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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Romans: Chapter 5)

5:1 {Being therefore justified by faith} (\dikaiōthentes oun ek
. First aorist passive participle of \dikaioō\, to set
right and expressing antecedent action to the verb \echōmen\. The
\oun\ refers to the preceding conclusive argument (chapters 1 to
that this is done by faith. {Let us have peace with God}
(\eirēnēn echōmen pros ton theon\). This is the correct text
beyond a doubt, the present active subjunctive, not \echomen\
(present active indicative) of the Textus Receptus which even the
American Standard Bible accepts. It is curious how perverse many
real scholars have been on this word and phrase here. Godet, for
instance. Vincent says that "it is difficult if not impossible to
explain it." One has only to observe the force of the _tense_ to
see Paul's meaning clearly. The mode is the volitive subjunctive
and the present tense expresses linear action and so does not
mean "make peace" as the ingressive aorist subjunctive \eirēnēn
schōmen\ would mean. A good example of \schōmen\ occurs in Mt
21:38 (\schōmen tēn klēronomian autou\) where it means: "Let us
get hold of his inheritance." Here \eirēnēn echōmen\ can only
mean: "Let us enjoy peace with God" or "Let us retain peace with
God." We have in Ac 9:31 \eichen eirēnēn\ (imperfect and so
, the church "enjoyed peace," not "made peace." The
preceding justification (\dikaiōthentes\) "made peace with God."
Observe \pros\ (face to face) with \ton theon\ and \dia\
(intermediate agent) with \tou kuriou\.

5:2 {We have had} (\eschēkamen\). Perfect active indicative of
\echō\ (same verb as \echōmen\), still have it. {Our access}
(\ten prosagōgēn\). Old word from \prosagō\, to bring to, to
introduce. Hence "introduction," "approach." Elsewhere in N.T.
only Eph 2:18; 3:12. {Wherein we stand} (\en hēi hestēkamen\).
Perfect active (intransitive) indicative of \histēmi\. Grace is
here present as a field into which we have been introduced and
where we stand and we should enjoy all the privileges of this
grace about us. {Let us rejoice} (\kauchōmetha\). "Let us exult."
Present middle subjunctive (volitive) because \echōmen\ is
accepted as correct. The exhortation is that we keep on enjoying
peace with God and keep on exulting in hope of the glory of God.

5:3 {But let us also rejoice in our tribulations} (\alla kai
kauchōmetha en tais thlipsesin\)
. Present middle subjunctive of
same verb as in verse 2. \Kauchōmai\ is more than "rejoice,"
rather "glory," "exult." These three volitive subjunctives
(\echōmen, kauchōmetha\, twice) hold up the high ideal for the
Christian after, and because of, his being set right with God. It
is one thing to submit to or endure tribulations without
complaint, but it is another to find ground of glorying in the
midst of them as Paul exhorts here.

5:4 {Knowing} (\eidotes\). Second perfect participle of \eidon\
(\oida\), giving the reason for the previous exhortation to glory
in tribulations. He gives a linked chain, one linking to the
other (tribulation \thlipsis\, patience \hupomonē\, experience
\dokimē\, hope \elpis\)
running into verse 5. On \dokimē\, see
2Co 2:9.

5:5 {Hath been shed abroad} (\ekkechutai\). Perfect passive
indicative of \ekcheō\, to pour out. "Has been poured out" in our

5:6 {For} (\eti gar\). So most documents, but B reads \ei ge\
which Westcott and Hort use in place of \gar\. {While we were yet
(\ontōn hēmōn asthenōn eti\). Genitive absolute. The second
\eti\ (yet) here probably gave rise to the confusion of text over
\eti gar\ above. {In due season} (\kata kairon\). Christ came
into the world at the proper time, the fulness of the time (Ga
4:4; Eph 1:10; Tit 1:3)
. {I or the ungodly} (\huper asebōn\). In
behalf, instead of. See about \huper\ on Ga 3:13 and also verse
7 here.

5:7 {Scarcely} (\molis\). Common adverb from \molos\, toil. See
on Ac 14:18. As between \dikaios\, righteous, and \agathos\,
good, Lightfoot notes "all the difference in the world" which he
shows by quotations from Plato and Christian writers, a
difference of sympathy mainly, the \dikaios\ man being
"absolutely without sympathy" while the \agathos\ man "is
beneficent and kind." {Would even dare} (\kai tolmāi\). Present
active indicative of \tolmaō\, to have courage. "Even dares to."
Even so in the case of the kindly sympathetic man courage is
called for to make the supreme sacrifice. {Perhaps} (\tacha\).
Common adverb (perhaps instrumental case) from \tachus\ (swift).
Only here in N.T.

5:8 {His own love} (\tēn heautou agapēn\). See Joh 3:16 as the
best comment here. {While we were yet sinners} (\eti hamartōlōn
. Genitive absolute again. Not because we were Jews or
Greeks, rich or poor, righteous or good, but plain sinners. Cf.
Lu 18:13, the plea of the publican, "\moi tōi hamartōlōi\."

5:9 {Much more then} (\pollōi oun mallon\). Argument from the
greater to the less. The great thing is the justification in
Christ's blood. The final salvation (\sōthēsometha\, future
passive indicative)
is less of a mystery.

5:10 {We were reconciled to God} (\katēllagēmen tōi theōi\).
Second aorist passive indicative of \katallassō\ for which great
Pauline word see on ¯2Co 5:18f. The condition is the first
class. Paul does not conceive it as his or our task to reconcile
God to us. God has attended to that himself (Ro 3:25f.). We
become reconciled to God by means of the death of God's Son.
"Much more" again we shall be saved "by his life" (\en tēi zōēi
. "In his life," for he does live, "ever living to
intercede for them" (Heb 7:25).

5:11 {But also glorying in God} (\alla kai kauchōmenoi en tōi
. Basis of all the exultation above (verses 1-5).
{Through whom we have now received the reconciliation} (\di hou
nun tēn katallagēn elabomen\)
. Second aorist active indicative of
\lambanō\, looked at as a past realization, "now" (\nun\) in
contrast with the future consummation and a sure pledge and
guarantee of it.

5:12 {Therefore} (\dia touto\). "For this reason." What reason?
Probably the argument made in verses 1-11, assuming our
justification and urging exultant joy in Christ because of the
present reconciliation by Christ's death and the certainty of
future final salvation by his life. {As through one man} (\hōsper
di' henos anthrōpou\)
. Paul begins a comparison between the
effects of Adam's sin and the effects of the redemptive work of
Christ, but he does not give the second member of the comparison.
Instead of that he discusses some problems about sin and death
and starts over again in verse 15. The general point is plain
that the effects of Adam's sin are transmitted to his
descendants, though he does not say how it was done whether by
the natural or the federal headship of Adam. It is important to
note that Paul does not say that the whole race receives the full
benefit of Christ's atoning death, but only those who do. Christ
is the head of all believers as Adam is the head of the race. In
this sense Adam "is a figure of him that was to come." {Sin
entered into the world}
(\hē hamartia eis ton kosmon eisēlthen\).
Personification of sin and represented as coming from the outside
into the world of humanity. Paul does not discuss the origin of
evil beyond this fact. There are some today who deny the fact of
sin at all and who call it merely "an error of mortal mind" (a
while others regard it as merely an animal inheritance
devoid of ethical quality. {And so death passed unto all men}
(\kai houtōs eis pantas anthrōpous diēlthen\). Note use of
\dierchomai\ rather than \eiserchomai\, just before, second
aorist active indicative in both instances. By "death" in Ge
2:17; 3:19 physical death is meant, but in verses 17,21
eternal death is Paul's idea and that lurks constantly behind
physical death with Paul. {For that all sinned} (\eph' hōi pantes
. Constative (summary) aorist active indicative of
\hamartanō\, gathering up in this one tense the history of the
race (committed sin). The transmission from Adam became facts of
experience. In the old Greek \eph' hōi\ usually meant "on
condition that," but "because" in N.T. (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.

5:13 {Until the law} (\achri nomou\). Until the Mosaic law. Sin
was there before the Mosaic law, for the Jews were like Gentiles
who had the law of reason and conscience (2:12-16), but the
coming of the law increased their responsibility and their guilt
(2:9). {Sin is not imputed} (\hamartia de ouk ellogeitai\).
Present passive indicative of late verb \ellogaō\ (\-eō\) from
\en\ and \logos\, to put down in the ledger to one's account,
examples in inscription and papyri. {When there is no law} (\mē
ontos nomou\)
. Genitive absolute, no law of any kind, he means.
There was law _before_ the Mosaic law. But what about infants and
idiots in case of death? Do they have responsibility? Surely not.
The sinful nature which they inherit is met by Christ's atoning
death and grace. No longer do men speak of "elect infants."

5:14 {Even over them that had not sinned after the likeness of
Adam's transgression}
(\kai epi tous mē hamartēsantas epi tōi
homoiōmati tēs parabaseōs Adam\)
. Adam violated an express
command of God and Moses gave the law of God clearly. And yet sin
and death followed all from Adam on till Moses, showing clearly
that the sin of Adam brought terrible consequences upon the race.
Death has come upon infants and idiots also as a result of sin,
but one understands Paul to mean that they are not held
responsible by the law of conscience. {A figure} (\tupos\). See
on ¯Ac 7:43; 1Th 1:7; 2Th 3:9; 1Co 10:6 for this word. Adam is a
type of Christ in holding a relation to those affected by the
headship in each case, but the parallel is not precise as Paul

5:15 {But not as the trespass} (\all' ouch hōs\). It is more
contrast than parallel: "the trespass" (\to paraptōma\, the slip,
fall to one side)
over against the free gift (\to charisma\, of
grace \charis\)
. {Much more} (\pollōi mallon\). Another _a
fortiori_ argument. Why so? As a God of love he delights {much
in showing mercy and pardon than in giving just punishment
(Lightfoot). The gift surpasses the sin. It is not necessary to
Paul's argument to make "the many" in each case correspond, one
relates to Adam, the other to Christ.

5:16 {Through one that sinned} (\di' henos hamartēsantos\).
"Through one having sinned." That is Adam. Another contrast,
difference in source (\ek\). {Of one} (\ex henos\). Supply
\paraptōmatos\, Adam's one transgression. {Of many trespasses}
(\ek pollōn paraptōmatōn\). The gift by Christ grew out of
manifold sins by Adam's progeny. {Justification} (\dikaiōma\).
Act of righteousness, result, ordinance (1:32; 2:26; 8:4),
righteous deed (5:18), verdict as here (acquittal).

5:17 {Much more} (\pollōi mallon\). Argument _a fortiori_ again.
Condition of first class assumed to be true. Note balanced words
in the contrast (transgression \paraptōmati\, grace \charitos\;
death \thanatos\, life \zōēi\; the one or {Adam} \tou henos\, the
one {Jesus Christ}; reign \basileuō\ in both)

5:18 {So then} (\ara oun\). Conclusion of the argument. Cf.
7:3,25; 8:12, etc. Paul resumes the parallel between Adam and
Christ begun in verse 12 and interrupted by explanation
(13f.) and contrast (15-17). {Through one trespass} (\di'
henos paraptōmatos\)
. That of Adam. {Through one act of
(\di' henos dikaiōmatos\). That of Christ. The
first "unto all men" (\eis pantas anthrōpous\) as in verse 12,
the second as in verse 17 "they that receive, etc."

5:19 Here again we have "the one" (\tou henos\) with both Adam
and Christ, but "disobedience" (\parakoēs\, for which see 2Co
contrasted with "obedience" (\hupakoēs\), the same verb
\kathistēmi\, old verb, to set down, to render, to constitute
(\katestathēsan\, first aorist passive indicative,
\katastathēsontai\, future passive)
, and "the many" (\hoi
in both cases (but with different meaning as with "all
men" above)

5:20 {Came in beside} (\pareisēlthen\). Second aorist active
indicative of double compound \pareiserchomai\, late verb, in
N.T. only here and Ga 2:4 which see. See also \eisēlthen\ in
verse 12. The Mosaic law came into this state of things, in
between Adam and Christ. {That the trespass might abound} (\hina
pleonasēi to paraptōma\)
. It is usual to explain \hina\ here as
final, as God's ultimate purpose. So Denney who refers to Ga
3:19ff.; Ro 7:7f. But Chrysostom explains \hina\ here as
\ekbasis\ (result). This is a proper use of \hina\ in the _Koinē_
as we have seen. If we take it so here, the meaning is "so that
the trespass abounded" (aorist active subjunctive of \pleonasō\,
late verb, see on ¯2Th 1:3; 2Co 8:15)
. This was the actual
effect of the Mosaic law for the Jews, the necessary result of
all prohibitions. {Did abound more exceedingly}
(\hupereperisseusen\). First aorist active indicative of
\huperperisseuō\. Late verb, in N.T. only here and 2Co 7:4
which see. A strong word. If \pleonazō\ is comparative (\pleon\)
\perisseuō\ is superlative (Lightfoot) and then \huperperisseuō\
goes the superlative one better. See \huperpleonazō\ in 1Ti
1:14. The flood of grace surpassed the flood of sin, great as
that was (and is).

5:21 {That--even so grace might reign} (\hina--houtos kai hē
charis basileusēi\)
. Final \hina\ here, the purpose of God and
the goal for us through Christ. Lightfoot notes the force of the
aorist indicative (\ebasileusen\, established its throne) and the
aorist subjunctive (\basileusēi\, might establish its throne),
the ingressive aorist both times. "This full rhetorical close has
almost the value of a doxology" (Denney).

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Romans: Chapter 5)