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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Matthew: Chapter 22)

22:1 {Again in parables} (\palin en parabolais\). Matthew has
already given two on this occasion (The Two Sons, The Wicked
. He alone gives this Parable of the Marriage Feast of
the King's Son. It is somewhat similar to that of The Supper in
Lu 14:16-23 given on another occasion. Hence some scholars
consider this merely Matthew's version of the Lucan parable in
the wrong place because of Matthew's habit of grouping the
sayings of Jesus. But that is a gratuitous indictment of
Matthew's report which definitely locates the parable here by
\palin\. Some regard it as not spoken by Jesus at all, but an
effort on the part of the writer to cover the sin and fate of the
Jews, the calling of the Gentiles, and God's demand for
righteousness. But here again it is like Jesus and suits the
present occasion.

22:2 {A marriage feast} (\gamous\). The plural, as here
(2,3,4,9), is very common in the papyri for the wedding
festivities (the several acts of feasting) which lasted for days,
seven in Jud 14:17. The very phrase here, \gamous poiein\,
occurs in the Doric of Thera about B.C. 200. The singular \gamos\
is common in the papyri for the wedding contract, but Field
(_Notes_, p. 16) sees no difference between the singular here in
22:8 and the plural (see also Ge 29:22; Es 9:22; Macc.

22:3 {To call them that were bidden} (\kalesai tous
. "Perhaps an unconscious play on the words, lost in
both A.V. and Rev., {to call the called}" (Vincent). It was a
Jewish custom to invite a second time the already invited (Es
5:8; 6:14)
. The prophets of old had given God's invitation to
the Jewish people. Now the Baptist and Jesus had given the second
invitation that the feast was ready. {And they would not come}
(\kai ouk ēthelon elthein\). This negative imperfect
characterizes the stubborn refusal of the Jewish leaders to
accept Jesus as God's Son (Joh 1:11). This is "The Hebrew
Tragedy" (Conder).

22:4 {My dinner} (\to ariston mou\). It is breakfast, not dinner.
In Lu 14:12 both \ariston\ (breakfast) and \deipnon\ (dinner)
are used. This noon or midday meal, like the French breakfast at
noon, was sometimes called \deipnon mesēmbrinon\ (midday dinner
or luncheon)
. The regular dinner (\deipnon\) came in the evening.
The confusion arose from applying \ariston\ to the early morning
meal and then to the noon meal (some not eating an earlier meal).
In Joh 21:12,15 \aristaō\ is used of the early morning meal,
"Break your fast" (\aristēsate\). When \ariston\ was applied to
luncheon, like the Latin _prandium_, \akratisma\ was the term for
the early breakfast. {My fatlings} (\ta sitista\). Verbal from
\sitizō\, to feed with wheat or other grain, to fatten. Fed-up or
fatted animals.

22:5 {Made light of it} (\amelēsantes\). Literally, neglecting,
not caring for. They may even have ridiculed the invitation, but
the verb does not say so. However, to neglect an invitation to a
wedding feast is a gross discourtesy. {One to his own farm} (\hos
men eis ton idion agron\)
or field, {another to his merchandise}
(\hos de epi tēn emporian autou\) only example in the N.T., from
\emporos\, merchant, one who travels for traffic (\emporeuomai\),
a drummer.

22:7 {Armies} (\strateumata\). Bands of soldiers, not grand

22:9 {The partings of the highways} (\tas diexodous tōn hodōn\).
Vulgate, _exitus viarum_. \Diodoi\ are cross-streets, while
\diexodoi\ (double compound) seem to be main streets leading out
of the city where also side-streets may branch off, "by-ways."

22:10 {The wedding} (\ho gamos\). But Westcott and Hort rightly
read here \ho numphōn\, marriage dining hall. The same word in
9:15 means the bridechamber.

22:12 {Not having a wedding-garment} (\mē echōn enduma gamou\).
\Mē\ is in the _Koinē_ the usual negative with participles unless
special emphasis on the negative is desired as in \ouk
endedumenon\. There is a subtle distinction between \mē\ and \ou\
like our subjective and objective notions. Some hold that the
wedding-garment here is a portion of a lost parable separate from
that of the Wedding Feast, but there is no evidence for that
idea. Wunsche does report a parable by a rabbi of a king who set
no time for his feast and the guests arrived, some properly
dressed waiting at the door; others in their working clothes did
not wait, but went off to work and, when the summons suddenly
came, they had no time to dress properly and were made to stand
and watch while the others partook of the feast.

22:13 {Was speechless} (\epsimōthē\). Was muzzled, dumb from
confusion and embarrassment. It is used of the ox (1Ti 5:18).
{The outer darkness} (\to skotos to exōteron\). See Mt 8:12.
All the blacker from the standpoint of the brilliantly lighted
banquet hall. {There shall be} (\ekei estai\). Out there in the
outer darkness.

22:14 {For many are called, but few chosen} (\polloi gar eisin
klētoi oligoi de eklektoi\)
. This crisp saying of Christ occurs
in various connections. He evidently repeated many of his sayings
many times as every teacher does. There is a distinction between
the called (\klētoi\) and the chosen (\eklektoi\) called out from
the called.

22:15 {Went} (\poreuthentes\). So-called deponent passive and
redundant use of the verb as in 9:13: "Go and learn." {Took
(\sumboulion elabon\). Like the Latin _consilium capere_
as in 12:14. {Ensnare in his talk} (\pagideusōsin en logōi\).
From \pagis\, a snare or trap. Here only in the N.T. In the LXX
(1Ki 28:9; Ec 9:12; Test. of Twelve Patriarchs, _Joseph_ 7:1).
Vivid picture of the effort to trip Jesus in his speech like a
bird or wild beast.

22:16 {Their disciples} (\tous mathētas autōn\). Students,
pupils, of the Pharisees as in Mr 2:18. There were two
Pharisaic theological seminaries in Jerusalem (Hillel, Shammai).
{The Herodians} (\tōn Herōidianōn\). Not members of Herod's
family or Herod's soldiers, but partisans or followers of Herod.
The form in \-ianos\ is a Latin termination like that in
\Christianos\ (Ac 11:26). Mentioned also in Mr 3:6 combining
with the Pharisees against Jesus. {The person of men} (\prosōpon
. Literally, face of men. Paying regard to appearance
is the sin of partiality condemned by James (Jas 2:1,9) when
\prosōpolēmpsia, prosōpolēmptein\ are used, in imitation of the
Hebrew idiom. This suave flattery to Jesus implied "that Jesus
was a reckless simpleton" (Bruce).

22:19 {Tribute money} (\to nomisma tou kēnsou\). \Kēnsos\, Latin
_census_, was a capitation tax or head-money, _tributum capitis_,
for which silver denaria were struck, with the figure of Caesar
and a superscription, e.g. "Tiberiou Kaisaros" (McNeile).
\Nomisma\ is the Latin _numisma_ and occurs here only in the
N.T., is common in the old Greek, from \nomizō\ sanctioned by law
or custom.

22:20 {This image and superscription} (\hē eikōn hautē kai hē
. Probably a Roman coin because of the image (picture)
on it. The earlier Herods avoided this practice because of Jewish
prejudice, but the Tetrarch Philip introduced it on Jewish coins
and he was followed by Herod Agrippa I. This coin was pretty
certainly stamped in Rome with the image and name of Tiberius
Caesar on it.

22:21 {Render} (\apodote\). "Give back" to Caesar what is already

22:24 {Shall marry} (\epigambreusei\). The Sadducees were "aiming
at amusement rather than deadly mischief" (Bruce). It was
probably an old conundrum that they had used to the discomfiture
of the Pharisees. This passage is quoted from De 25:5,6. The
word appears here only in the N.T. and elsewhere only in the LXX.
It is used of any connected by marriage as in Ge 34:9; 1Sa
18:22. But in Ge 38:8 and De 25:5 it is used specifically of
one marrying his brother's widow.

22:33 {They were astonished} (\exeplēssonto\). Descriptive
imperfect passive showing the continued amazement of the crowds.
They were struck out (literally).

22:34 {He had put the Sadducees to silence} (\ephimōsen tous
. Muzzled the Sadducees. The Pharisees could not
restrain their glee though they were joining with the Sadducees
in trying to entrap Jesus. {Gathered themselves together}
(\sunēchthēsan epi to auto\). First aorist passive, were gathered
together. \Epi to auto\ explains more fully \sun-\. See also Ac
2:47. "Mustered their forces" (Moffatt).

22:36 {The great commandment in the law} (\entolē megalē en tōi
. The positive adjective is sometimes as high in rank as
the superlative. See \megas\ in Mt 5:19 in contrast with
\elachistos\. The superlative \megistos\ occurs in the N.T. only
in 2Pe 1:4. Possibly this scribe wishes to know which
commandment stood first (Mr 12:28) with Jesus. "The scribes
declared that there were 248 affirmative precepts, as many as the
members of the human body; and 365 negative precepts, as many as
the days in the year, the total being 613, the number of letters
in the Decalogue" (Vincent). But Jesus cuts through such
pettifogging hair-splitting to the heart of the problem.

22:42 {The Christ} (\tou Christou\). The Messiah, of course, not
Christ as a proper name of Jesus. Jesus here assumes that Ps
110 refers to the Messiah. By his pungent question about the
Messiah as David's son and Lord he really touches the problem of
his Person (his Deity and his Humanity). Probably the Pharisees
had never faced that problem before. They were unable to answer.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Matthew: Chapter 22)