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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Luke: Chapter 9)

9:1 {He called the twelve together} (\sunkalesamenos tous
. Mr 6:7; Mt 10:1 have \proskaleōmai\, to call to him.
Both the indirect middle voice.

9:2 {He sent them forth} (\apesteilen autous\). First aorist
active indicative of \apostellō\. {To preach the kingdom of God
and to heal the sick}
(\kērussein tēn basileian tou theou kai
. Present indicative for the continuous functions during
this campaign. This double office of herald (\kērussein\) and
healer (\iāsthai\) is stated directly in Mt 10:7-8. Note the
verb \iaomai\ for healing here, though \therapeuein\ in verse
1, apparently used interchangeably.

9:3 {Neither staff} (\mēte rabdon\). For the apparent
contradiction between these words (Mt 10:10) and Mr 6:8 see
discussion there. For \pēran\ (wallet) see also on ¯Mr 6:8 (Mt
for this and other details here.

9:5 {As many as receive you not} (\hosoi an mē dechōntai humas\).
Indefinite relative plural with \an\ and present middle
subjunctive and the negative \mē\. Here Mt 10:14 has the
singular (whosoever) and Mr 6:11 has "whatsoever place." {For a
testimony against them}
(\eis marturion ep' autous\). Note use of
\ep' autous\ where Mr 6:11 has simply the dative \autois\
(disadvantage), really the same idea.

9:6 {Went} (\diērchonto\). Imperfect middle, continuous and
repeated action made plainer also by three present participles
(\exerchomenoi, euaggelizomenoi, therapeuontes\), describing the
wide extent of the work through all the villages (\kata tas
kōmas\, distributive use of \kata\)
everywhere (\pantachou\) in

9:7 {All that was done} (\ta ginomena panta\). Present middle
participle, "all that was coming to pass." {He was much
(\diēporei\). Imperfect active of \diaporeō\, to be
thoroughly at a loss, unable to find a way out (\dia, a\
privative, \poros\, way)
, common ancient verb, but only in Luke's
writings in the N.T. {Because it was said} (\dia to legesthai\).
Neat Greek idiom, the articular passive infinitive after \dia\.
Three reports came to the ears of Herod as Luke has it, each
introduced by \hoti\ (that) in indirect discourse: "By some"
(\hupo tinōn\), "by some" (\hupo tinōn de\), "by others" (\allōn
de, hupo\ not here expressed, but carried over)
. The verbs in the
indirect discourse here (verses 7,8) are all three aorists
(\ēgerthē\ first passive; \ephanē\ second passive; \anestē\
second active)
, not past perfects as the English has them.

9:9 {He sought} (\ezētei\). Imperfect active. He keep on seeking
to see Jesus. The rumours disturbed Herod because he was sure
that he had put him to death ("John I beheaded").

9:10 {Declared} (\diēgēsanto\). First aorist middle of
\diēgeomai\, to carry a narrative through to the end. Jesus
listened to it all. {They had done} (\epoiēsan\). Aorist active
indicative, they did. {He took them} (\paralabōn autous\). Second
aorist active participle of \paralambanō\. Very common verb.
{Bethsaida} (\Bēthsaida\). Peculiar to Luke. Bethsaida Julias is
the territory of Philip, for it is on the other side of the Sea
of Galilee (Joh 6:1).

9:11 {Spake} (\elalei\). Imperfect active, he continued speaking.
{He healed} (\iāto\). Imperfect middle, he continued healing.

9:12 {To wear away} (\klinein\). Old verb usually transitive, to
bend or bow down. Many compounds as in English decline, incline,
recline, clinic (\klinē\, bed), etc. Luke alone in the N.T. uses
it intransitively as here. The sun was turning down towards
setting. {Lodge} (\katalusōsin\). First aorist active subjunctive
of \kataluō\, a common verb, to dissolve, destroy, overthrow, and
then of travellers to break a journey, to lodge (\kataluma\, inn,
Lu 2:7)
. Only here and 19:7 in the N.T. in this sense. {Get
(\heurōsin episitismon\). Ingressive aorist active of
\heuriskō\, very common verb. {Victuals} (\episitismon\, from
\episitizomai\, to provision oneself, \sitizō\, from \siton\,
only here in the N.T., though common in ancient Greek,
especially for provisions for a journey (snack). See on ¯Mr
6:32-44; Mt 14:13-21 for discussion of details.

9:13 {Except we should go and buy food} (\ei mēti poreuthentes
hēmeis agorasōmen brōmata\)
. This is a condition of the third
class with the aorist subjunctive (\agorasōmen\), where the
conjunction is usually \ean\ (with negative \ean mē\), but not
always or necessarily so especially in the _Koinē_. So in 1Co
14:5 \ei mē diermēneuēi\ and in Php 3:12 \ei kai katalabō\.
"Unless" is better here than "except." {Food} (\brōmata\), means
eaten pieces from \bibrōskō\, to eat, somewhat like our "edibles"
or vernacular "eats."

9:14 {About} (\hōsei\). Luke as Mt 14:21 adds this word to the
definite statement of Mr 6:44 that there were 5,000 men, a
hundred companies of fifty each. {Sit down} (\kataklinate\).
First aorist active imperative. Recline, lie down. Only in Luke
in the N.T. See also verse 15. {In companies} (\klisias\).
Cognate accusative after {kataklinate}. Only here in the N.T. A
row of persons reclining at meals (table company). {About fifty
(\hōsei ana pentēkonta\). Distributive use of \ana\ and
approximate number again (\hōsei\).

9:16 {The five ... the two} (\tous pente ... tous duo\). Pointing
back to verse 13, fine example of the Greek article. {And gave}
(\kai edidou\). Imperfect active of \didōmi\, kept on giving.
This picturesque imperfect is preceded by the aorist \kateklasen\
(brake), a single act. This latter verb in the N.T. only here and
the parallel in Mr 6:41, though common enough in ancient Greek.
We say "break off" where here the Greek has "break down" (or
, perfective use of \kata\.

9:17 {Twelve baskets} (\kophinoi dōdeka\). For discussion of
\kophonoi\ and \sphurides\ as well as of \klasmata\ (broken
see on ¯Mr 6:43; Mt 14:20.

9:18 {As he was praying} (\en tōi einai auton proseuchomenon\).
Common Lukan idiom of \en\ with the articular infinitive for a
temporal clause, only here Luke has the periphrastic infinitive
(\einai proseuchomenon\) as also in 11:1. This item about
Christ's praying alone in Luke. {Alone} (\kata monas\). In the
N.T. only here and Mr 4:10. Perhaps \chōras\ (places) is to be
supplied with \monas\ (lonely places). {Were with him} (\sunēsan
. This seems like a contradiction unless "alone" is to be
taken with \sunēsan\. Westcott and Hort put \sunēntēsan\ in the
margin. This would mean that as Jesus was praying alone, the
disciples fell in with him. At any rate he was praying apart from

9:19 {That I am} (\me einai\). Accusative and infinitive in
indirect assertion, a common Greek idiom. Mt 16:13 for "I" has
"the Son of man" as identical in the consciousness of Christ. The
various opinions of men about Jesus here run parallel to the
rumours heard by Herod (verses 8,9).

9:20 {But who say ye?} (\Humeis de tina legete;\). Note the
emphatic proleptical position of \humeis\: "But _ye_ who do ye
say? This is really what mattered now with Jesus. {The Christ of
(\Ton christon tou theou\). The accusative though the
infinitive is not expressed. The Anointed of God, the Messiah of
God. See on ¯2:26 for "the Anointed of the Lord." See on ¯Mt
16:17 for discussion of Peter's testimony in full. Mr 6:29 has
simply "the Christ." It is clear from the previous narrative that
this is not a new discovery from Simon Peter, but simply the
settled conviction of the disciples after all the defections of
the Galilean masses and the hostility of the Jerusalem
ecclesiastics. The disciples still believed in Jesus as the
Messiah of Jewish hope and prophecy. It will become plain that
they do not grasp the spiritual conception of the Messiah and his
kingdom that Jesus taught, but they are clear that he is the
Messiah however faulty their view of the Messiah may be. There
was comfort in this for Jesus. They were loyal to him.

9:21 {To tell this to no man} (\mēdeni legein touto\). Indirect
command with the negative infinitive after {commanded}
(\parēggeilen\). It had been necessary for Jesus to cease using
the word {Messiah} (\Christos\) about himself because of the
political meaning to the Jews. Its use by the disciples would
lead to revolution as was plain after the feeding of the five
thousand (Joh 6:15).

9:22 {Rejected} (\apodokimasthēnai\). First aorist passive
infinitive of \apodokimazō\, to reject after trial. {The third
(\tēi tritēi hēmerāi\). Locative case of time as in Mt
16:21. Here in the parallel passage Mr 8:31 has "after three
days" (\meta treis hēmeras\) in precisely the same sense. That is
to say, "after three days" is just a free way of saying "on the
third day" and cannot mean "on the fourth day" if taken too
literally. For discussion of this plain prediction of the death
of Christ with various details see discussion on Mt 16:21; Mr
8:31. It was a melancholy outlook that depressed the disciples
as Mark and Matthew show in the protest of Peter and his rebuke.

9:23 {He said unto all} (\elegen de pros pantas\). This is like
Luke (cf. verse 43). Jesus wanted all (the multitude with his
disciples, as Mr 8:34 has it)
to understand the lesson of
self-sacrifice. They could not yet understand the full meaning of
Christ's words as applied to his approaching death of which he
had been speaking. But certainly the shadow of the cross is
already across the path of Jesus as he is here speaking. For
details (soul, life, forfeit, gain, profit, lose, world) see
discussion on ¯Mt 16:24-26; Mr 8:34-37. The word for lose
(\apolesei\, from \apollumi\, a very common verb) is used in the
sense of destroy, kill, lose, as here. Note the mercantile terms
in this passage (gain, lose, fine or forfeit, exchange). {Daily}
(\kath' hēmeran\). Peculiar to Luke in this incident. Take up the
cross (his own cross) daily (aorist tense, \āratō\), but keep on
following me (\akoloutheitō\, present tense). The cross was a
familiar figure in Palestine. It was rising before Jesus as his
destiny. Each man has his own cross to meet and bear.

9:26 {Whosoever shall be ashamed} (\hos an epaischunthēi\).
Rather, {Whosoever is ashamed} as in Mr 8:38. The first aorist
passive subjunctive in an indefinite relative clause with \an\.
The passive verb is transitive here also. This verb is from \epi\
and \aischunē\, shame (in the eyes of men). Jesus endured the
shame of the cross (Heb 12:2). The man at the feast who had to
take a lower seat did it with shame (Lu 14:9). Paul is not
ashamed of the Gospel (Ro 1:16). Onesiphorus was not ashamed of
Paul (2Ti 1:16). {In his own glory} (\en tēi doxēi autou\).
This item added to what is in Mr 8:38; Mt 16:27.

9:27 {Till they see} (\heōs an idōsin\). Second aorist active
subjunctive with \heōs\ and \an\ referring to the future, an
idiomatic construction. So in Mr 9:1; Mt 16:28. In all three
passages "shall not taste of death" (\ou mē geusōntai thanatou\,
double negative with aorist middle subjunctive)
occurs also.
Rabbinical writings use this figure. Like a physician Christ
tasted death that we may see how to die. Jesus referred to the
cross as "this cup" (Mr 14:36; Mt 26:39; Lu 22:42). Mark speaks
of the kingdom of God as "come" (\elēluthuian\, second perfect
active participle)
. Matthew as "coming" (\erchomenon\) referring
to the Son of man, while Luke has neither form. See Matthew and
Mark for discussion of the theories of interpretation of this
difficult passage. The Transfiguration follows in a week and may
be the first fulfilment in the mind of Jesus. It may also
symbolically point to the second coming.

9:28 {About eight days} (\hōsei hēmerai oktō\). A _nominativus
pendens_ without connexion or construction. Mr 9:2 (Mt 17:1)
has "after six days" which agrees with the general statement.
{Into the mountain} (\eis to oros\). Probably Mount Hermon
because we know that Jesus was near Caesarea Philippi when Peter
made the confession (Mr 8:27; Mt 16:13). Hermon is still the
glory of Palestine from whose heights one can view the whole of
the land. It was a fit place for the Transfiguration. {To pray}
(\proseuxasthai\). Peculiar to Luke who so often mentions
Christ's habit of prayer (cf. 3:21). See also verse 29 "as he
was praying" (\en tōi proseuchesthai\, one of Luke's favourite
. {His countenance was altered} (\egeneto to eidos tou
prosōpou autou heteron\)
. Literally, "the appearance of his face
became different." Mt 17:2 says that "his face did shine as the
sun." Luke does not use the word "transfigured" (\metemorphōthē\)
in Mr 9:2; Mt 17:2. He may have avoided this word because of
the pagan associations with this word as Ovid's \Metamorphoses\.
{And his raiment became white and dazzling} (\kai ho himatismos
autou leukos exastraptōn\)
. Literally, {And his raiment white
. There is no _and_ between "white" and "dazzling." The
participle \exastraptōn\ is from the compound verb meaning to
flash (\astraptō\) out or forth (\ex\). The simple verb is common
for lightning flashes and bolts, but the compound in the LXX and
here alone in the N.T. See Mr 9:3 "exceeding white" and Mt
17:2 "white as the light."

9:31 {There talked with him} (\sunelaloun autōi\). Imperfect
active, were talking with him. {Who appeared in glory} (\hoi
ophthentes en doxēi\)
. First aorist passive participle of
\horaō\. This item peculiar to Luke. Compare verse 26. {Spake
of his decease}
(\elegon tēn exodon\). Imperfect active, were
talking about his \exodus\ (departure from earth to heaven) very
much like our English word "decease" (Latin _decessus_, a going
. The glorious light graphically revealed Moses and Elijah
talking with Jesus about the very subject concerning which Peter
had dared to rebuke Jesus for mentioning (Mr 8:32; Mt 16:22).
This very word \exodus\ (way out) in the sense of death occurs in
2Pe 1:15 and is followed by a brief description of the
Transfiguration glory. Other words for death (\thanatos\) in the
N.T. are \ekbasis\, going out as departure (Heb 13:7),
\aphixis\, departing (Ac 20:29), \analusis\, loosening anchor
(2Ti 4:6) and \analusai\ (Php 1:23). {To accomplish}
(\plēroun\). To fulfil. Moses had led the Exodus from Egypt.
Jesus will accomplish the exodus of God's people into the
Promised Land on high. See on Mark and Matthew for discussion of
significance of the appearance of Moses and Elijah as
representatives of law and prophecy and with a peculiar death.
The purpose of the Transfiguration was to strengthen the heart of
Jesus as he was praying long about his approaching death and to
give these chosen three disciples a glimpse of his glory for the
hour of darkness coming. No one on earth understood the heart of
Jesus and so Moses and Elijah came. The poor disciples utterly
failed to grasp the significance of it all.

9:32 {Were heavy with sleep} (\ēsan bebarēmenoi hupnōi\).
Periphrastic past perfect of \bareō\, a late form for the ancient
\barunō\ (not in N.T. save Textus Receptus in Lu 21:34). This
form, rare and only in passive (present, aorist, perfect) in the
N.T., is like \barunō\, from \barus\, and that from \baros\,
weight, burden (Ga 6:2). \Hupnōi\ is in the instrumental case.
They had apparently climbed the mountain in the early part of the
night and were now overcome with sleep as Jesus prolonged his
prayer. Luke alone tells of their sleep. The same word is used of
the eyes of these three disciples in the Garden of Gethsemane
(Mt 26:43) and of the hearts of many (Lu 21:34). {But when
they were fully awake}
(\diagrēgorēsantes de\). First aorist
active participle of this late (Herodian) and rare compound verb
(here alone in the N.T.), \diagrēgoreō\ (Luke is fond of
compounds with \dia\)
. The simple verb \grēgoreō\ (from the
second perfect active \egrēgora\)
is also late, but common in the
LXX and the N.T. The effect of \dia\ can be either to remain
awake in spite of desire to sleep (margin of Revised Version) or
to become thoroughly awake (ingressive aorist tense also) as
Revised Version has it. This is most likely correct. The Syriac
Sinaitic has it "When they awoke." Certainly they had been
through a strain. {His glory} (\tēn doxan autou\). See also verse
26 in the words of Jesus.

9:33 {As they were departing from him} (\en tōi diachōrizesthai
autous ap' autou\)
. Peculiar to Luke and another instance of
Luke's common idiom of \en\ with the articular infinitive in a
temporal clause. This common verb occurs here only in the N.T.
The present middle voice means to separate oneself fully (direct
. This departing of Moses and Elijah apparently
accompanied Peter's remark as given in all three Gospels. See for
details on Mark and Matthew. {Master} (\Epistata\) here, {Rabbi}
(Mr 9:5), {Lord} (\Kurie\, Mt 17:4). {Let us make}
(\poiēsōmen\, first aorist active subjunctive) as in Mr 9:5,
but Mt 17:4 has "I will make" (\poiēsō\). It was near the time
of the feast of the tabernacles. So Peter proposes that they
celebrate it up here instead of going to Jerusalem for it as they
did a bit later (Joh 7). {Not knowing what he said} (\mē eidōs
ho legei\)
. Literally, {not understanding what he was saying}
(\mē\, regular negative with participle and \legei\, present
indicative retained in relative clause in indirect discourse)
Luke puts it more bluntly than Mark (Peter's account), "For he
wist not what to answer; for they became sore afraid" (Mr 9:6).
Peter acted according to his impulsive nature and spoke up even
though he did not know what to say or even what he was saying
when he spoke. He was only half awake as Luke explains and he was
sore afraid as Mark (Peter) explains. He had bewilderment enough
beyond a doubt, but it was Peter who spoke, not James and John.

9:34 {Overshadowed them} (\epeskiazen autous\). Imperfect active
(aorist in Mt 17:5) as present participle in Mr 9:7,
inchoative, the shadow began to come upon them. On Hermon as on
many high mountains a cloud will swiftly cover the cap. I have
seen this very thing at Blue Ridge, North Carolina. This same
verb is used of the Holy Spirit upon Mary (Lu 1:35). Nowhere
else in the N.T., though an old verb (\epi, skiazō\, from \skia\,
. {As they entered into the cloud} (\en tōi eiselthein
autous eis tēn nephelēn\)
. Luke's idiom of \en\ with the
articular infinitive again (aorist active this time, on the
entering in as to them)
. All six "entered into" the cloud, but
only Peter, James, and John "became afraid" (\ephobēthēsan\,
ingressive first aorist passive)

9:35 If \ekeinous\ be accepted here instead of \autous\, the
three disciples would be outside of the cloud. {Out of the cloud}
(\ek tēs nephelēs\). This voice was the voice of the Father like
that at the baptism of Jesus (Lu 3:22; Mr 1:11; Mt 3:17) and
like that near the end (Joh 12:28-30) when the people thought
it was a clap of thunder or an angel. {My son, my chosen} (\Ho
huios mou, ho eklelegmenos\)
. So the best documents (Aleph B L
Syriac Sinaitic)
. The others make it "My Beloved" as in Mr 9:7;
Mt 17:5. These disciples are commanded to hear Jesus, God's Son,
even when he predicts his death, a pointed rebuke to Simon Peter
as to all.

9:36 {When the voice came} (\en toi genesthai tēn phōnēn\).
Another example of Luke's idiom, this time with the second aorist
middle infinitive. Literally, "on the coming as to the voice"
(accusative of general reference). It does not mean that it was
"after" the voice was past that Jesus was found alone, but
simultaneously with it (ingressive aorist tense). {Alone}
(\monos\). Same adjective in Mr 9:8; Mt 17:8 translated "only."
Should be rendered "alone" there also. {They held their peace}
(\esigēsan\). Ingressive aorist active of common verb \sigaō\,
became silent. In Mr 9:9; Mt 17:9, Jesus commanded them not to
tell till His Resurrection from the dead. Luke notes that they in
awe obeyed that command and it turns out that they finally forgot
the lesson of this night's great experience. By and by they will
be able to tell them, but not "in those days." {Which they had
(\hōn heōrakan\). Attraction of the relative \ha\ into the
case of the unexpressed antecedent \toutōn\. Perfect active
indicative \heōrakan\ with _Koinē_ (papyri) form for the ancient
\heōrakāsin\ changed by analogy to the first aorist ending in
\-an\ instead of \-asin\.

9:37 {On the next day} (\tēi hexēs hēmerāi\). Alone in Luke. It
shows that the Transfiguration took place on the preceding night.
{They were come down} (\katelthontōn autōn\). Genitive absolute
of second aorist active participle of \katerchomai\, a common
enough verb, but in the N.T. only in Luke's writings save Jas
3:15. {Met him} (\sunēntēsen autōi\). First aorist active of
\sunantaō\, common compound verb, to meet with, only in Luke's
writings in the N.T. save Heb 7:1. With associative
instrumental case \autōi\.

9:38 {Master} (\Didaskale\). Teacher as in Mr 9:17. {Lord}
(\kurie\, Mt 17:15). {To look upon} (\epiblepsai\). Aorist
active infinitive of \epiblepō\ (\epi\, upon, \blepō\, look),
common verb, but in the N.T. only here and Jas 2:3 except Lu
1:48 in quotation from LXX. This compound verb is common in
medical writers for examining carefully the patient. {Mine only
(\monogenēs moi\). Only in Luke as already about an only
child in 7:12; 8:42.

9:39 {Suddenly} (\exephnēs\). Old adverb, but in the N.T. only in
Luke's writings save Mr 13:36. Used by medical writers of
sudden attacks of disease like epilepsy. {It teareth him that he
(\sparassei auton meta aphrou\). Literally, "It tears
him with (accompanied with, \meta\) foam" (old word, \aphros\,
only here in the N.T.)
. From \sparassō\, to convulse, a common
verb, but in the N.T. only here and Mr 1:26; 9:26 (and
\sunsparassō\, Mr 9:20)
. See Mr 9:17; Mt 17:15; Lu 9:39 for
variations in the symptoms in each Gospel. The use of \meta
aphrou\ is a medical item. {Hardly} (\molis\). Late word used in
place of \mogis\, the old Greek term (in some MSS. here) and
alone in Luke's writings in the N.T. save 1Pe 4:18; Ro 5:7.
{Bruising him sorely} (\suntribon auton\). Common verb for
rubbing together, crushing together like chains (Mr 5:4) or as
a vase (Mr 14:3). See on Matthew and Mark for discussion of
details here.

9:41 {How long shall I be with you and bear with you?} (\heōs
pote esomai pros humās kai anexomai humōn;\)
. Here the two
questions of Mr 9:19 (only one in Mt 17:17) are combined in
one sentence. {Bear with} (\anexomai\, direct middle future) is,
hold myself from you (ablative case \humōn\). {Faithless}
(\apistos\) is disbelieving and perverse (\diestrammenē\, perfect
passive participle of \diastrephō\)
, is twisted, turned, or torn
in two.

9:42 {As he was yet a coming} (\eti proserchomenou autou\).
Genitive absolute. While he was yet coming (the boy, that is, not
. Note quaint English "a coming" retained in the Revised
Version. {Dashed him} (\errēxen auton\). First aorist active
indicative of \rēgnumi\ or \rēssō\, to rend or convulse, a common
verb, used sometimes of boxers giving knockout blows. {Tare
(\sunesparaxen\). Rare word as only here and Mr
9:20 in the N.T., which see. {Gave him back to his father}
(\apedōken auton tōi patri autou\). Tender touch alone in Luke as
in 7:15. {They were all astonished} (\exeplēssonto de pantes\).
Imperfect passive of the common verb \ekplēssō\ or \ekplēgnumi\,
to strike out, a picturesque description of the amazement of all
at the easy victory of Jesus where the nine disciples had failed.
{At the majesty of God} (\epi tēi megaleiotēti tou theou\). A
late word from the adjective \megaleios\ and that from \megas\
(great). In the N.T. only here and Ac 19:27 of Artemis and in
2Pe 1:16 of the Transfiguration. It came to be used by the
emperors like our word "Majesty." {Which he did} (\hois epoiei\).
This is one of the numerous poor verse divisions. This sentence
has nothing to do with the first part of the verse. The imperfect
active \epoiei\ covers a good deal not told by Luke (see Mr
9:30; Mt 17:22)
. Note the attraction of the relative {hois} into
the case of {pāsin}, its antecedent.

9:44 {Sink into your ears} (\Thesthe humeis eis ta ōta humōn\).
Second aorist imperative middle of \tithēmi\, common verb. "Do
you (note emphatic position) yourselves (whatever others do) put
into your ears." No word like "sink" here. The same prediction
here as in Mr 9:31; Mt 17:22 about the Son of man only without
mention of death and resurrection as there, which see for

9:45 {It was concealed from them} (\ēn parakekalummenon ap'
. Periphrastic past perfect of \parakaluptō\, a common
verb, but only here in the N.T., to cover up, to hide from. This
item only in Luke. {That they should not perceive it} (\hina mē
aisthōntai auto\)
. Second aorist middle subjunctive of the common
verb \aisthanomai\ used with \hina mē\, negative purpose. This
explanation at least relieves the disciples to some extent of
full responsibility for their ignorance about the death of Jesus
as Mr 9:32 observes, as does Luke here that they were afraid to
ask him. Plummer says, "They were not allowed to understand the
saying then, in order that they might remember it afterwards, and
see that Jesus had met His sufferings with full knowledge and
free will." Perhaps also, if they had fully understood, they
might have lacked courage to hold on to the end. But it is a hard

9:46 {A reasoning} (\dialogismos\). A dispute. The word is from
\dialogizomai\, the verb used in Mr 9:33 about this incident.
In Luke this dispute follows immediately after the words of Jesus
about his death. They were afraid to ask Jesus about that
subject, but Mt 18:1 states that they came to Jesus to settle
it. {Which of them should be greatest} (\to tis an eiē meizōn
. Note the article with the indirect question, the clause
being in the accusative of general reference. The optative with
\an\ is here because it was so in the direct question (potential
optative with \an\ retained in the indirect)
. But Luke makes it
plain that it was not an abstract problem about greatness in the
kingdom of heaven as they put it to Jesus (Mt 18:1), but a
personal problem in their own group. Rivalries and jealousies had
already come and now sharp words. By and by James and John will
be bold enough to ask for the first places for themselves in this
political kingdom which they expect (Mr 10:35; Mt 20:20). It is
a sad spectacle.

9:47 {Took a little child} (\epilabomenos paidion\). Second
aorist middle participle of the common verb \epilambanō\.
Strictly, Taking a little child to himself (indirect middle). Mr
9:36 has merely the active \labōn\ of the simple verb \lambanō\.
Set him by his side (\estēsen auto par' heautōi\). "In his arms"
Mr 9:36 has it, "in the midst of them" Mt 18:3 says. All
three attitudes following one another (the disciples probably in
a circle around Jesus anyhow)
and now the little child (Peter's
was slipped down by the side of Jesus as he gave the
disciples an object lesson in humility which they sorely needed.

9:48 {This little child} (\touto to paidion\). As Jesus spoke he
probably had his hand upon the head of the child. Mt 18:5 has
"one such little child." The honoured disciple, Jesus holds, is
the one who welcomes little children "in my name" (\epi tōi
onomati mou\)
, upon the basis of my name and my authority. It was
a home-thrust against the selfish ambition of the Twelve.
Ministry to children is a mark of greatness. Have preachers ever
yet learned how to win children to Christ? They are allowed to
slip away from home, from Sunday school, from church, from
Christ. {For he that is least among you all} (\ho gar mikroteros
en pasin humin huparchōn\)
. Note the use of \huparchō\ as in
8:41; 23:50. The comparative \mikroteros\ is in accord with the
_Koinē_ idiom where the superlative is vanishing (nearly gone in
modern Greek)
. But {great} (\megas\) is positive and very strong.
This saying peculiar to Luke here.

9:49 {And John answered} (\apokritheis de Iōanēs\). As if John
wanted to change the subject after the embarrassment of the
rebuke for their dispute concerning greatness (Lu 9:46-48).
{Master} (\epistata\). Only in Luke in the N.T. as already four
times (5:5; 8:24,45; 9:33). {We forbade him} (\ekōluomen
. Conative imperfect as in Mr 9:38, We tried to hinder
him. {Because he followeth not with us} (\hoti ouk akolouthei
meth hēmōn\)
. Present tense preserved for vividness where Mark
has imperfect {ēkolouthei}. Note also here "with us" (\meth'
where Mark has associative instrumental \hēmin\. It is a
pitiful specimen of partisan narrowness and pride even in the
Beloved Disciple, one of the Sons of Thunder. The man was doing
the Master's work in the Master's name and with the Master's
power, but did not run with the group of the Twelve.

9:50 {"Against you is for you"} (\kath' h–mōn huper h–mōn\). Mr
9:40 has "against us is for us" (\hēmōn ... hēmōn\). The _Koinē_
Greek \ē\ and \–\ were often pronounced alike and it was easy to
interchange them. So many MSS. here read just as in Mark. The
point is precisely the same as it is a proverbial saying. See a
similar saying in Lu 11:23: "He that is not with me is against
me." The prohibition here as in Mr 9:39 is general: "Stop
hindering him" (\mē kōluete, mē\ and the present imperative, not
\mē\ and the aorist subjunctive)
. The lesson of toleration in
methods of work for Christ is needed today.

9:51 {When the days were well-nigh come} (\en tōi sumplērousthai
tas hēmeras\)
. Luke's common idiom \en\ with the articular
infinitive, "in the being fulfilled as to the days." This common
compound occurs in the N.T. only here and Lu 8:23; Ac 2:1. The
language here makes it plain that Jesus was fully conscious of
the time of his death as near as already stated (Lu
. {That he should be received up} (\tēs analēmpseōs
. Literally, "of his taking up." It is an old word (from
Hippocrates on)
, but here alone in the N.T. It is derived from
\analambanō\ (the verb used of the Ascension, Ac 1:2,11,22; 1Ti
and refers here to the Ascension of Jesus after His
Resurrection. Not only in John's Gospel (Joh 17:5) does Jesus
reveal a yearning for a return to the Father, but it is in the
mind of Christ here as evidently at the Transfiguration (9:31)
and later in Lu 12:49f. {He steadfastly set his face} (\autos
to prosōpon estērisen\)
. Note emphatic \autos\, {he himself},
with fixedness of purpose in the face of difficulty and danger.
This look on Christ's face as he went to his doom is noted later
in Mr 10:32. It is a Hebraistic idiom (nine times in Ezekiel),
this use of face here, but the verb (effective aorist active) is
an old one from \stērizō\ (from \stērigx\, a support), to set
fast, to fix. {To go to Jerusalem} (\tou poreuesthai eis
. Genitive infinitive of purpose. Luke three times
mentions Christ making his way to Jerusalem (9:51; 13:22;
and John mentions three journeys to Jerusalem during the
later ministry (Joh 7:10; 11:17; 12:1). It is natural to take
these journeys to be the same in each of these Gospels. Luke does
not make definite location of each incident and John merely
supplements here and there. But in a broad general way they seem
to correspond.

9:52 {Sent messengers} (\apesteilen aggelous\). As a precaution
since he was going to Jerusalem through Samaria. The Samaritans
did not object when people went north from Jerusalem through
their country. He was repudiating Mount Gerizim by going by it to
Jerusalem. This was an unusual precaution by Jesus and we do not
know who the messengers ({angels}) were. {To make ready for him}
(\hōs hetoimasai autōi\). \Hōs\ is correct here, not \hōste\. The
only examples of the final use of \hōs\ with the infinitive in
the N.T. are this one and Heb 7:9 (absolute use). In Acts
20:24 Westcott and Hort read \hōs teleiōsō\ and put \hōs
teleiōsai\ in the margin (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1091).

9:53 {And they did not receive him} (\kai ouk edexanto auton\).
Adversative use of \kai\ = But. {Because his face was going to
(\hoti to prosōpon autou ēn poreuomenon eis
. Periphrastic imperfect middle. It was reason enough
to the churlish Samaritans.

9:54 {Saw this} (\idontes\). Second aorist active participle of
\horaō\. Saw the messengers returning. {We bid} (\theleis
. Deliberative subjunctive \eipōmen\ after \theleis\
without \hina\, probably two questions, Dost thou wish? Shall we
bid? Perhaps the recent appearance of Elijah on the Mount of
Transfiguration reminded James and John of the incident in 2Ki
1:10-12. Some MSS. add here "as Elijah did." The language of the
LXX is quoted by James and John, these fiery Sons of Thunder.
Note the two aorist active infinitives (\katabēnai, analōsai\,
the first ingressive, the second effective)

9:55 {But he turned} (\strapheis de\). Second aorist passive
participle of \strephō\, common verb, to turn round. Dramatic
act. Some ancient MSS. have here: {Ye know not what manner of
spirit ye are of}
(\ouk oidate poiou pneumatos este\). This
sounds like Christ and may be a genuine saying though not a part
of Luke's Gospel. A smaller number of MSS. add also: {For the Son
of Man came not to destroy men's lives, but to save them}
gar huios tou anthrōpou ouk ēlthen psuchas anthrōpōn apolesai
alla sōsai\)
, a saying reminding us of Mt 5:17; Lu 19:10.
Certain it is that here Jesus rebuked the bitterness of James and
John toward Samaritans as he had already chided John for his
narrowness towards a fellow-worker in the kingdom.

9:57 {A certain man} (\tis\). Mt 8:19 calls him "a scribe." Lu
9:57-60; Mt 8:19-22, but not in Mark and so from Q or the Logia.
{Wherever you go} (\hopou ean aperchēi\) is the present middle
subjunctive with the indefinite relative adverb \ean\, common
Greek idiom. See on Matthew for "holes," "nests," "Son of man."
The idiom "where to lay his head" (\pou tēn kephalēn klinēi\) is
the same in both, the deliberative subjunctive retained in the
indirect question. "Jesus knows the measure of the scribe's
enthusiasm" (Plummer). The wandering life of Jesus explains this

9:59 {And he said unto another} (\eipen de pros heteron\). Mt
8:21 omits Christ's "Follow me" (\akolouthei moi\) and makes
this man a volunteer instead of responding to the appeal of
Jesus. There is no real opposition, of course. In Matthew's
account the man is apologetic as in Luke. Plummer calls him "one
of the casual disciples" of whom there are always too many. The
scribes knew how to give plausible reasons for not being active
disciples. {First} (\prōton\). One of the problems of life is the
relation of duties to each other, which comes first. The burial
of one's father was a sacred duty (Ge 25:9), but, as in the
case of Tobit 4:3, this scribe's father probably was still alive.
What the scribe apparently meant was that he could not leave his
father while still alive to follow Jesus around over the country.

9:60 {Leave the dead to bury their own dead} (\aphes tous nekrous
thapsai tous heautōn nekrous\)
. This paradox occurs so in Mt
8:22. The explanation is that the spiritually dead can bury the
literally dead. For such a quick change in the use of the same
words see Joh 5:21-29 (spiritual resurrection from sin in Joh
5:21-27, bodily resurrection from the grave, Joh 5:28,29)
Joh 11:25f. The harshness of this proverb to the scribe
probably is due to the fact that he was manifestly using his aged
father as an excuse for not giving Christ active service. {But go
thou and publish abroad the kingdom of God}
(\su de apelthōn
diaggelle tēn basileian tou theou\)
. The scribe's duty is put
sharply (\But do thou, su de\). Christ called him to preach, and
he was using pious phrases about his father as a pretext. Many a
preacher has had to face a similar delicate problem of duty to
father, mother, brothers, sisters and the call to preach. This
was a clear case. Jesus will help any man called to preach to see
his duty. Certainly Jesus does not advocate renunciation of
family duties on the part of preachers.

9:61 {And another also said} (\eipen de kai heteros\). A
volunteer like the first. This third case is given by Luke alone,
though the incident may also come from the same Logia as the
other two. \Heteros\ does not here mean one of a "different" sort
as is sometimes true of this pronoun, but merely another like
\allos\ (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 749). {But first} (\prōton
. He also had something that was to come "first." {To bid
farewell to them that are at my house}
(\apotaxasthai tois eis
ton oikon mou\)
. In itself that was a good thing to do. This
first aorist middle infinitive is from \apotassō\, an old verb,
to detach, to separate, to assign as a detachment of soldiers. In
the N.T. it only appears in the middle voice with the meaning
common in late writers to bid adieu, to separate oneself from
others. It is used in Ac 18:18 of Paul taking leave of the
believers in Corinth. See also Mr 6:46; 2Co 2:13. It is thus a
formal function and this man meant to go home and set things in
order there and then in due time to come and follow Jesus.

9:62 {Having put his hand to the plough} (\epibalōn tēn cheira
ep' arotron\)
. Second aorist active participle of \epiballō\, an
old and common verb, to place upon. Note repetition of
preposition \epi\ before \arotron\ (plough). This agricultural
proverb is as old as Hesiod. Pliny observes that the ploughman
who does not bend attentively to his work goes crooked. It has
always been the ambition of the ploughman to run a straight
furrow. The Palestine _fellah_ had good success at it. {And
looking back}
(\kai blepōn eis ta opisō\). Looking to the things
behind. To do that is fatal as any ploughman knows. The call to
turn back is often urgent. {Fit} (\euthetos\). From \eu\ and
\tithēmi\=well-placed, suited for, adapted to. "The first case is
that of inconsiderate impulse, the second that of conflicting
duties, the third that of a divided mind" (Bruce).

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Luke: Chapter 9)