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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Romans: Chapter 1)

1:1 {To the Romans} (\pros Rōmaious\). This is the title in Aleph
A B C, our oldest Greek MSS. for the Epistle. We do not know
whether Paul gave any title at all. Later MSS. add other words up
to the Textus Receptus: The Epistle of Paul to the Romans. The
Epistle is put first in the MSS. because it is the most important
of Paul's Epistles.

{Paul} (\Paulos\). Roman name (\Paulus\). See on ¯Ac 13:9 for
the origin of this name by the side of Saul. {Servant}
(\doulos\). Bond-slave of Jesus Christ (or Christ Jesus as some
MSS. give it and as is the rule in the later Epistles)
for the
first time in the Epistles in the opening sentence, though the
phrase already in Ga 1:10. Recurs in Php 1:1 and \desmios\
(bondsman) in Phm 1:1. {Called to be an apostle} (\klētos
. An apostle by vocation (Denney) as in 1Co 1:1. In
Ga 1:1 \klētos\ is not used, but the rest of the verse has the
same idea. {Separated} (\aphōrismenos\). Perfect passive
participle of \aphorizō\ for which verb see on ¯Ga 1:15. Paul is
a spiritual Pharisee (etymologically), separated not to the oral
tradition, but to God's gospel, a chosen vessel (Ac 9:15). By
man also (Ac 13:2). Many of Paul's characteristic words like
\euaggelion\ have been already discussed in the previous Epistles
that will call for little comment from now on.

1:2 {He promised afore} (\proepēggeilato\). First aorist middle
of \proepaggellō\ for which verb see on ¯2Co 9:5. {By} (\dia\).
Through, by means of, intermediate agency like Mt 1:22 which
see. {In the holy scriptures} (\en graphais hagiais\). No
article, yet definite. Perhaps the earliest use of the phrase
(Sanday and Headlam). Paul definitely finds God's gospel in the
Holy Scriptures.

1:3 {Concerning his Son} (\peri tou huiou autou\). Just as Jesus
found himself in the O.T. (Lu 24:27,46). The deity of Christ
here stated. {According to the flesh} (\kata sarka\). His real
humanity alongside of his real deity. For the descent from David
see Mt 1:1,6,20; Lu 1:27; Joh 7:42; Ac 13:23, etc.

1:4 {Who was declared} (\tou horisthentos\). Articular participle
(first aorist passive) of \horizō\ for which verb see on ¯Lu
22:22; Ac 2:23. He was the Son of God in his preincarnate state
(2Co 8:9; Php 2:6) and still so after his Incarnation (verse
3, "of the seed of David")
, but it was the Resurrection of the
dead (\ex anastaseōs nekrōn\, the general resurrection implied by
that of Christ)
that definitely marked Jesus off as God's Son
because of his claims about himself as God's Son and his prophecy
that he would rise on the third day. This event (cf. 1Co 15)
gave God's seal "with power" (\en dunamei\), "in power," declared
so in power (2Co 13:4). The Resurrection of Christ is the
miracle of miracles. "The resurrection only declared him to be
what he truly was" (Denney). {According to the spirit of
(\kata pneuma hagiōsunēs\). Not the Holy Spirit, but a
description of Christ ethically as \kata sarka\ describes him
physically (Denney). \Hagiōsunē\ is rare (1Th 3:13; 2Co 7:1 in
, three times in LXX, each time as the attribute of God.
"The \pneuma hagiōsunēs\, though not the Divine nature, is that
in which the Divinity or Divine Personality Resided " (Sanday and
. {Jesus Christ our Lord} (\Iēsou Christou tou kuriou
. These words gather up the total personality of Jesus
(his deity and his humanity).

1:5 {Unto obedience of faith} (\eis hupakoēn pisteōs\).
Subjective genitive as in 16:26, the obedience which springs
from faith (the act of assent or surrender).

1:6 {Called to be Jesus Christ's} (\klētoi Iēsou Christou\).
Predicate genitive after \klētoi\ (verbal adjective from \kaleō\,
to call)
, though it is possible to consider it the ablative case,
"called of (or from) Jesus Christ."

1:7 {In Rome} (\en Rōmēi\). One late uncial (G of tenth century)
and a cursive omit these words here and one or two other late
MSS. omit \en Rōmēi\ in verse 15. This possibly proves the
Epistle was circulated as a circular to a limited extent, but the
evidence is late and slight and by no means shows that this was
the case in the first century. It is not comparable with the
absence of \en Ephesōi\ in Eph 1:1 from Aleph and B (the two
oldest and best MSS.)
. {Beloved of God} (\agapētois theou\).
Ablative case of \theou\ after the verbal adjective like
\didaktoi theou\ (taught of God) in Joh 6:45 (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 516)
. {From God our Father and the Lord Jesus
(\apo theou patros hēmōn kai kuriou Iēsou Christou\).
"St. Paul, if not formally enunciating a doctrine of the Divinity
of Christ, held a view which cannot really be distinguished from
it" (Sanday and Headlam). Paul's theology is clearly seen in the
terms used in verses 1-7.

1:8 {First} (\prōton men\). Adverb in the accusative case, but no
\epeita de\ (in the next place) as in Heb 7:2 or \epeita\ as in
Jas 3:17 follows. The rush of thoughts crowds out the balanced
phraseology as in Ro 3:2; 1Co 11:18. {Through} (\dia\). As the
mediator or medium of thanksgiving as in 7:25. {For} (\peri\).
Concerning, about. {That} (\hoti\). Or because. Either
declarative or causal \hoti\ makes sense here. {Your faith} (\hē
pistis humōn\)
. "Your Christianity" (Sanday and Headlam). {Is
(\kataggelletai\). Present passive indicative of
\kataggellō\, to announce (\aggellō\) up and down (\kata\). See
also \anaggellō\, to bring back news (Joh 5:15), \apaggellō\,
to announce from one as the source (Mt 2:8), \prokataggellō\,
to announce far and wide beforehand (Ac 3:18). {Throughout all
the world}
(\en holōi tōi kosmōi\). Natural hyperbole as in Col
1:6; Ac 17:6. But widely known because the church was in the
central city of the empire.

1:9 {I serve} (\latreuō\). Old verb from \latron\, hire, and
\latris\, hireling, so to serve for hire, then to serve in
general gods or men, whether sacred services (Heb 9:9; 10:2) or
spiritual service as here. Cf. Ro 12:1; Php 3:3. {Unceasingly}
(\adialeiptōs\). Late adverb for which see 1Th 1:2f.; 2:13;
5:17, only other N.T. examples. {Always} (\pantote\). One might
think that Paul prayed for no others, but he uses both adverbs in
1Th 1:2. He seems to have had prayer lists. He never omitted
the Romans.

1:10 {If by any means now at length} (\ei pōs ēdē pote\). A
condition of the first class in the form of an indirect question
(aim) or elliptical condition like Ac 27:12 (Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 1024)
. Note the four particles together to express
Paul's feelings of emotion that now at length somehow it may
really come true. {I may be prospered} (\euodōthēsomai\). First
future passive indicative of \euodoō\ for which verb see on ¯1Co
16:2. {By the will of God} (\en tōi thelēmati tou theou\).
Paul's way lay "in" God's will.

1:11 {Impart} (\metadō\). Second aorist active subjunctive of
\metadidōmi\, to share with one. See on ¯Lu 3:11; 1Th 2:8. {To
the end ye may be established}
(\eis to stērichthēnai humas\).
Final clause (common in Paul) with \eis to\ and the first aorist
passive infinitive of \stērizō\ for which verb see on ¯Lu 22:32;
1Th 3:3,13.

1:12 {That is} (\touto de estin\). "An explanatory correction"
(Denney). The \de\ should not be ignored. Instead of saying that
he had a spiritual gift for them, he wishes to add that they also
have one for him. {That I with you may be comforted}
(\sunparaklēthēnai en humin\). "My being comforted in you (\en
together (\sun-\) with you," a mutual blessing to each
party (you and me).

1:13 {Oftentimes I purposed} (\pollakis proethemēn\). Second
aorist middle of \protithēmi\, old verb to place, to propose to
oneself, in N.T. only here, 3:25; Eph 1:9. See Ac 19:21 for
this purpose. {And was hindered} (\kai ekōluthēn\). "But was
hindered," adversative use of \kai\. {That I might have some
(\hina tina karpon schō\). Second aorist (ingressive),
active of \echō\, to have, and here means "might get (ingressive
some fruit."

1:14 On {debtor} (\opheiletēs\) see Ga 5:3. {Both to Greeks and
to Barbarians}
(\Hellēsin te kai barbarois\). The whole human
race from the Greek point of view, Jews coming under \barbarois\.
On this word see Ac 18:2,4; 1Co 4:11; Col 3:11 (only N.T.
. The Greeks called all others barbarians and the Jews
termed all others Gentiles. Did Paul consider the Romans as
Greeks? They had absorbed the Greek language and culture.

1:15 {So as much as in me is I am ready} (\houtō to kat' eme
. Literally, "Thus the according to me affair is
ready" (\prothumos\, old adjective, \pro, thumos\). It is an
awkward idiom like to \ex humōn\ in 12:18. The plural \ta kat'
eme\ we find in Php 1:12; Col 4:7; Eph 6:21.

1:16 {It is the power of God} (\dunamis theou estin\). This Paul
knew by much experience. He had seen the dynamite of God at work.
{To the Jew first, and also to the Greek} (\Ioudaiōi te prōton
kai Hellēni\)
. Jesus had taught this (Joh 4:22; 10:16; Lu 24:47;
Ac 1:8)
. The Jew is first in privilege and in penalty (Ro
. It is not certain that \prōton\ is genuine, but it is in

1:17 {For therein} (\gar en autōi\). In the gospel (verse 16)
of which Paul is not ashamed. {A righteousness of God}
(\dikaiosunē theou\). Subjective genitive, "a God kind of
righteousness," one that each must have and can obtain in no
other way save "from faith unto faith" (\ek pisteōs eis pistin\),
faith the starting point and faith the goal (Lightfoot). {Is
(\apokaluptetai\). It is a revelation from God, this
God kind of righteousness, that man unaided could never have
conceived or still less attained. In these words we have Paul's
statement in his own way of the theme of the Epistle, the content
of the gospel as Paul understands it. Every word is important:
\sōtērian\ (salvation), \euaggelion\ (gospel), \apokaluptetai\
(is revealed), \dikaiosunē theou\ (righteousness of God),
\pistis\ (faith) and \pisteuonti\ (believing). He grounds his
position on Hab 2:4 (quoted also in Ga 3:11). By
"righteousness" we shall see that Paul means both "justification"
and "sanctification." It is important to get a clear idea of
Paul's use of \dikaiosunē\ here for it controls the thought
throughout the Epistle. Jesus set up a higher standard of
righteousness (\dikaiosunē\) in the Sermon on the Mount than the
Scribes and Pharisees taught and practised (Mt 5:20) and proves
it in various items. Here Paul claims that in the gospel, taught
by Jesus and by himself there is revealed a God kind of
righteousness with two ideas in it (the righteousness that God
has and that he bestows)
. It is an old word for quality from
\dikaios\, a righteous man, and that from \dikē\, right or
justice (called a goddess in Ac 28:4), and that allied with
\deiknumi\, to show, to point out. Other allied words are
\dikaioō\, to declare or make \dikaios\ (Ro 3:24,26),
\dikaiōma\, that which is deemed \dikaios\ (sentence or ordinance
as in 1:32; 2:26; 8:4)
, \dikaiōsis\, the act of declaring
\dikaios\ (only twice in N.T., 4:25; 5:18). \Dikaiosunē\ and
\dikaioō\ are easy to render into English, though we use justice
in distinction from righteousness and sanctification for the
result that comes after justification (the setting one right with
. Paul is consistent and usually clear in his use of these
great words.

1:18 {For the wrath of God is revealed} (\apokaluptetai gar orgē
. Note in Romans Paul's use of \gar\, now argumentative,
now explanatory, now both as here. There is a parallel and
antecedent revelation (see verse 17) of God's wrath
corresponding to the revelation of God's righteousness, this an
unwritten revelation, but plainly made known. \Orgē\ is from
\orgaō\, to teem, to swell. It is the temper of God towards sin,
not rage, but the wrath of reason and law (Shedd). The revelation
of God's righteousness in the gospel was necessary because of the
failure of men to attain it without it, for God's wrath justly
rested upon all both Gentiles (1:18-32) and Jews (2:1-3:20).
{Ungodliness} (\asebeian\). Irreligion, want of reverence toward
God, old word (cf. 2Ti 2:16). {Unrighteousness} (\adikian\).
Lack (\a\ privative and \dikē\) of right conduct toward men,
injustice (Ro 9:14; Lu 18:6). This follows naturally from
irreverence. The basis of ethical conduct rests on the nature of
God and our attitude toward him, otherwise the law of the jungle
(cf. Nietzsche, "might makes right"). {Hold down the truth} (\tēn
alētheian katechontōn\)
. Truth (\alētheia, alēthēs\, from \a\
privative and \lēthō\ or \lanthanō\, to conceal)
is out in the
open, but wicked men, so to speak, put it in a box and sit on the
lid and "hold it down in unrighteousness." Their evil deeds
conceal the open truth of God from men. Cf. 2Th 2:6f. for this
use of \katechō\, to hinder.

1:19 {Because} (\dioti\). Gives the reason (\dia, hoti\ like our
"for that")
for the revelation of God's wrath. {That which may be
known of God}
(\to gnōston tou theou\). Verbal adjective from
\ginōskō\, either "the known" as elsewhere in N.T. (Ac 1:19;
15:18, etc.)
or "the knowable" as usual in ancient Greek, that
is "the knowledge" (\hē gnōsis\) of God. See Php 3:8. Cf. same
use of the verbal \chrēston\ in Ro 2:4, \ametatheton\ in Heb
6:17. {Manifest in them} (\phaneron en autois\). In their hearts
and consciences. {God manifested} (\ho theos ephanerōsen\). First
aorist active indicative of \phaneroō\. Not mere tautology. See

1:20 {The invisible things of him} (\ta aorata autou\). Another
verbal adjective (\a\ privative and \horaō\, to see), old word,
either unseen or invisible as here and elsewhere in N.T. (Col
1:15f., etc.)
. The attributes of God's nature defined here as
"his everlasting power and divinity" (\hē te aidios autou dunamis
kai theiotēs\)
. \Aidios\ is for \aeidios\ from \aei\ (always),
old word, in N.T. only here and Jude 1:6, common in Philo (\zōē
, elsewhere \aiōnios\. \Theiotēs\ is from \theios\ (from
quality of \theos\ and corresponds more to Latin
_divinitas_ from _divus_, divine. In Col 2:9 Paul uses
\theotēs\ (Latin _deitas_ from _deus_) {deity}, both old words
and nowhere else in the N.T. \Theotēs\ is Divine Personality,
\theiotēs\, Divine Nature and properties (Sanday and Headlam).
{Since the creation of the world} (\apo ktiseōs kosmou\). He
means by God and unto God as antecedent to and superior to the
world (cf. Col 1:15f. about Christ). {Are clearly seen}
(\kathoratai\). Present passive indicative of \kathoraō\
(perfective use of \kata-\), old word, only here in N.T., with
direct reference to \aorata\. {Being perceived} (\nooumena\).
Present passive participle of \noeō\, to use the \nous\
(intellect). {That they may be without excuse} (\eis to einai
autous anapologētous\)
. More likely, "so that they are without
excuse." The use of \eis to\ and the infinitive (with accusative
of general reference)
for result like \hōste\ is reasonably clear
in the N.T. (Moulton, _Prolegomena_, p. 219; Robertson,
_Grammar_, p. 1003)
. \Anapologētous\ is another verbal with \an\
from \apologeomai\. Old word, in N.T. only here and Ro 2:1
("inexcusable" here).

1:21 {Because that} (\dioti\). As in verse 19. {Knowing God}
(\gnontes ton theon\). Second aorist active participle of
\ginōskō\, to know by personal experience. Definite statement
that originally men had some knowledge of God. No people, however
degraded, have yet been found without some yearning after a god,
a seeking to find the true God and get back to him as Paul said
in Athens (Ac 17:27). {Glorified not as God} (\ouch hōs theon
. They knew more than they did. This is the reason for
the condemnation of the heathen (2:12-16), the failure to do
what they know. {Their senseless heart} (\hē asunetos autōn
. \Kardia\ is the most comprehensive term for all our
faculties whether feeling (Ro 9:2), will (1Co 4:5), intellect
(Ro 10:6). It may be the home of the Holy Spirit (Ro 5:5) or
of evil desires (1:24). See Mr 7:21f. for list of vices that
come "out of the heart." \Asunetos\ is a verbal adjective from
\suniēmi\, to put together, and \a\ privative, unintelligent, not
able to put together the manifest evidence about God (verse
. So darkness settled down on their hearts (\eskotisthē\,
first aorist ingressive passive of \skotizō\, to darken)

1:22 {Professing themselves to be wise} (\phaskontes einai
. \Sophoi\ is predicate nominative with \einai\ in
indirect discourse agreeing with \phaskontes\ (old verb, from
\phēmi\, to say, rare in N.T.)
in case and number according to
regular Greek idiom (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1038). {Became
(\emataiōthēsan\). Ingressive first aorist passive
indicative of \mataioō\ from \mataios\ (empty). Empty reasonings
as often today. {Became fools} (\emōranthēsan\). Ingressive first
aorist passive of \mōrainō\, to be a fool, old word from \mōros\,
a fool. An oxymoron or sharp saying, true and one that cuts to
the bone. {For the likeness of an image} (\en homoiōmati
. Both words, "a likeness which consists in an image or
copy" (Lightfoot). See Php 2:7 for "likeness of men" and Col
1:15 for "image of God." Paul shows indignant contempt for these
grotesque efforts to present pictures of a deity that had been
lost (Denney). Why is it that heathen images of gods in the form
of men and beasts are so horrible to look upon?

1:24 {Wherefore} (\dio\). Paul's inexorable logic. See it also in
verse 26 with the same verb and in verse 28 \kai\ like "and
so." {God gave them up} (\paredōken autous ho theos\). First
aorist active indicative of \paradidōmi\, old and common verb to
hand over (beside, \para\) to one's power as in Mt 4:12. These
people had already wilfully deserted God who merely left them to
their own self-determination and self-destruction, part of the
price of man's moral freedom. Paul refers to this stage and state
of man in Ac 17:30 by "overlooked" (\huperidōn\). The
withdrawal of God's restraint sent men deeper down. Three times
Paul uses \paredōken\ here (verses 24,26,28), not three stages
in the giving over, but a repetition of the same withdrawal. The
words sound to us like clods on the coffin as God leaves men to
work their own wicked will. {That their bodies should be
(\tou atimazesthai ta sōmata autōn\). Contemplated
result expressed by \tou\ (genitive article) and the passive
infinitive \atimazesthai\ (from \atimos\, \a\ privative and
\timos\, dishonoured)
with the accusative of general reference.
Christians had a new sense of dignity for the body (1Th 4:4; 1Co
. Heathenism left its stamp on the bodies of men and women.

1:25 {Exchanged} (\metēllaxan\). First aorist active indicative
of \metallassō\, old word for exchanging trade, only here and
verse 26 in N.T. What a bargain they made, "the truth of God
for (\en\) the (\tōi\) lie." "The price of mythology" (Bengel).
{Worshipped} (\esebasthēsan\). First aorist passive (used
of \sebazomai\, old verb, used in late Greek like
\sebomai\, to worship. {Rather than the Creator} (\para ton
. Placed side by side (\para\, the Creator and the
creature, \ktisis\)
they preferred the creature. {Who is blessed
forever. Amen}
(\hos estin eulogētos. Amēn\). One of Paul's
doxologies which may come at any moment when he is greatly
stirred, as in 9:5. \Eulogētos\ is verbal of \eulogeō\.

1:26 {Unto vile passions} (\eis pathē atimias\). Unto passions of
dishonour. \Pathos\, old word from \paschō\, to experience,
originally meant any feeling whether good or bad, but in N.T.
always in bad sense as here, 1Th 4:5; Col 3:5 (only N.T.
. {That which is against nature} (\tēn para phusin\).
The degradation of sex is what Paul here notes as one of the
results of heathenism (the loss of God in the life of man). They
passed by the Creator.

1:27 {Turned} (\exekauthēsan\). First aorist passive indicative,
causative aorist, of \ekkaiō\, old verb, to burn out, to set on
fire, to inflame with anger or lust. Here only in N.T. {Lust}
(\orexei\). Only here in N.T. {Unseemliness} (\aschēmosunēn\).
Old word from \aschēmon\ (deformed). In N.T. only here and Re
16:15. {Recompense} (\antimisthian\). See on ¯2Co 6:13 for only
other N.T. instance of this late Pauline word, there in good
sense, here in bad. {Which was due} (\hēn edei\). Imperfect
active for obligation still on them coming down from the past.
This debt will be paid in full (\apolambanontes\, pay back as in
Lu 6:34, and due as in Lu 23:41)
. Nature will attend to that
in their own bodies and souls.

1:28 {And even as they refused} (\kai kathōs ouk edokimasan\).
"And even as they rejected" after trial just as \dokimazō\ is
used of testing coins. They tested God at first and turned aside
from him. {Knowledge} (\epignōsei\). Full knowledge (\epi\
additional, \gnōsis\)
. They had a dim memory that was a
caricature. {Unto a reprobate mind} (\eis adokimon noun\). Play
on \ouk edokimasan\. They rejected God and God rejected their
mental attitude and gave them over (verses 24,26,28). See this
adjective already in 1Co 9:27; 2Co 13:5-7. Like an old
abandoned building, the home of bats and snakes, left "to do
those things which are not fitting" (\poiein ta mē kathēkonta\),
like the night clubs of modern cities, the dives and dens of the
underworld, without God and in the darkness of unrestrained
animal impulses. This was a technical term with Stoics (II Macc.

1:29 {Being called with} (\peplērōmenous\). Perfect passive
participle of the common verb \plēroō\, state of completion,
"filled to the brim with" four vices in the associative
instrumental case (\adikiāi\, unrighteousness as in verse 18,
\ponēriāi\, active wickedness as in Mr 7:22, \pleonexiāi\,
covetousness as in 1Th 2:5; Lu 12:15, \kakiāi\, maliciousness
or inward viciousness of disposition as in 1Co 5:8)
. Note
asyndeton, no connective in the lists in verses 29-31. Dramatic
effect. The order of these words varies in the MSS. and
\porneiāi\, fornication, is not genuine here (absent in Aleph A B
. {Full of} (\mestous\). Paul changes from participle to
adjective. Old adjective, rare in the N.T., like \mestoō\, to
fill full (only in Ac 2:13 in N.T.), stuffed full of (with
. Five substantives in the genitive (\phthonou\, envy,
as in Ga 5:21, \phonou\, murder, and so a paronomasia or
combination with \phthonou\, of like sounding words, \eridos\,
strife, as in 2Co 12:16, \kakoēthias\, malignity, and here only
in N.T. though old word from \kakoēthēs\ and that from \kakos\
and \ēthos\, a tendency to put a bad construction on things,
depravity of heart and malicious disposition.)

1:30 Paul changes the construction again to twelve substantives
and adjectives that give vivid touches to this composite
photograph of the God abandoned soul. {Whisperers}
(\psithuristas\). Old word from \psithurizō\, to speak into the
ear, to speak secretly, an onomatopoetic word like \psithurismos\
(2Co 12:20) and only here in N.T. {Backbiters} (\katalalous\).
Found nowhere else except in Hermas, compound like \katalaleō\,
to talk back (Jas 4:11), and \katalalia\, talking back (2Co
, talkers back whether secretly or openly. {Hateful to
(\theostugeis\). Old word from \theos\ and \stugeō\. All the
ancient examples take it in the passive sense and so probably
here. So \stugētos\ (Tit 3:13). Vulgate has _deo odibiles_.
{Insolent} (\hubristas\). Old word for agent from \hubrizō\, to
give insult to, here alone in N.T. save 1Ti 1:13. {Haughty}
(\huperēphanous\). From \huper\ and \phainomai\, to appear above
others, arrogant in thought and conduct, "stuck up." {Boastful}
(\alazonas\). From \alē\, wandering. Empty pretenders,
swaggerers, braggarts. {Inventors of evil things} (\epheuretas
. Inventors of new forms of vice as Nero was. Tacitus
(_Ann_. IV. ii) describes Sejanus as _facinorum omnium repertor_
and Virgil (_Aen_. ii. 163) _scelerum inventor_. {Disobedient to
(\goneusin apeitheis\). Cf. 1Ti 1:9; 2Ti 3:2. An
ancient and a modern trait.

1:31 {Without understanding} (\asunetous\). Same word in verse
21. {Covenant-breakers} (\asunthetous\). Another paronomasia or
pun. \A\ privative and verbal \sunthetos\ from \suntithēmi\, to
put together. Old word, common in LXX (Jer 3:7), men "false to
their engagements" (Sanday and Headlam), who treat covenants as
"a scrap of paper." {Without natural affection} (\astorgous\).
Late word, \a\ privative and \storgē\, love of kindred. In N.T.
only here and 2Ti 3:3. {Unmerciful} (\aneleēmonas\). From \a\
privative and \eleēmōn\, merciful. Late word, only here in N.T.
Some MSS. add \aspondous\, implacable, from 2Ti 3:3. It is a
terrible picture of the effects of sin on the lives of men and
women. The late Dr. R. H. Graves of Canton, China, said that a
Chinaman who got hold of this chapter declared that Paul could
not have written it, but only a modern missionary who had been to
China. It is drawn to the life because Paul knew Pagan
Graeco-Roman civilization.

1:32 {The ordinance of God} (\to dikaiōma tou theou\). The
heathen knows that God condemns such evil practices. {But also
consent with them}
(\alla kai suneudokousin\). Late verb for
hearty approval as in Lu 11:48; Ac 8:1; 1Co 7:12. It is a
tragedy of American city government that so many of the officials
are proven to be hand in glove with the underworld of

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Romans: Chapter 1)