[Table of Contents]
[Previous] [Next]
Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Luke: Chapter 6)

6:1 {On a sabbath} (\en sabbatōi\). This is the second sabbath on
which Jesus is noted by Luke. The first was Lu 4:31-41. There
was another in Joh 5:1-47. There is Western and Syrian
(Byzantine) evidence for a very curious reading here which calls
this sabbath "secondfirst" (\deuteroprōtōi\). It is undoubtedly
spurious, though Westcott and Hort print it in the margin. A
possible explanation is that a scribe wrote "first" (\prōtōi\) on
the margin because of the sabbath miracle in Lu 6:6-11. Then
another scribe recalled Lu 4:31 where a sabbath is mentioned
and wrote "second" (\deuterōi\) also on the margin. Finally a
third scribe combined the two in the word \deuteroprōtōi\ that is
not found elsewhere. If it were genuine, we should not know what
it means. {Plucked} (\etillon\). Imperfect active. They were
plucking as they went on through (\diaporeuesthai\). Whether
wheat or barley, we do not know, not our "corn" (maize). {Did
(\ēsthion\). Imperfect again. See on ¯Mt 12:1f.; Mr 2:23f.
for the separate acts in supposed violence of the sabbath laws.
{Rubbing them in their hands} (\psōchontes tais chersin\). Only
in Luke and only here in the N.T. This was one of the chief
offences. "According to Rabbinical notions, it was reaping,
threshing, winnowing, and preparing food all at once" (Plummer).
These Pharisees were straining out gnats and swallowing camels!
This verb \psōchō\ is a late one for \psaō\, to rub.

6:3 {Not even this} (\oude touto\). This small point only in
Luke. {What} (\ho\). Literally, {which}. Mr 2:25; Mt 12:3 have
\ti\ (what).

6:4 {Did take} (\labōn\). Second aorist active participle of
\lambanō\. Not in Mark and Matthew. See Mt 12:1-8; Mr 2:23-28
for discussion of details about the shewbread and the five
arguments in defence of his conduct on the sabbath (example of
David, work of the priests on the sabbath, prophecy of Ho 6:6,
purpose of the sabbath for man, the Son of Man lord of the
. It was an overwhelming and crushing reply to these
pettifogging ceremonialists to which they could not reply, but
which increased their anger. Codex D transfers verse 5 to after
verse 10 and puts here the following: "On the same day
beholding one working on the sabbath he said to him: Man, if you
know what you are doing, happy are you; but if you do not know,
cursed are you and a transgressor of the law."

6:6 {On another sabbath} (\en heterōi sabbatōi\). This was a
second (\heteron\, as it often means), but not necessarily the
next, sabbath. This incident is given by all three synoptics (Mr
3:1-6; Mt 12:9-14; Lu 6:6-11)
. See Matt. and Mark for details.
Only Luke notes that it was on a sabbath. Was this because Luke
as a physician had to meet this problem in his own practise?
{Right hand} (\hē dexia\). This alone in Luke, the physician's
eye for particulars.

6:7 {The scribes and the Pharisees} (\hoi grammateis kai hoi
. Only Luke here though Pharisees named in Mt 12:14
and Pharisees and Herodians in Mr 3:6. {Watched him}
(\paretērounto auton\). Imperfect middle, were watching for
themselves on the side (\para\). Mr 3:2 has the imperfect
active \paretēroun\. Common verb, but the proposition \para\ gave
an extra touch, watching either assiduously like the physician at
the bedside or insidiously with evil intent as here. {Would heal}
(\therapeusei\). But the present active indicative (\therapeuei\)
may be the correct text here. So Westcott and Hort. {That they
might find out how to accuse him}
(\hina heurōsin katēgorein
. Second aorist active subjunctive of \heuriskō\ and the
infinitive with it means to find out how to do a thing. They were
determined to make a case against Jesus. They felt sure that
their presence would prevent any spurious work on the part of

6:8 {But he knew their thoughts} (\autos de ēidei tous
dialogismous autōn\)
. In Luke alone. Imperfect in sense, second
past perfect in form \ēidei\ from \oida\. Jesus, in contrast to
these spies (Plummer), read their intellectual processes like an
open book. {His hand withered} (\xēran tēn cheira\). Predicate
position of the adjective. So in Mr 3:3. {Stand forth}
(\stēthi\). Luke alone has this verb, second aorist active
imperative. Mr 3:3 has {Arise into the midst} (\egeire eis to
. Luke has {Arise and step forth into the midst} (\egeire
kai stēthi eis to meson\)
. Christ worked right out in the open
where all could see. It was a moment of excitement when the man
stepped forth (\estē\) there before them all.

6:9 {I ask you} (\eperōtō humās\). They had questions in their
hearts about Jesus. He now asks in addition (\ep'\) an open
question that brings the whole issue into the open. {A life}
(\psuchēn\). So the Revised Version. The rabbis had a rule:
_Periculum vitae pellit sabbatum_. But it had to be a Jew whose
life was in peril on the sabbath. The words of Jesus cut to the
quick. {Or to destroy it} (\ē apolesai\). On this very day these
Pharisees were plotting to destroy Jesus (verse 7).

6:10 {He looked round about on them all} (\periblepsamenos\).
First aorist middle participle as in Mr 3:5, the middle voice
giving a personal touch to it all. Mark adds "with anger" which
Luke here does not put in. All three Gospels have the identical
command: {Stretch forth thy hand} (\exteinon tēn cheira sou\).
First aorist active imperative. {Stretch out}, clean out, full
length. All three Gospels also have the first aorist passive
indicative \apekatestathē\ with the double augment of the double
compound verb \apokathistēmi\. As in Greek writers, so here the
double compound means complete restoration to the former state.

6:11 {They were filled with madness} (\eplēsthēsan anoias\) First
aorist passive (effective) with genitive: In 5:26 we saw the
people filled with fear. Here is rage that is kin to insanity,
for \anoias\ is lack of sense (\a\ privative and \nous\, mind).
An old word, but only here and 2Ti 3:9 in the N.T. {Communed}
(\dielaloun\), imperfect active, picturing their excited
counsellings with one another. Mr 3:6 notes that they bolted
out of the synagogue and outside plotted even with the Herodians
how to destroy Jesus, strange co-conspirators these against the
common enemy. {What they might do to Jesus} (\ti an poiēsaien
. Luke puts it in a less damaging way than Mr 3:6; Mt
12:14. This aorist optative with \an\ is the deliberative
question like that in Ac 17:18 retained in the indirect form
here. Perhaps Luke means, not that they were undecided about
killing Jesus, but only as to the best way of doing it. Already
nearly two years before the end we see the set determination to
destroy Jesus. We see it here in Galilee. We have already seen it
at the feast in Jerusalem (Joh 5:18) where "the Jews sought the
more to kill him." John and the Synoptics are in perfect
agreement as to the Pharisaic attitude toward Jesus.

6:12 {He went out into the mountains to pray} (\exelthein auton
eis to oros proseuxasthai\)
. Note \ex-\ where Mr 3:13 has
{goeth up} (\anabainei\). Luke alone has "to pray" as he so often
notes the habit of prayer in Jesus. {He continued all night} (\ēn
. Periphrastic imperfect active. Here alone in the
N.T., but common in the LXX and in late Greek writers. Medical
writers used it of whole night vigils. {In prayer to God} (\en
tēi proseuchēi tou theou\)
. Objective genitive \tou theou\. This
phrase occurs nowhere else. \Proseuchē\ does not mean "place of
prayer" or synagogue as in Ac 16:13, but the actual prayer of
Jesus to the Father all night long. He needed the Father's
guidance now in the choice of the Apostles in the morning.

6:13 {When it was day} (\hote egeneto hēmera\). When day came,
after the long night of prayer. {He chose from them twelve}
(\eklexamenos ap' autōn dōdeka\). The same root (\leg\) was used
for picking out, selecting and then for saying. There was a large
group of "disciples" or "learners" whom he "called" to him
(\prosephōnēsen\), and from among whom he chose (of himself, and
for himself, indirect middle voice (\eklexamenos\)
. It was a
crisis in the work of Christ. Jesus assumed full responsibility
even for the choice of Judas who was not forced upon Jesus by the
rest of the Twelve. "You did not choose me, but I chose you,"
(Joh 15:16) where Jesus uses \exelexasthe\ and \exelexamēn\ as
here by Luke. {Whom also he named apostles} (\hous kai apostolous
. So then Jesus gave the twelve chosen disciples this
appellation. Aleph and B have these same words in Mr 3:14
besides the support of a few of the best cursives, the Bohairic
Coptic Version and the Greek margin of the Harclean Syriac.
Westcott and Hort print them in their text in Mr 3:14, but it
remains doubtful whether they were not brought into Mark from Lu
6:13 where they are undoubtedly genuine. See Mt 10:2 where the
connection with sending them out by twos in the third tour of
Galilee. The word is derived from \apostellō\, to send (Latin,
and apostle is missionary, one sent. Jesus applies the
term to himself (\apesteilas\, Joh 17:3) as does Heb 3:1. The
word is applied to others, like Barnabas, besides these twelve
including the Apostle Paul who is on a par with them in rank and
authority, and even to mere messengers of the churches (2Co
. But these twelve apostles stand apart from all others in
that they were all chosen at once by Jesus himself "that they
might be with him" (Mr 3:14), to be trained by Jesus himself
and to interpret him and his message to the world. In the nature
of the case they could have no successors as they had to be
personal witnesses to the life and resurrection of Jesus (Ac
. The selection of Matthias to succeed Judas cannot be
called a mistake, but it automatically ceased. For discussion of
the names and groups in the list see discussion on ¯Mt 10:1-4; Mr

6:16 {Which was the traitor} (\hos egeneto prodotēs\). Who became
traitor, more exactly, \egeneto\, not \ēn\. He gave no signs of
treachery when chosen.

6:17 {He came down with them} (\katabas met' autōn\). Second
aorist active participle of \katabainō\, common verb. This was
the night of prayer up in the mountain (Mr 31:3; Lu 6:12) and
the choice of the Twelve next morning. The going up into the
mountain of Mt 5:1 may simply be a summary statement with no
mention of what Luke has explained or may be a reference to the
elevation, where he "sat down" (Mt 5:1), above the plain or
"level place" (\epi topou pedinou\) on the mountain side where
Jesus "stood" or "stopped" (\estē\). It may be a level place
towards the foot of the mountain. He stopped his descent at this
level place and then found a slight elevation on the mountain
side and began to speak. There is not the slightest reason for
making Matthew locate this sermon on the mountain and Luke in the
valley as if the places, audiences, and topics were different.
For the unity of the sermon see discussion on ¯Mt 5:1f. The
reports in Matthew and Luke begin alike, cover the same general
ground and end alike. The report in Matthew is longer chiefly
because in Chapter 5, he gives the argument showing the contrast
between Christ's conception of righteousness and that of the
Jewish rabbis. Undoubtedly, Jesus repeated many of the crisp
sayings here at other times as in Luke 12, but it is quite
gratuitous to argue that Matthew and Luke have made up this
sermon out of isolated sayings of Christ at various times. Both
Matthew and Luke give too much that is local of place and
audience for that idea. Mt 5:1 speaks of "the multitudes" and
"his disciples." Lu 6:17 notes "a great multitude of his
disciples, and a great number of the people from all Judea and
Jerusalem, and the sea coast of Tyre and Sidon." They agree in
the presence of disciples and crowds besides the disciples from
whom the twelve apostles were chosen. It is important to note how
already people were coming from "the sea coast of Tyre and Sidon"
"to hear him and to be healed (\iathēnai\, first aorist passive
of \iaomai\)
of their diseases."

6:18 {With unclean spirits} (\apo pneumatōn akathartōn\) . In an
amphibolous position for it can be construed with "troubled,"
(present passive participle \enochloumenoi\) or with "were
healed" (imperfect passive, \etherapeuonto\). The healings were
repeated as often as they came. Note here both verbs, \iaomai\
and \therapeuō\, used of the miraculous cures of Jesus.
\Therapeuō\ is the verb more commonly employed of regular
professional cures, but no such distinction is made here.

6:19 {Sought to touch him} (\ezētoun haptesthai autou\).
Imperfect active. One can see the surging, eager crowd pressing
up to Jesus. Probably some of them felt that there was a sort of
virtue or magic in touching his garments like the poor woman in
Lu 8:43f. (Mr 5:23; Mt 9:21). {For power came forth from him}
(\hoti dunamis par' autou exērcheto\). Imperfect middle, {power
was coming out from him}
. This is the reason for the continual
approach to Jesus. {And healed them all} (\kai iāto pantas\).
Imperfect middle again. Was healing all, kept on healing all. The
preacher today who is not a vehicle of power from Christ to men
may well question why that is true. Undoubtedly the failure to
get a blessing is one reason why many people stop going to
church. One may turn to Paul's tremendous words in Php 4:13: "I
have strength for all things in him who keeps on pouring power
into me" (\panta ischuō en tōi endunamounti me\). It was at a
time of surpassing dynamic spiritual energy when Jesus delivered
this greatest of all sermons so far as they are reported to us.
The very air was electric with spiritual power. There are such
times as all preachers know.

6:20 {And he lifted up his eyes} (\kai autos eparas tous
opthalmous autou\)
. First aorist active participle from \epairō\.
Note also Luke's favourite use of \kai autos\ in beginning a
paragraph. Vivid detail alone in Luke. Jesus looked the vast
audience full in the face. Mt 5:2 mentions that "he opened his
mouth and taught them" (began to teach them, inchoative
imperfect, \edidasken\)
. He spoke out so that the great crowd
could hear. Some preachers do not open their mouths and do not
look up at the people, but down at the manuscript and drawl along
while the people lose interest and even go to sleep or slip out.
{Ye poor} (\hoi ptōchoi\). {The poor}, but "yours" (\humetera\)
justifies the translation "ye." Luke's report is direct address
in all the four beatitudes and four woes given by him. It is
useless to speculate why Luke gives only four of the eight
beatitudes in Matthew or why Matthew does not give the four woes
in Luke. One can only say that neither professes to give a
complete report of the sermon. There is no evidence to show that
either saw the report of the other. They may have used a common
source like Q (the Logia of Jesus) or they may have had separate
sources. Luke's first beatitude corresponds with Matthew's first,
but he does not have "in spirit" after "poor." Does Luke
represent Jesus as saying that poverty itself is a blessing? It
can be made so. Or does Luke represent Jesus as meaning what is
in Matthew, poverty of spirit? {The kingdom of God} (\hē basileia
tou theou\)
. Mt 5:3 has "the kingdom of heaven" which occurs
alone in Matthew though he also has the one here in Luke with no
practical difference. The rabbis usually said "the kingdom of
heaven." They used it of the political Messianic kingdom when
Judaism of the Pharisaic sort would triumph over the world. The
idea of Jesus is in the sharpest contrast to that conception here
and always. See on ¯Mt 3:2 for discussion of the meaning of the
word "kingdom." It is the favourite word of Jesus for the rule of
God in the heart here and now. It is both present and future and
will reach a glorious consummation. Some of the sayings of Christ
have apocalyptic and eschatological figures, but the heart of the
matter is here in the spiritual reality of the reign of God in
the hearts of those who serve him. The kingdom parables expand
and enlarge upon various phases of this inward life and growth.

6:21 {Now} (\nun\). Luke adds this adverb here and in the next
sentence after "weep." This sharpens the contrast between present
sufferings and the future blessings. {Filled}
(\chortasthēsesthe\). Future passive indicative. The same verb in
Mt 5:6. Originally it was used for giving fodder (\chortos\) to
animals, but here it is spiritual fodder or food except in Lu
15:16; 16:21. Luke here omits "and thirst after righteousness."
{Weep} (\klaiontes\). Audible weeping. Where Mt 5:4 has "mourn"
(\penthountes\). {Shall laugh} (\gelasete\). Here Mt 5:4 has
"shall be comforted." Luke's words are terse.

6:22 {When they shall separate you} (\hotan aphorisōsin humās\).
First aorist active subjunctive, from \aphorizō\, common verb for
marking off a boundary. So either in good sense or bad sense as
here. The reference is to excommunication from the congregation
as well as from social intercourse. {Cast out your name as evil}
(\exbalōsin to onoma humōn hōs ponēron\). Second aorist active
subjunctive of \ekballō\, common verb. The verb is used in
Aristophanes, Sophocles, and Plato of hissing an actor off the
stage. The name of Christian or disciple or Nazarene came to be a
byword of contempt as shown in the Acts. It was even unlawful in
the Neronian persecution when Christianity was not a _religio
licita_. {For the Son of man's sake} (\heneka tou huiou tou
. Jesus foretold what will befall those who are loyal
to him. The Acts of the Apostles is a commentary on this
prophecy. This is Christ's common designation of himself, never
of others save by Stephen (Ac 7:56) and in the Apocalypse (Re
1:13; 14:14)
. But both Son of God and Son of man apply to him
(Joh 1:50,52; Mt 26:63f.). Christ was a real man though the Son
of God. He is also the representative man and has authority over
all men.

6:23 {Leap for joy} (\skirtēsate\). Old verb and in LXX, but only
in Luke in the N.T. (here and 1:41,44). It answers to Matthew's
(Mt 5:12) "be exceeding glad." {Did} (\epoioun\). Imperfect
active, the habit of "their fathers" (peculiar to both here). Mt
5:12 has "persecuted." Thus they will receive a prophet's reward
(Mt 1:41).

6:24 {But woe unto you that are rich} (\Plēn ouai humin tois
. Sharp contrast (\plēn\). As a matter of fact the
rich Pharisees and Sadducees were the chief opposers of Christ as
of the early disciples later (Jas 5:1-6). {Ye have received}
(\apechete\). Receipt in full \apechō\ means as the papyri show.
{Consolation} (\paraklēsin\). From \parakaleō\, to call to one's
side, to encourage, to help, to cheer.

6:25 {Now} (\nun\). Here twice as in verse 21 in contrast with
future punishment. The joys and sorrows in these two verses are
turned round, measure for measure reversed. The Rich Man and
Lazarus (Lu 16:19-31) illustrate these contrasts in the present
and the future.

6:26 {In the same manner did their fathers} (\ta auta epoioun hoi
pateres autōn\)
. Literally, their fathers did the same things to
the false prophets. That is they spoke well (\kalōs\), finely of
false prophets. Praise is sweet to the preacher but all sorts of
preachers get it. {Of you} (\humas\). Accusative case after words
of speaking according to regular Greek idiom, to speak one fair,
to speak well of one.

6:27 {But I say unto you that hear} (\Alla humin legō tois
. There is a contrast in this use of \alla\ like that
in Mt 5:44. This is the only one of the many examples given by
Mt 5 of the sharp antithesis between what the rabbis taught and
what Jesus said. Perhaps that contrast is referred to by Luke. If
necessary, \alla\ could be coordinating or paratactic conjunction
as in 2Co 7:11 rather than adversative as apparently here. See
Mt 5:43f. Love of enemies is in the O.T., but Jesus ennobles
the word, \agapaō\, and uses it of love for one's enemies.

6:28 {That despitefully use you} (\tōn epēreazontōn humās\). This
old verb occurs here only in the N.T. and in 1Pe 3:16, not
being genuine in Mt 5:44.

6:29 {On the cheek} (\epi tēn siagona\). Mt 5:39 has "right."
Old word meaning jaw or jawbone, but in the N.T. only here and
Mt 5:39, which see for discussion. It seems an act of violence
rather than contempt. Sticklers for extreme literalism find
trouble with the conduct of Jesus in Joh 18:22f. where Jesus,
on receiving a slap in the face, protested against it. {Thy
(\to himation\), {thy coat} (\ton chitōna\). Here the
upper and more valuable garment (\himation\) is first taken, the
under and less valuable \chitōn\ last. In Mt 5:40 the process
(apparently a legal one) is reversed. {Withhold not} (\mē
. Aorist subjunctive in prohibition against committing
an act. Do not hinder him in his robbing. It is usually useless
anyhow with modern armed bandits.

6:30 {Ask them not again} (\mē apaitei\). Here the present active
imperative in a prohibition, do not have the habit of asking
back. This common verb only here in the N.T., for \aitousin\ is
the correct text in Lu 12:20. The literary flavour of Luke's
_Koinē_ style is seen in his frequent use of words common in the
literary Greek, but appearing nowhere else in the N.T.

6:31 {As ye would} (\kathōs thelete\). In Mt 7:12 the Golden
Rule begins: \Panta hosa ean thelēte\. Luke has "likewise"
(\homoiōs\) where Matthew has \houtōs\. See on Matthew for
discussion of the saying.

6:32 {What thank have ye?} (\poia h–min charis estin;\). What
grace or gratitude is there to you? Mt 5:46 has \misthon\

6:33 {Do good} (\agathopoiēte\). Third-class condition, \ean\ and
present subjunctive. This verb not in old Greek, but in LXX.
{Even sinners} (\kai hoi hamartōloi\). Even the sinners, the
article distinguishing the class. Mt 5:46 has "even the
publicans" and 5:47 "even the Gentiles." That completes the
list of the outcasts for "sinners" includes "harlots" and all the

6:34 {If ye lend} (\ean danisēte\). Third-class condition, first
aorist active subjunctive from \danizō\ (old form \daneizō\) to
lend for interest in a business transaction (here in active to
lend and Mt 5:42 middle to borrow and nowhere else in N.T.)
whereas \kichrēmi\ (only Lu 11:5 in N.T.) means to loan as a
friendly act. {To receive again as much} (\hina apolabōsin ta
. Second aorist active subjunctive of \apolambanō\, old
verb, to get back in full like \apechō\ in 6:24. Literally
here, "that they may get back the equal" (principal and interest,
. It could mean "equivalent services." No parallel in

6:35 {But} (\plēn\). Plain adversative like \plēn\ in verse 24.
Never despairing (\mēden apelpizontes\). \Mēden\ is read by A B L
Bohairic and is the reading of Westcott and Hort. The reading
\mēdena\ is translated "despairing of no man." The Authorized
Version has it "hoping for nothing again," a meaning for
\apelpizō\ with no parallel elsewhere. Field (_Otium Nor._ iii.
insists that all the same the context demands this meaning
because of \apelpizein\ in verse 34, but the correct reading
there is \elpizein\, not \apelpizein\. Here Field's argument
falls to the ground. The word occurs in Polybius, Diodorus, LXX
with the sense of despairing and that is the meaning here. D and
Old Latin documents have _nihil desperantes_, but the Vulgate has
_nihil inde sperantes_ (hoping for nothing thence) and this false
rendering has wrought great havoc in Europe. "On the strength of
it Popes and councils have repeatedly condemned the taking of any
interest whatever for loans. As loans could not be had without
interest, and Christians were forbidden to take it, money lending
passed into the hands of the Jews, and added greatly to the
unnatural detestation in which Jews were held" (Plummer). By
"never despairing" or "giving up nothing in despair" Jesus means
that we are not to despair about getting the money back. We are
to help the apparently hopeless cases. Medical writers use the
word for desperate or hopeless cases. {Sons of the Most High}
(\huoi Hupsistou\). In 1:32 Jesus is called "Son of the
Highest" and here all real children or sons of God (Lu 20:36)
are so termed. See also 1:35,76 for the use of "the Highest" of
God. He means the same thing that we see in Mt 5:45,48 by "your
Father." {Toward the unthankful and evil} (\epi tous acharistous
kai ponērous\)
. God the Father is kind towards the unkind and
wicked. Note the one article with both adjectives.

6:36 {Even as your Father} (\kathōs ho patēr humōn\). In Mt
5:48 we have \hōs ho patēr humōn\. In both the perfection of the
Father is placed as the goal before his children. In neither case
is it said that they have reached it.

6:37 {And judge not} (\kai mē krinete\). \Mē\ and the present
active imperative, forbidding the habit of criticism. The common
verb \krinō\, to separate, we have in our English words critic,
criticism, criticize, discriminate. Jesus does not mean that we
are not to form opinions, but not to form them rashly, unfairly,
like our prejudice. {Ye shall not be judged} (\ou mē krithēte\).
First aorist passive subjunctive with double negative ou \mē\,
strong negative. {Condemn not} (\mē katadikazete\). To give
judgment (\dikē, dixazō\) against (\kata\) one. \Mē\ and present
imperative. Either cease doing or do not have the habit of doing
it. Old verb. {Ye shall not be condemned} (\ou mē
. First aorist passive indicative again with the
double negative. Censoriousness is a bad habit. {Release}
(\apoluete\). Positive command the opposite of the censoriousness

6:38 {Pressed down} (\pepiesmenon\). Perfect passive participle
from \piezō\, old verb, but here alone in the N.T., though the
Doric form \piazō\, to seize, occurs several times (Joh
. {Shaken together} (\sesaleumenon\). Perfect passive
participle again from common verb \saleuō\. {Running over}
(\huperekchunnomenon\). Present middle participle of this double
compound verb not found elsewhere save in A Q in Joe 2:24.
\Chunō\ is a late form of \cheō\. There is asyndeton here, no
conjunction connecting these participles. The present here is in
contrast to the two preceding perfects. The participles form an
epexegesis or explanation of the "good measure" (\metron kalon\).
Into your bosom (\eis ton kolpon humōn\). The fold of the wide
upper garment bound by the girdle made a pocket in common use
(Ex 4:6; Pr 6:27; Ps 79:12; Isa 65:6f.; Jer 32:18). So Isa
65:7: {I will measure their former work unto their bosom. Shall
be measured to you again}
(\antimetrēthēsetai\). Future passive
indicative of the verb here only in the N.T. save late MSS. in
Mt 7:2. Even here some MSS. have \metrēthēsetai\. The \anti\
has the common meaning of in turn or back, measured back to you
in requital.

6:39 {Also a parable} (\kai parabolēn\). Plummer thinks that the
second half of the sermon begins here as indicated by Luke's
insertion of "And he spake (\eipen de\) at this point. Luke has
the word parable some fifteen times both for crisp proverbs and
for the longer narrative comparisons. This is the only use of the
term parable concerning the metaphors in the Sermon on the Mount.
But in both Matthew and Luke's report of the discourse there are
some sixteen possible applications of the word. Two come right
together: The blind leading the blind, the mote and the beam.
Matthew gives the parabolic proverb of the blind leading the
blind later (Mt 15:14). Jesus repeated these sayings on various
occasions as every teacher does his characteristic ideas. So Luke
6:40; Mt 10:24, Lu 6:45; Mt 12:34f. {Can} (\Mēti dunatai\).
The use of \mēti\ in the question shows that a negative answer is
expected. {Guide} (\hodēgein\). Common verb from \hodēgos\
(guide) and this from \hodos\ (way) and \hēgeomai\, to lead or
guide. {Shall they not both fall?} (\ouchi amphoteroi
. \Ouchi\, a sharpened negative from \ouk\, in a
question expecting the answer Yes. Future middle indicative of
the common verb \empiptō\. {Into a pit} (\eis bothunon\). Late
word for older \bothros\.

6:40 {The disciple is not above his master} (\ouk estin mathētēs
huper ton didaskalon\)
. Literally, a learner (or pupil) is not
above the teacher. Precisely so in Mt 10:24 where "slave" is
added with "lord." But here Luke adds: "But everyone when he is
perfected shall be as his master" (\katērtismenos de pās estai
hōs ho didaskalos autou\)
. The state of completion, perfect
passive participle, is noted in \katērtismenos\. The word is
common for mending broken things or nets (Mt 4:21) or men (Ga
. So it is a long process to get the pupil patched up to the
plane of his teacher.

6:41 {Mote} (\karphos\) and {beam} (\dokon\). See on ¯Mt 7:3-5
for discussion of these words in this parabolic proverb kin to
several of ours today.

6:42 {Canst thou say} (\dunasai legein\). Here Mt 7:4 has {wilt
thou say}
(\ereis\). {Beholdest not} (\ou blepōn\). Mt 7:4 has
"lo" (\idou\). {Thou hypocrite} (\hupokrita\). Contrast to the
studied politeness of "brother" (\adelphe\) above. Powerful
picture of blind self-complacence and incompetence, the keyword
to argument here.

6:44 {Is known} (\ginōsketai\). The fruit of each tree reveals
its actual character. It is the final test. This sentence is not
in Mt 7:17-20, but the same idea is in the repeated saying (Mt
: "By their fruits ye shall know them," where the verb
{epignōsesthe} means full knowledge. The question in Mt 7:16 is
put here in positive declarative form. The verb is in the plural
for "men" or "people," \sullegousin\. See on ¯Mt 7:16. {Bramble
(\batou\). Old word, quoted from the LXX in Mr 12:26; Lu
20:37 (from Ex 3:6) about the burning bush that Moses saw, and
by Stephen (Ac 7:30,35) referring to the same incident. Nowhere
else in the N.T. "Galen has a chapter on its medicinal uses, and
the medical writings abound in prescriptions of which it is an
ingredient" (Vincent). {Gather} (\trugōsin\). A verb common in
Greek writers for gathering ripe fruit. In the N.T. only here and
Re 14:18f. {Grapes} (\staphulēn\). Cluster of grapes.

6:45 {Bringeth forth} (\propherei\). In a similar saying repeated
later. Mt 12:34f. has the verb \ekballei\ (throws out, casts
, a bolder figure. "When men are natural, heart and mouth act
in concert. But otherwise the mouth sometimes professes what the
heart does not feel" (Plummer).

6:46 {And do not} (\kai ou poieite\). This is the point about
every sermon that counts. The two parables that follow illustrate
this point.

6:47 {Hears and does} (\akouōn kai poiōn\). Present active
participles. So in Mt 7:24. (Present indicative.) {I will show
(\hupodeixō humin\). Only in Luke, not Matthew.

6:48 {Digged and went deep} (\eskapsen kai ebathunen\). Two first
aorist indicatives. Not a _hendiadys_ for dug deep. \Skaptō\, to
dig, is as old as Homer, as is \bathunō\, to make deep. {And laid
a foundation}
(\kai ethēken themelion\). That is the whole point.
This wise builder struck the rock before he laid the foundation.
{When a flood arose} (\plēmmurēs genomenēs\). Genitive absolute.
Late word for flood, \plēmmura\, only here in the N.T., though in
Job 40:18. {Brake against} (\proserēxen\). First aorist active
indicative from \prosrēgnumi\ and in late writers \prosrēssō\, to
break against. Only here in the N.T. Mt 7:25 has \prosepesan\,
from \prospiptō\, to fall against. {Could not shake it} (\ouk
ischusen saleusai autēn\)
. Did not have strength enough to shake
it. {Because it had been well builded} (\dia to kalōs
oikodomēsthai autēn\)
. Perfect passive articular infinitive after
\dia\ and with accusative of general reference.

6:49 {He that heareth and doeth not} (\ho de akousas kai mē
. Aorist active participle with article. Particular case
singled out (punctiliar, aorist). {Like a man} (\homoios estin
. Associative instrumental case after \homoios\ as in
verse 47. {Upon the earth} (\epi tēn gēn\). Mt 7:26 has "upon
the sand" (\epi tēn ammon\), more precise and worse than mere
earth. But not on the rock. {Without a foundation} (\chōris
. The foundation on the rock after deep digging as in
verse 48. {It fell in} (\sunepesen\). Second aorist active of
\sunpiptō\, to fall together, to collapse. An old verb from Homer
on, but only here in the N.T. {The ruin} (\to rēgma\). The crash
like a giant oak in the forest resounded far and wide. An old
word for a rent or fracture as in medicine for laceration of a
wound. Only here in the N.T.

[Table of Contents]
[Previous] [Next]
Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Luke: Chapter 6)