17:28 by Paul. But in the special sense here only those are
"sons of God" who are led by the Spirit of God, those born again
(the second birth) both Jews and Gentiles, "the sons of Abraham"
(\huioi Abraam\, Ga 3:7), the children of faith.

8:15 {The spirit of adoption} (\pneuma huiothesias\). See on this
term \huiothesia\, Ga 4:5. Both Jews and Gentiles receive this
"adoption" into the family of God with all its privileges.
"{Whereby we cry, Abba, Father}" (\en hēi krazomen Abbā ho
. See Ga 4:6 for discussion of this double use of Father
as the child's privilege.

8:16 {The Spirit himself} (\auto to pneuma\). The grammatical
gender of \pneuma\ is neuter as here, but the Greek used also the
natural gender as we do exclusively as in Joh 16:13 \ekeinos\
(masculine {he}), \to pneuma\ (neuter). See also Joh 16:26
(\ho--ekeinos\). It is a grave mistake to use the neuter "it" or
"itself" when referring to the Holy Spirit. {Beareth witness with
our spirit}
(\summarturei tōi pneumati hēmōn\). See on ¯Ro 2:15
for this verb with associative instrumental case. See 1Jo
5:10f. for this double witness.

8:17 {Joint-heirs with Christ} (\sunklēronomoi Christou\). A late
rare double compound, in Philo, an Ephesian inscription of the
imperial period (Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p.
, papyri of the Byzantine period. See 8:29 for this idea
expanded. Paul is fond of compounds of \sun\, three in this verse
(\sunklēronomoi, sunpaschōmen, sundoxasthōmen\). The last (first
aorist passive subjunctive of \sundoxazō\ with \hina\ (purpose)
late and rare, here only in N.T.

8:18 {To us-ward} (\eis hēmās\). We shall be included in the
radiance of the coming glory which will put in the shadow the
present sufferings. Precisely the same idiom here with \mellousan
doxan\ (aorist passive infinitive of \apokaluphthēnai\) occurs in
Ga 3:23 with \mellousan pistin\, which see.

8:19 {The earnest expectation of creation} (\hē apokaradokia tēs
. This substantive has so far been found nowhere save
here and Php 1:20, though the verb \apokaradokeō\ is common in
Polybius and Plutarch. Milligan (_Vocabulary_) thinks that Paul
may have made the substantive from the verb. It is a double
compound (\apo\, off from, \kara\, head, \dokeō\, Ionic verb, to
, hence to watch eagerly with outstretched head. {Waiteth
(\apekdechetai\). See on ¯1Co 1:7; Ga 5:5 for this rare
word (possibly formed by Paul, Milligan). "To wait it out"
(Thayer). {The revealing of the sons of God} (\tēn apokalupsin
tōn huiōn tou theou\)
. Cf. 1Jo 3:2; 2Th 2:8; Col 3:4. This
mystical sympathy of physical nature with the work of grace is
beyond the comprehension of most of us. But who can disprove it?

8:20 {Was subjected} (\hupetagē\). Second aorist passive
indicative of \hupatassō\ (cf. verse 7). {To vanity} (\tēi
. Dative case. Rare and late word, common in LXX.
From \mataios\, empty, vain. Eph 4:17; 2Pe 2:18. {Not of its
own will}
(\ouch hekousa\). Common adjective, in N.T. only here
and 1Co 9:27. It was due to the effect of man's sin. {But by
reason of him}
(\alla dia ton\). Because of God. {In hope that}
(\eph' helpidi hoti\). Note the form \helpidi\ rather than the
usual \elpidi\ and so \eph'\. \Hoti\ can be causal "because"
instead of declarative "that."

8:21 {The creation itself} (\autē hē ktisis\). It is the hope of
creation, not of the Creator. Nature "possesses in the feeling of
her unmerited suffering a sort of presentiment of her future
deliverance" (Godet).

8:22 {Groaneth and travaileth in pain} (\sunstenazei kai
. Two more compounds with \sun\. Both rare and both
here alone in N.T. Nature is pictured in the pangs of childbirth.

8:23 {The first fruits} (\tēn aparchēn\). Old and common
metaphor. {Of the Spirit} (\tou pneumatos\). The genitive of
apposition. The Holy Spirit came on the great Pentecost and his
blessings continue as seen in the "gifts" in 1Co 12-14, in the
moral and spiritual gifts of Ga 5:22f. And greater ones are to
come (1Co 15:44ff.). {Even we ourselves} (\kai autoi\). He
repeats for emphasis. We have our "groaning" (\stenazomen\) as
well as nature. {Waiting for} (\apekdechomenoi\). The same verb
used of nature in verse 19. {Our adoption} (\huiothesian\). Our
full "adoption" (see verse 15), "the redemption of our body"
(\tēn apolutrōsin tou sōmatos hēmōn\). That is to come also. Then
we shall have complete redemption of both soul and body.

8:24 {For by hope were we saved} (\tēi gar elpidi esōthēmen\).
First aorist passive indicative of \sōzō\. The case of \elpidi\
is not certain, the form being the same for locative,
instrumental and dative. Curiously enough either makes good sense
in this context: "We were saved in hope, by hope, for hope" (of
the redemption of the body)

8:25 {With patience} (\di' hupomonēs\). Paul repeats the verb
\apekdechomai\ of verse 23.

8:26 {Helpeth our infirmity} (\sunantilambanetai tēi astheneiāi
. Present middle indicative of \sunantilambanomai\, late
and striking double compound (Diodorus, LXX, Josephus, frequent
in inscriptions, Deissmann, _Light, etc._, p. 87)
, to lend a hand
together with, at the same time with one. Only twice in N.T.,
here and Lu 10:40 in Martha's plea for Mary's help. Here
beautifully Paul pictures the Holy Spirit taking hold at our side
at the very time of our weakness (associative instrumental case)
and before too late. {How to pray} (\to ti proseuxōmetha\).
Articular clause object of \oidamen\ (we know) and indirect
question with the deliberative aorist middle subjunctive
\proseuxōmetha\, retained in the indirect question. {As we ought}
(\katho dei\). "As it is necessary." How true this is of all of
us in our praying. {Maketh intercession} (\huperentugchanei\).
Present active indicative of late double compound, found only
here and in later ecclesiastical writers, but \entugchanō\ occurs
in verse 27 (a common verb). It is a picturesque word of rescue
by one who "happens on" (\entugchanei\) one who is in trouble and
"in his behalf" (\huper\) pleads "with unuttered groanings"
(instrumental case) or with "sighs that baffle words" (Denney).
This is work of our Helper, the Spirit himself.

8:27 {He that searcheth} (\ho eraunōn\). God (1Sa 16:7).
{According to the will of God} (\kata theon\). See 2Co 7:9-11
for this phrase \kata theon\ (according to God). The Holy Spirit
is the "other Paraclete" (Joh 14:16) who pleads God's cause
with us as Christ is our Paraclete with the Father (1Jo 2:1).
But more is true as here, for the Holy Spirit interprets our
prayers to God and "makes intercession for us in accord with
God's will."

8:28 {All things work together} (\panta sunergei\). A B have \ho
theos\ as the subject of \sunergei\ (old verb, see on ¯1Co 16:16;
2Co 6:1)
. That is the idea anyhow. It is God who makes "all
things work together" in our lives "for good" (\eis agathon\),
ultimate good. {According to his purpose} (\kata prothesin\). Old
word, seen already in Ac 27:13 and for "shewbread" in Mt
12:4. The verb \protithēmi\ Paul uses in 3:24 for God's
purpose. Paul accepts fully human free agency but behind it all
and through it all runs God's sovereignty as here and on its
gracious side (9:11; 3:11; 2Ti 1:9).

8:29 {Foreknew} (\proegnō\). Second aorist active indicative of
\proginōskō\, old verb as in Ac 26:5. See Ps 1:6 (LXX) and
Mt 7:23. This fore-knowledge and choice is placed in eternity
in Eph 1:4. {He foreordained} (\proōrisen\). First aorist
active indicative of \proorizō\, late verb to appoint beforehand
as in Ac 4:28; 1Co 2:7. Another compound with \pro-\ (for
. {Conformed to the image} (\summorphous tēs eikonos\).
Late adjective from \sun\ and \morphē\ and so an inward and not
merely superficial conformity. \Eikōn\ is used of Christ as the
very image of the Father (2Co 4:4; Col 1:15). See Php 2:6f.
for \morphē\. Here we have both \morphē\ and \eikōn\ to express
the gradual change in us till we acquire the likeness of Christ
the Son of God so that we ourselves shall ultimately have the
family likeness of sons of God. Glorious destiny. {That he might
(\eis to einai auton\). Common idiom for purpose. {First born
among many brethren}
(\prōtotokon en pollois adelphois\). Christ
is "first born" of all creation (Col 1:15), but here he is
"first born from the dead" (Col 1:18), the Eldest Brother in
this family of God's sons, though "Son" in a sense not true of

8:30 {Called} (\ekalesen\) {--Justified} (\edikaiōsen\)
{--Glorified} (\edoxasen\). All first aorist active indicatives
of common verbs (\kaleō, dikaioō, doxazō\). But the glorification
is stated as already consummated (constative aorists, all of
, though still in the future in the fullest sense. "The step
implied in \edoxasen\ is both complete and certain in the Divine
counsels" (Sanday and Headlam).

8:31 {For these things} (\pros tauta\). From 8:12 on Paul has
made a triumphant presentation of the reasons for the certainty
of final sanctification of the sons of God. He has reached the
climax with glorification (\edoxasen\ in verse 30). But Paul
lets the objector have his say as he usually does so that in
verses 31-39 he considers the objections. {If God is for us,
who is against us?}
(\ei ho theos huper hēmōn, tis kath'
. This condition of the first class carries Paul's
challenge to all doubters. There is no one on a par with God.
Note the two prepositions in contrast (\huper\, over, \kata\,
down or against)

8:32 {He that} (\hos ge\). "Who as much as this" (\ge\ here
magnifying the deed, intensive particle)
. {Spared not} (\ouk
. First aorist middle of \pheidomai\, old verb used
about the offering of Isaac in Ge 22:16. See Ac 20:29. {Also
with him}
(\kai sun autōi\). The gift of "his own son" is the
promise and the pledge of the all things for good of verse 28.
Christ is all and carries all with him.

8:33 {Who shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect?} (\tis
egkalesei kata eklektōn theou?\)
. Future active indicative of
\egkaleō\, old verb, to come forward as accuser (forensic term)
in case in court, to impeach, as in Ac 19:40; 23:29; 26:2, the
only N.T. examples. Satan is the great Accuser of the brethren.
{It is God that justifieth} (\theos ho dikaiōn\). God is the
Judge who sets us right according to his plan for justification
(3:21-31). The Accuser must face the Judge with his charges.

8:34 {Shall condemn} (\katakrinōn\). Can be either present active
participle (condemns) or the future (shall condemn). It is a bold
accuser who can face God with false charges or with true ones for
that matter for we have an "Advocate" at God's Court (1Jo 2:1),
"who is at the right hand of God" (\hos estin en dexiāi tou
"who also maketh intercession for us" (\hos kai
entugchanei huper hēmōn\)
. Our Advocate paid the debt for our
sins with his blood. The score is settled. We are free (8:1).

8:35 {Shall separate} (\chōrisei\). Future active of old verb
\chorizō\ from adverb \chōris\ and that from \chōra\, space. Can
any one put a distance between Christ's love and us (objective
? Can any one lead Christ to cease loving us? Such
things do happen between husband and wife, alas. Paul changes the
figure from "who" (\tis\) to "what" (\ti\). The items mentioned
will not make Christ love us less. Paul here glories in
tribulations as in 5:3ff.

8:36 {Even as it is written} (\kathōs gegraptai\). He quotes Ps
44:23. {We are killed} (\thanatoumetha\). Present passive
indicative of \thanatoō\ for which see on ¯7:4. Same idea of
continuous martyrdom in 1Co 15:31. {As sheep for the slaughter}
(\hōs probata sphagēs\). Objective genitive (\sphagēs\).

8:37 {Nay} (\alla\). On the contrary, we shall not be separated.
{We are more than conquerors} (\hupernikōmen\). Late and rare
compound. Here only in N.T. "We gain a surpassing victory through
the one who loved us."

8:38 {For I am persuaded} (\pepeismai gar\). Perfect passive
participle of \peithō\, "I stand convinced." The items mentioned
are those that people dread (life, death, supernatural powers,
above, below, any creature to cover any omissions)

8:39 {To separate us} (\hēmās chōrisai\). Aorist active
infinitive of \chorizō\ (same verb as in 35). God's love is
victor over all possible foes, "God's love that is in Christ
Jesus." Paul has reached the mountain top. He has really
completed his great argument concerning the God-kind of
righteousness save for its bearing on some special problems. The
first of these concerns the fact that the Jews (God's chosen
have so largely rejected the gospel (chapters 9-11).

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Romans: Chapter 8)