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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Philippians: Chapter 1)

1:1 {Paul} (\Paulos\). He does not mention his apostleship as he
usually does. Omitted also in I and II Thess. and Philemon.
{Timothy} (\Timotheos\). In no sense the author, but associated
with Paul because with him here in Rome as in Corinth when I and
II Thessalonians written and in Ephesus when I Corinthians sent
and in Macedonia when II Corinthians written. Timothy was with
Paul when the Philippian church was founded (Ac 16:1,13;
. He had been there twice since (Ac 19:22; 20:3f.). {To
all the saints}
(\pāsi tois hagiois\). The word saint (\hagios\)
here is used for the professing Christians as in 1Co 1:2 which
see as well as Ro 1:7 for the origin of the word. The word
"all" (\pāsi\) means that all individual believers are included.
Paul employs this word frequently in Philippians. {In Christ
(\en Christōi Iēsou\). The centre for all Christian
relations and activities for Paul and for us. {In Philippi} (\en
. See on ¯Ac 16:12 for discussion of this name.
{With the bishops} (\sun episkopois\). "Together with bishops,"
thus singled out from "all the saints." See Ac 20:17,28 for the
use of this most interesting word as equivalent to \presbuteros\
(elder). It is an old word from \episkeptomai\, to look upon or
after, to inspect, so the overseer or superintendent. In the
second century \episcopos\ (Ignatius) came to mean one superior
to elders, but not so in the N.T. The two New Testament church
officers are here mentioned (bishops or elders and deacons). The
plural is here employed because there was usually one church in a
city with several pastors (bishops, elders). {And deacons} (\kai
. Technical sense here of the other church officers as
in 1Ti 3:8-13, not the general use as in Mt 22:13. The origin
of the office is probably seen in Ac 6:1-6. The term is often
applied to preachers (1Co 3:5; 2Co 3:6). The etymology (\dia,
suggests raising a dust by hastening.

1:3 {Upon} (\epi\). Basis of the thanksgiving. {All} (\pāsēi\).
Note frequent use of "all" here (\pāsēi, pantote\, always,
\pāsēi\, again, \pantōn humōn\, you all)
. The use of "you all"
recurs several times (4,7 _bis_, 8).

1:4 {With joy} (\meta charas\). Keynote of the Epistle. Paul is a
happy prisoner as in Philippi when he and Silas sang praises at
midnight though in prison (Ac 16:25).

1:5 {For your fellowship} (\epi tēi koinōniāi humōn\). "On the
basis of your contribution" as in 2Co 8:4; 9:13; Ac 2:42. The
particular kind of "partnership" or "fellowship" involved is the
contribution made by the Philippians for the spread of the gospel
(1:7 \sugkoinōnous\ and 4:14 where \sugkoinōnēsantes\
. {In furtherance of the gospel} (\eis to euaggelion\).
"For the gospel." {From the first day until now} (\apo tēs prōtēs
hēmeras achri tou nun\)
. As when in Thessalonica (Php 4:15f.),
in Corinth (Ac 18:5; 2Co 11:7-10), and now in Rome.

1:6 {Being confident} (\pepoithōs\). Second perfect active of
\peithō\, to persuade. {This very thing} (\auto touto\).
Accusative of the inner object with \pepoithōs\, "this thing
itself." {Will perfect it} (\epitelesei\). Future active
indicative of \epiteleō\, will fully (\epi-\) finish. God began
and God will consummate it (see 2Co 8:6; Ga 3:3 where both
words occur together as here)
, but not without their cooperation
and partnership. {Until the day of Jesus Christ} (\achri hēmeras
Christou Iēsou\)
. The second coming as in verse 10. See 1Th
5:2,4; 2Th 1:10; 2:2; 1Co 1:18; 3:13; 2Co 1:14; Ro 13:12. Paul
never sets the time for the Lord's return, but he is cheered by
that blessed hope.

1:7 {Because I have you in my heart} (\dia to echein me en tēi
kardiāi humas\)
. Or "because you hold me in your heart."
Literally, "because of the holding me (or you) in the heart as to
you (or me)." One accusative is the object of the infinitive
\echein\, the other is the accusative of general reference. There
is no way to decide which is the idea meant except to say that
love begets love. The pastor who, like Paul, holds his people in
his heart will find them holding him in their hearts. {In the
(\en tēi apologiāi\). Old word (our word apology, but
not our idea of apologizing)
, in the original sense in Ac 22:1;
25:16. So also in verse 16 below. {Confirmation}
(\bebaiōsei\). Old word from \bebaioō\ (\bebaios, bainō\), to
make stable. In N.T. only here and Heb 6:16 about oath.
{Partakers with me of grace} (\sugkoinōnous mou tēs charitos\).
Literally, "my co-sharers in grace" (objective genitive). "Grace
prompted them to alleviate his imprisonment, to cooperate with
him in defending and propagating the gospel, and to suffer for
its sake" (Vincent, _Int. Crit. Comm_.).

1:8 {My witness} (\martus mou\). Same solemn oath in Ro 1:9. {I
long after}
(\epipothō\). Longing (\pothos\) directed toward
(\epi\) the Philippians. Old word, chiefly in Paul in N.T. {In
the tender mercies}
(\en splagchnois\). Literally "in the bowels"
as the seat of the affections.

1:9 {May abound} (\perisseuēi\). Present active subjunctive of
\perisseuō\, may keep on overflowing, a perpetual flood of love,
"yet more and more" (\eti mallon kai mallon\), but with necessary
limitations (river banks), "in knowledge" (\en epignōsei\, in
full knowledge)
"and all discernment" (\pāsēi aisthēsei\). The
delicate spiritual perception (\aisthēsis\, old word from
\aisthanomai\, only here in N.T. as the verb only in Lu 9:45 in
can be cultivated as in \aisthētērion\ (Heb 5:14)

1:10 {So that ye may} (\eis to humas\). Either purpose or result
(\eis to\ plus infinitive as in Ro 1:11,20; 3:26, etc.).
{Approve the things that are excellent} (\dokimazein ta
. Originally, "test the things that differ." Cf.
same idiom in Ro 2:28. The verb was used for assaying metals.
Either sense suits this context, but the first step is to
distinguish between good and evil and that is not always easy in
our complex civilization. {Sincere} (\eilikrineis\). Old word of
uncertain origin from \krinō\, to judge, by \heilē\ (sunlight) or
to sift by rapid rolling (\eilos\). At any rate it means pure,
unsullied. {Void of offence} (\aproskopoi\). Alpha privative
\pros\ and \koptō\, to cut, "not stumbled against" (not causing
others to stumble)
or if active "not stumbling against." Passive
sense probably, not active as in 1Co 10:32. Common in the
papyri, though not in ancient Greek writers.

1:11 {Fruits of righteousness} (\karpon dikaiosunēs\). Singular,
collective idea, fruit of righteousness. Accusative case retained
with perfect passive participle.

1:12 {The things which happened unto me} (\ta kat' eme\). "The
things concerning me" = "my affairs" as common in Josephus. {Have
fallen out rather}
(\mallon elēluthen\). "Have come rather."
Second perfect active indicative of \erchomai\. {Unto the
(\eis prokopēn\). Late word from \prokoptō\, common
verb, to cut or strike forward, but this late substantive does
not occur in classical Greek. It is a technical term in Stoic
philosophy for "progress toward wisdom" and it appears also in
the papyri and the LXX. In N.T. only here, verse 25; 1Ti 4:15.

1:13 {Throughout the whole praetorian guard} (\en holōi tōi
. There were originally ten thousand of these picked
soldiers, concentrated in Rome by Tiberius. They had double pay
and special privileges and became so powerful that emperors had
to court their favour. Paul had contact with one after another of
these soldiers. It is a Latin word, but the meaning is not
certain, for in the other New Testament examples (Mt 27:27; Mr
15:16; Joh 18:28,33; 19:9; Ac 23:35)
it means the palace of the
provincial governor either in Jerusalem or Caesarea. In Rome
"palace" would have to be the emperor's palace, a possible
meaning for Paul a provincial writing to provincials (Kennedy).
Some take it to mean the camp or barracks of the praetorian
guard. The Greek, "in the whole praetorium," allows this meaning,
though there is no clear example of it. Mommsen and Ramsay argue
for the judicial authorities (_praefecti praetorio_) with the
assessors of the imperial court. At any rate Paul, chained to a
soldier, had access to the soldiers and the officials.

1:14 {The most of the brethren} (\tous pleionas tōn adelphōn\).
"The more part of the brethren." The comparative with the article
with the sense of the superlative as often in the _Koinē_. {In
the Lord}
(\en Kuriōi\). It is not clear whether this phrase is
to be connected with "brethren" or with "being confident"
(\pepoithotas\), probably with \pepoithotas\. If so, then
"through my bonds" (\tois desmois mou\) would be the instrumental
case and mean that by means of Paul's bonds the brethren "are
more abundantly bold" (\perissoterōs tolmāin\).

1:15 {Even of envy and strife} (\kai dia phthonon kai erin\).
"Even because of" (accusative after \dia\). Surely the lowest of
motives for preaching Christ. Envy is an old word and an old sin
and strife (\eris\) is more rivalry than schism. It is petty and
personal jealousy of Paul's power and prowess by the Judaizers in
Rome whom Paul has routed in the east, but who now exult at the
opportunity of annoying their great antagonist by their
interpretation of Christ. Jealousy is always against those of
one's own class or profession as preachers with preachers,
doctors with doctors. {Of goodwill} (\di' eudokian\). Because of
goodwill toward Paul.

1:16 {Of love} (\ex agapēs\). Out of love to Paul as well as to
Christ. Put 1Co 13 here as a flash-light.

1:17 {Of faction} (\ex eritheias\). Out of partisanship. From
\eritheuō\, to spin wool, and that from \erithos\, a hireling.
The papyri examples suit the idea of selfish ambition (Moulton
and Milligan's _Vocabulary_)
. See 2Co 12:20; Ga 5:20. {Not
(\ouch hagnōs\). "Not purely," that is with mixed and
impure motives. {To raise up affliction for my bonds} (\thlipsin
egeirein tois desmois mou\)
. Now that Paul is down they jump on
him in mean and nagging ways. Dative case in \desmois\. "To make
my chains gall me" (Lightfoot).

1:18 {What then?} (\ti gar?\). Sharp problem put up to Paul by
the conduct of the Judaizers. {Only that} (\plēn hoti\). Same
idiom in Ac 20:23. \Plēn\ is adverb \pleon\ (more besides). As
a preposition \plēn\ means "except." This essential thing Paul
sees in spite of all their envy and selfishness that Christ is
preached. {Whether in pretence} (\eite prophasei\). Either from
\prophainō\, to shew forth, or \prophēmi\, to speak forth, the
ostensible presentation often untrue. See Ac 27:30. Paul sees
clearly through the pious pretence of these Judaizers and
rejoices that people get some knowledge of Christ. Some Christ is
better than no Christ. {Yea, and will rejoice} (\alla kai
. Note affirmative, not adversative, use of \alla\.
Volitive use of the future (second future passive) indicative
(\charēsomai\) of \chairō\. Paul is determined to rejoice in
spite of the efforts of the Judaizers to prod him to anger.

1:19 {Will turn} (\apobēsetai\). Future middle indicative of
\apobainō\, old verb, to come from, to come back, to turn out.
{To my salvation} (\eis sōtērian\). For his release from prison
as he strongly hopes to see them again (1:26). Lightfoot takes
the word to be Paul's eternal salvation and it must be confessed
that verse 20 (the close of this sentence) does suit that idea
best. Can it be that Paul carried both conceptions in the word
here? {Supply} (\epichorēgias\). Late and rare word (one example
in inscription of first century A.D.)
. In N.T. only here and Eph
4:16. From the late verb \epichorēgeō\ (double compound, \epi,
choros, hēgeomai\, to furnish supply for the chorus)
which see in
2Co 9:10; Ga 3:5.

1:20 {Earnest expectation} (\apokaradokian\). In Paul alone from
\apokaradokeō\ (in papyri). See on ¯Ro 8:19 for only other
example. {Shall be magnified} (\megalunthēsetai\). Future passive
indicative of \megalunō\, old verb, to make great, from \megas\
(great). See Ac 19:17. {In my body} (\en tōi sōmati mou\). See
Ro 12:1f. It is harder often to make Christ great in the body
than in the spirit.

1:21 {For to me} (\emoi gar\). Fine example of the ethical
dative. Paul gives his own view of living. {To live is Christ}
(\to zēin Christos\). No copula (\estin\), but \to zēin\ (the act
of living present active infinitive)
is the subject as is shown
by the article \to\. Living is coextensive with Christ. {Gain}
(\kerdos\). Old word for any gain or profit, interest on money
(so in papyri). In N.T. only here, Php 3:7; Tit 1:11. {To die}
(\to apothanein\, second aorist active infinitive, single act) is
to cash in both principal and interest and so to have more of
Christ than when living. So Paul faces death with independence
and calm courage.

1:22 {If this is the fruit of my work} (\touto moi karpos
. There is no \ei\ (if) here in the Greek, but \touto\
(this) seems to be resumptive and to repeat the conditional
clause just before. If so, \kai\ just after means {then} and
introduces the conclusion of the condition. Otherwise \touto\
introduces the conclusion and \kai\ means {and}. {I wot not} (\ou
. "I know not." It seems odd to preserve the old English
word "wot" here. But it is not clear that \gnōrizō\ (old
causative verb from \ginōskō\)
means just to know. Elsewhere in
the N.T., as in Lu 2:15; Ro 9:22, it means to make known, to
declare. The papyri examples mean to make known. It makes
perfectly good sense to take its usual meaning here, "I do not
declare what I shall choose."

1:23 {I am in a strait} (\sunechomai\). "I am held together."
Present passive indicative of the common compound verb \sunechō\,
to hold together, to hem together as in Lu 8:45. "I am hemmed
in on both sides" (Lightfoot). {Betwixt the two} (\ek tōn duo\).
"From the two (sides)." Pressure to live on, pressure to die and
be with Christ. {To depart} (\eis to analusai\). Purpose clause,
\eis to\ and the aorist active infinitive \analusai\, old
compound verb, to unloose (as threads), to break up, to return
(Lu 12:36, only other N.T. example), to break up camp
(Polybius), to weigh anchor and put out to sea, to depart (often
in old Greek and papyri)
. Cf. \kataluō\ in 2Co 5:1 for tearing
down the tent. {Very far better} (\pollōi mallon kreisson\).
Double comparative (triple Lightfoot calls it because of
like Isocrates and the _Koinē_ often. See 2Co 7:13
for \perissoterōs mallon\. \Pollōi\ is the instrumental case of
measure (by much).

1:24 {In the flesh} (\en tēi sarki\). So B D G, but Aleph A C do
not have \en\. Unnecessary with \epimenō\, to abide by (common

1:25 {And abide with you all} (\kai paramenō pāsin humin\).
Common Pauline idiom to repeat the simple verb (\menō\) as a
compound (\paramenō\, future active indicative), old verb, to
remain beside followed by locative case. See same idiom in
\chairō, sunchairō\ (Php 2:17).

1:26 {In Christ Jesus in me} (\en Christōi Iēsou en emoi\). "In
Christ Jesus" as the basis for the glorying (\kauchēma\), "in me"
as the instance in point. {Through my presence} (\dia tēs emēs
. The word so often used of the second coming of
Christ, but here in its ordinary sense as in 2:12; 1Co 16:17.

1:27 {Let your manner of life} (\politeuesthe\). Old verb from
\politēs\, citizen, and that from \polis\, city, to be a citizen,
to manage a state's affairs, to live as a citizen. Only twice in
N.T., here and Ac 23:1. Philippi as a colony possessed Roman
citizenship and Paul was proud of his own possession of this
right. The Authorized Version missed the figure completely by the
word "conversation" which did refer to conduct and not mere talk
as now, but did not preserve the figure of citizenship. Better
render, "Only do ye live as citizens." {Striving}
(\sunathlountes\). Rather, "striving together" as in an athletic
contest. Late and rare word (Diodorus). "The very energy of the
Christian faith to produce energetic individualities" (Rainy).
"Striving in concert" (Lightfoot). {For the faith} (\tēi
. For the teaching of the gospel, objective sense of
\pistis\ (faith).

1:28 {Affrighted} (\pturomenoi\). Present passive participle of
\pturō\, old verb, to frighten. The metaphor is of a timid or
scared horse and from \ptoeō\ (\ptoa\, terror). "Not startled in
anything." {By the adversaries} (\hupo tōn antikeimenōn\). These
men who were lined up against (present middle participle of
may have been Jews or Gentiles or both. See 2Th
2:4 for this late verb. Any preacher who attacks evil will have
opposition. {Evident token} (\endeixis\). Old word for proof. See
2Co 8:24; Ro 3:25f. "An Attic law term" (Kennedy) and only in
Paul in N.T. {Perdition} (\apōleias\). "Loss" in contrast with
"salvation" (\sōtērias\). {And that} (\kai touto\). Idiomatic
adverbial accusative. "It is a direct indication from God. The
Christian gladiator does not anxiously await the signal of life
or death from the fickle crowd" (Lightfoot).

1:29 {In the behalf of Christ} (\to huper Christou\). Literally,
"the in behalf of Christ." But Paul divides the idea and uses the
article to again both with \pisteuein\ and with \paschein\.
Suffering in behalf of Christ is one of God's gifts to us.

1:30 {Conflict} (\agōna\). Athletic or gladiatorial contest as in
1Ti 6:12; 2Ti 4:7. The Philippians saw Paul suffer (Ac
16:19-40; 1Th 2:2)
as now they have heard about it in Rome.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Philippians: Chapter 1)