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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Luke: Chapter 4)

4:1 {Full of the Holy Spirit} (\plērēs pneumatos hagiou\). An
evident allusion to the descent of the Holy Spirit on Jesus at
his baptism (Lu 3:21f.). The distinctness of the Persons in the
Trinity is shown there, but with evident unity. One recalls also
Luke's account of the overshadowing of Mary by the Holy Spirit
(1:35). Mt 4:1 says that "Jesus was led of the Spirit" while
Mr 1:12 states that "the Spirit driveth him forth" which see
for discussion. "Jesus had been endowed with supernatural power;
and He was tempted to make use of it in furthering his own
interests without regard to the Father's will" (Plummer). {Was
led by the Spirit}
(\ēgeto en toi pneumati\). Imperfect passive,
continuously led. \En\ may be the instrumental use as often, for
Mt 4:1 has here \hupo\ of direct agency. But Matthew has the
aorist passive \anēchthē\ which may be ingressive as he has \eis
tēn erēmon\ (into the wilderness) while Luke has \en tōi erēmōi\
(in the wilderness). At any rate Luke affirms that Jesus was now
continuously under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Hence in this
same sentence he mentions the Spirit twice. {During the forty
(\hēmerās tesserakonta\). Accusative of duration of time,
to be connected with "led" not with "tempted." He was led in the
Spirit during these forty days (cf. De 8:2, forty years). The
words are amphibolous also in Mr 1:13. Mt 4:2 seems to imply
that the three recorded temptations came at the close of the
fasting for forty days. That can be true and yet what Luke states
be true also. These three may be merely specimens and so
"representative of the struggle which continued throughout the
whole period" (Plummer).

4:2 {Being tempted} (\peirazomenos\). Present passive participle
and naturally parallel with the imperfect passive \ēgeto\ (was
in verse 1. This is another instance of poor verse
division which should have come at the end of the sentence. See
on ¯Mt 4:1; Mr 1:13 for the words "tempt" and "devil." The devil
challenged the Son of man though also the Son of God. It was a
contest between Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, and the slanderer
of men. The devil had won with Adam and Eve. He has hopes of
triumph over Jesus. The story of this conflict is given only in
Mt 4:1-11; Lu 4:1-13. There is a mere mention of it in Mr
1:12f. So then here is a specimen of the Logia of Jesus (Q), a
non-Markan portion of Matthew and Luke, the earliest document
about Christ. The narrative could come ultimately only from
Christ himself. It is noteworthy that it bears all the marks of
the high conception of Jesus as the Son of God found in the
Gospel of John and in Paul and Hebrews, the rest of the New
Testament in fact, for Mark, Matthew, Luke, Acts, Peter, and Jude
follow in this same strain. The point is that modern criticism
has revealed the Messianic consciousness of Jesus as God's Son at
his Baptism and in his Temptations at the very beginning of his
ministry and in the oldest known documents about Christ (The
Logia, Mark's Gospel)
. {He did eat nothing} (\ouk ephagen
. Second aorist (constative) active indicative of the
defective verb \esthiō\. Mark does not give the fast. Mt 4:2
has the aorist active participle \nēsteusas\ which usually means
a religious fast for purposes of devotion. That idea is not
excluded by Luke's words. The entrance of Jesus upon his
Messianic ministry was a fit time for this solemn and intense
consecration. This mental and spiritual strain would naturally
take away the appetite and there was probably nothing at hand to
eat. The weakness from the absence of food gave the devil his
special opportunity to tempt Jesus which he promptly seized.
{When they were completed} (\suntelestheisōn autōn\). Genitive
absolute with the first aorist passive participle feminine plural
because \hemerōn\ (days) is feminine. According to Luke the
hunger (\epeinasen\, became hungry, ingressive aorist active
came at the close of the forty days as in Mt 4:2.

4:3 {The Son of God} (\huios tou theou\). No article as in Mt
4:3. So refers to the relationship as Son of God rather than to
the office of Messiah. Manifest reference to the words of the
Father in Lu 3:22. Condition of the first class as in Matthew.
The devil assumes that Jesus is Son of God. {This stone} (\tōi
lithōi toutōi\)
. Perhaps pointing to a particular round stone
that looked in shape and size like a loaf of bread. Stanley
(_Sinai and Palestine_, p. 154) on Mt. Carmel found
crystallizations of stones called "Elijah's melons." The hunger
of Jesus opened the way for the diabolic suggestion designed to
inspire doubt in Jesus toward his Father. Matthew has "these
stones." {Bread} (\artos\). Better "loaf." For discussion of this
first temptation see on ¯Mt 4:3f. Jesus felt the force of each
of the temptations without yielding at all to the sin involved.
See discussion on Matthew also for reality of the devil and the
objective and subjective elements in the temptations. Jesus
quotes De 8:3 in reply to the devil.

4:5 {The world} (\tēs oikoumenēs\). The inhabited world. In Mt
4:8 it is \tou kosmou\. {In a moment of time} (\en stigmēi
. Only in Luke and the word \stigmē\ nowhere else in the
N.T. (from \stizō\, to prick, or puncture), a point or dot. In
Demosthenes, Aristotle, Plutarch. Like our "second" of time or
tick of the clock. This panorama of all the kingdoms of the world
and the glory of them in a moment of time was mental, a great
feat of the imagination (a mental satanic "movie" performance),
but this fact in no way discredits the idea of the actual visible
appearance of Satan also. This second temptation in Luke is the
third in Matthew's order. Luke's order is geographical
(wilderness, mountain, Jerusalem). Matthew's is climacteric
(hunger, nervous dread, ambition). There is a climax in Luke's
order also (sense, man, God). There is no way to tell the actual

4:6 {All this authority} (\tēn exousian tautēn hapasan\). Mt
4:9 has "all these things." Luke's report is more specific. {And
the glory of them}
(\kai tēn doxan autōn\). Mt 4:8 has this in
the statement of what the devil did, not what he said. {For it
hath been delivered unto me}
(\hoti emoi paradedotai\). Perfect
passive indicative. Satan here claims possession of world power
and Jesus does not deny it. It may be due to man's sin and by
God's permission. Jesus calls Satan the ruler of this world (Joh
12:31; 14:30; 16:11)
. {To whomsoever I will} (\hoi an thelō\).
Present subjunctive with \an\ in an indefinite relative sentence.
This audacious claim, if allowed, makes one wonder whether some
of the world rulers are not, consciously or unconsciously, agents
of the devil. In several American cities there has been proven a
definite compact between the police and the underworld of crime.
But the tone of Satan here is one of superiority to Jesus in
world power. He offers him a share in it on one condition.

4:7 {Wilt worship before me} (\proskunēsēis enōpion emou\). Mt
4:9 has it more bluntly "worship me." That is what it really
comes to, though in Luke the matter is more delicately put. It is
a condition of the third class (\ean\ and the subjunctive). Luke
has it "thou therefore if" (\su oun ean\), in a very emphatic and
subtle way. It is the ingressive aorist (\proskunēsēis\), just
bow the knee once up here in my presence. The temptation was for
Jesus to admit Satan's authority by this act of prostration (fall
down and worship)
, a recognition of authority rather than of
personal merit. {It shall all be thine} (\estai sou pāsa\). Satan
offers to turn over all the keys of world power to Jesus. It was
a tremendous grand-stand play, but Jesus saw at once that in that
case he would be the agent of Satan in the rule of the world by
bargain and graft instead of the Son of God by nature and world
ruler by conquest over Satan. The heart of Satan's program is
here laid bare. Jesus here rejected the Jewish idea of the
Messiah as an earthly ruler merely. "He rejects Satan as an ally,
and thereby has him as an implacable enemy" (Plummer.)

4:8 {Thou shalt worship} (\proskunēseis\). Satan used this verb
to Jesus who turns it against him by the quotation from De
6:13. Jesus clearly perceived that one could not worship both
Satan and God. He had to choose whom he would serve. Luke does
not give the words, "Get thee hence, Satan" (Mt 4:10), for he
has another temptation to narrate.

4:9 {Led him} (\ēgagen\). Aorist active indicative of \agō\. Mt
4:5 has \paralambanei\ (dramatic present). {The wing of the
(\to pterugion tou hierou\). See on ¯Mt 4:5. It is not
easy to determine precisely what it was. {From hence}
(\enteuthen\). This Luke adds to the words in Matthew, which see.
{To guard thee} (\tou diaphulaxai se\). Not in Mt 4:6 quoted by
Satan from Ps 91:11,12. Satan does not misquote this Psalm, but
he misapplies it and makes it mean presumptuous reliance on God.
This compound verb is very old, but occurs here alone in the N.T.
and that from the LXX. Luke repeats \hoti\ (recitative \hoti\
after \gegraptai\, is written)
after this part of the quotation.

4:12 {It is said} (\eirētai\). Perfect passive indicative, stands
said, a favourite way of quoting Scripture in the N.T. In Mt
4:7 we have the usual "it is written" (\gegraptai\). Here Jesus
quotes De 6:16. Each time he uses Deuteronomy against the
devil. The LXX is quoted. It is the volitive future indicative
with \ouk\, a common prohibition. Jesus points out to the devil
that testing God is not trusting God (Plummer).

4:13 {Every temptation} (\panta peirasmon\). These three kinds
exhaust the avenues of approach (the appetites, the nerves, the
. Satan tried them all. They formed a cycle (Vincent).
Hence "he was in all points tempted like as we are" (Heb 4:15).
"The enemy tried all his weapons, and was at all points defeated"
(Plummer). Probably all during the forty days the devil tempted
him, but three are representatives of all. {For a season} (\achri
. Until a good opportunity should return, the language
means. We are thus to infer that the devil returned to his attack
from time to time. In the Garden of Gethsemane he tempted Jesus
more severely than here. He was here trying to thwart the purpose
of Jesus to go on with his Messianic plans, to trip him at the
start. In Gethsemane the devil tried to make Jesus draw back from
the culmination of the Cross with all its agony and horror. The
devil attacked Jesus by the aid of Peter (Mr 8:33), through the
Pharisees (Joh 8:40ff.), besides Gethsemane (Lu 22:42,53).

4:14 {Returned} (\hupestrepsen\). Luke does not fill in the gap
between the temptations in the wilderness of Judea and the
Galilean Ministry. He follows the outline of Mark. It is John's
Gospel alone that tells of the year of obscurity (Stalker) in
various parts of the Holy Land. {In the power of the Spirit} (\en
tēi dunamei tou pneumatos\)
. Luke in these two verses (14,15)
gives a description of the Galilean Ministry with three marked
characteristics (Plummer): the power of the spirit, rapid spread
of Christ's fame, use of the Jewish synagogues. Luke often notes
the power of the Holy Spirit in the work of Christ. Our word
dynamite is this same word \dunamis\ (power). {A fame} (\phēmē\).
An old Greek word found in the N.T. only here and Mt 9:26. It
is from \phēmi\, to say. Talk ran rapidly in every direction. It
assumes the previous ministry as told by John.

4:15 {And he taught} (\kai autos edidasken\). Luke is fond of
this mode of transition so that it is not certain that he means
to emphasize "he himself" as distinct from the rumour about him.
It is the imperfect tense, descriptive of the habit of Jesus. The
synagogues were an open door to Jesus before the hostility of the
Pharisees was aroused. {Being glorified} (\doxazomenos\). Present
passive participle, durative action like the imperfect
\edidasken\. General admiration of Jesus everywhere. He was the
wonder teacher of his time. Even the rabbis had not yet learned
how to ridicule and oppose Jesus.

4:16 {Where he had been brought up} (\hou ēn tethrammenos\). Past
perfect passive periphrastic indicative, a state of completion in
past time, from \trephō\, a common Greek verb. This visit is
before that recorded in Mr 6:1-6; Mt 13:54-58 which was just
before the third tour of Galilee. Here Jesus comes back after a
year of public ministry elsewhere and with a wide reputation (Lu
. Luke may have in mind 2:51, but for some time now
Nazareth had not been his home and that fact may be implied by
the past perfect tense. {As his custom was} (\kata to eiōthos
. Second perfect active neuter singular participle of an
old \ethō\ (Homer), to be accustomed. Literally according to what
was customary to him (\autōi\, dative case). This is one of the
flashlights on the early life of Jesus. He had the habit of going
to public worship in the synagogue as a boy, a habit that he kept
up when a grown man. If the child does not form the habit of
going to church, the man is almost certain not to have it. We
have already had in Matthew and Mark frequent instances of the
word synagogue which played such a large part in Jewish life
after the restoration from Babylon. {Stood up} (\anestē\). Second
aorist active indicative and intransitive. Very common verb. It
was the custom for the reader to stand except when the Book of
Esther was read at the feast of Purim when he might sit. It is
not here stated that Jesus had been in the habit of standing up
to read here or elsewhere. It was his habit to go to the
synagogue for worship. Since he entered upon his Messianic work
his habit was to teach in the synagogues (Lu 4:15). This was
apparently the first time that he had done so in Nazareth. He may
have been asked to read as Paul was in Antioch in Pisidia (Ac
. The ruler of the synagogue for that day may have invited
Jesus to read and speak because of his now great reputation as a
teacher. Jesus could have stood up voluntarily and appropriately
because of his interest in his home town. {To read}
(\anagnōnai\). Second aorist active infinitive of \anaginōskō\,
to recognize again the written characters and so to read and then
to read aloud. It appears first in Pindar in the sense of read
and always so in the N.T. This public reading aloud with
occasional comments may explain the parenthesis in Mt 24:15
(Let him that readeth understand).

4:17 {Was delivered} (\epedothē\). First aorist passive
indicative of \epididōmi\, to give over to, a common verb. At the
proper stage of the service "the attendant" or "minister"
(\hupēretēs\, under rower) or "beadle" took out a roll of the law
from the ark, unwrapped it, and gave it to some one to read. On
sabbath days some seven persons were asked to read small portions
of the law. This was the first lesson or _Parashah_. This was
followed by a reading from the prophets and a discourse, the
second lesson or _Haphtarah_. This last is what Jesus did. {The
book of the prophet Isaiah}
(\biblion tou prophētou Esaiou\).
Literally, "a roll of the prophet Isaiah." Apparently Isaiah was
handed to Jesus without his asking for it. But certainly Jesus
cared more for the prophets than for the ceremonial law. It was a
congenial service that he was asked to perform. Jesus used
Deuteronomy in his temptations and now Isaiah for this sermon.
The Syriac Sinaitic manuscript has it that Jesus stood up after
the attendant handed him the roll. {Opened} (\anoixas\). Really
it was {unrolled} (\anaptuxas\) as Aleph D have it. But the more
general term \anoixas\ (from \anoigō\, common verb) is probably
genuine. \Anaptussō\ does not occur in the N.T. outside of this
passage if genuine. {Found the place} (\heuren ton topon\).
Second aorist active indicative. He continued to unroll (rolling
up the other side)
till he found the passage desired. It may have
been a fixed lesson for the day or it may have been his own
choosing. At any rate it was a marvellously appropriate passage
(Isa 61:1,2 with one clause omitted and some words from Isa
. It is a free quotation from the Septuagint. {Where it was
(\hou ēn gegrammenon\). Periphrastic pluperfect passive
again as in 4:16.

4:18 {Anointed me} (\echrisen me\). First aorist active
indicative of the verb \chriō\ from which {Christ} (\Christos\)
is derived, the Anointed One. Isaiah is picturing the Jubilee
year and the release of captives and the return from the
Babylonian exile with the hope of the Messiah through it all.
Jesus here applies this Messianic language to himself. "The
Spirit of the Lord is upon me" as was shown at the baptism (Lu
where he was also "anointed" for his mission by the
Father's voice (3:22). {To the poor} (\ptōchois\). Jesus
singles this out also as one of the items to tell John the
Baptist in prison (Lu 7:22). Our word _Gospel_ is a translation
of the Greek \Euaggelion\, and it is for the poor. {He hath sent
(\apestalken me\). Change of tense to perfect active
indicative. He is now on that mission here. Jesus is God's
_Apostle_ to men (Joh 17:3, Whom thou didst send). {Proclaim}
(\kēruxai\). As a herald like Noah (2Pe 2:5). {To the captives}
(\aichmalōtois\). Prisoners of war will be released (\aichmē\, a
spear point, and \halōtos\, from \haliskomai\, to be captured)
Captured by the spear point. Common word, but here only in the
N.T. {Set at liberty} (\aposteilai\). First aorist active
infinitive of \apostellō\. Same verb as \apestalken\, above.
Brought in here from Isa 58:6. Plummer suggests that Luke
inserts it here from memory. But Jesus could easily have turned
back the roll and read it so. {Them that are bruised}
(\tethrausmenous\). Perfect passive participle of \thrauō\, an
old verb, but here only in the N.T. It means to break in pieces
broken in heart and often in body as well. One loves to think
that Jesus felt it to be his mission to mend broken hearts like
pieces of broken earthenware, real rescue-mission work. Jesus
mends them and sets them free from their limitations.

4:19 {The acceptable year of the Lord} (\eniauton Kuriou
. He does not mean that his ministry is to be only one
year in length as Clement of Alexandria and Origen argued. That
is to turn figures into fact. The Messianic age has come, Jesus
means to say. On the first day of the year of Jubilee the priests
with sound of trumpet proclaimed the blessings of that year (Le
. This great passage justly pictures Christ's conception
of his mission and message.

4:20 {He closed the book} (\ptuxas to biblion\). Aorist active
participle of \ptussō\. Rolled up the roll and gave it back to
the attendant who had given it to him and who put it away again
in its case. {Sat down} (\ekathisen\). Took his seat there as a
sign that he was going to speak instead of going back to his
former seat. This was the usual Jewish attitude for public
speaking and teaching (Lu 5:3; Mt 5:1; Mr 4:1; Ac 16:13). {Were
fastened on him}
(\ēsan atenizontes autōi\). Periphrastic
imperfect active and so a vivid description. Literally, the eyes
of all in the synagogue were gazing fixedly upon him. The verb
\atenizō\ occurs in Aristotle and the Septuagint. It is from the
adjective \atenēs\ and that from \teinō\, to stretch, and
copulative or intensive \a\, not \a\ privative. The word occurs
in the N.T. here and in 22:56, ten times in Acts, and in 2Co
3:7,13. Paul uses it of the steady eager gaze of the people at
Moses when he came down from the mountain when he had been
communing with God. There was something in the look of Jesus here
that held the people spellbound for the moment, apart from the
great reputation with which he came to them. In small measure
every effective speaker knows what it is to meet the eager
expectations of an audience.

4:21 {And he began to say} (\ērxato de legein\). Aorist
ingressive active indicative and present infinitive. He began
speaking. The moment of hushed expectancy was passed. These may
or may not be the first words uttered here by Jesus. Often the
first sentence is the crucial one in winning an audience.
Certainly this is an arresting opening sentence. {Hath been
(\peplērōtai\). Perfect passive indicative, {stands
. "Today this scripture (Isa 61:1,2, just read)
stands fulfilled in your ears." It was a most amazing statement
and the people of Nazareth were quick to see the Messianic claim
involved. Jesus could only mean that the real year of Jubilee had
come, that the Messianic prophecy of Isaiah had come true today,
and that in him they saw the Messiah of prophecy. There are
critics today who deny that Jesus claimed to be the Messiah. To
be able to do that, they must reject the Gospel of John and all
such passages as this one. And it is no apocalyptic
eschatological Messiah whom Jesus here sets forth, but the one
who forgives sin and binds up the broken-hearted. The words were
too good to be true and to be spoken here at Nazareth by one of
their own townsmen!

4:22 {Bare him witness} (\emarturoun\). Imperfect active, perhaps
inchoative. They all began to bear witness that the rumours were
not exaggerations (4:14) as they had supposed, but had
foundation in fact if this discourse or its start was a fair
sample of his teaching. The verb \martureō\ is a very old and
common one. It is frequent in Acts, Paul's Epistles, and the
Johannine books. The substantive \martur\ is seen in our English
\martyr\, one who witnesses even by his death to his faith in
Christ. {And wondered} (\kai ethaumazon\). Imperfect active also,
perhaps inchoative also. They began to marvel as he proceeded
with his address. This verb is an old one and common in the
Gospels for the attitude of the people towards Jesus. {At the
words of grace}
(\epi tois logois tēs charitos\). See on ¯Lu
1:30; 2:52 for this wonderful word \charis\ so full of meaning
and so often in the N.T. The genitive case (case of genus or
here means that the words that came out of the mouth of
Jesus in a steady stream (present tense, \ekporeuomenois\) were
marked by fascination and charm. They were "winning words" as the
context makes plain, though they were also "gracious" in the
Pauline sense of "grace." There is no necessary antithesis in the
ideas of graceful and gracious in these words of Jesus. {Is not
this Joseph's son?}
(\Ouchi huios estin Iōsēph houtos;\). Witness
and wonder gave way to bewilderment as they began to explain to
themselves the situation. The use of \ouchi\ intensive form of
\ouk\ in a question expects the answer "yes." Jesus passed in
Nazareth as the son of Joseph as Luke presents him in 3:23. He
does not stop here to correct this misconception because the
truth has been already amply presented in 1:28-38; 2:49. This
popular conception of Jesus as the son of Joseph appears also in
Joh 1:45. The puzzle of the people was due to their previous
knowledge of Jesus as the carpenter (Mr 6:3; the carpenter's
son, Mt 13:55)
. For him now to appear as the Messiah in
Nazareth where he had lived and laboured as the carpenter was a
phenomenon impossible to credit on sober reflection. So the mood
of wonder and praise quickly turned with whispers and nods and
even scowls to doubt and hostility, a rapid and radical
transformation of emotion in the audience.

4:23 {Doubtless} (\pantōs\). Adverb. Literally, at any rate,
certainly, assuredly. Cf. Ac 21:22; 28:4. {This parable} (\tēn
parabolēn tautēn\)
. See discussion on ¯Mt 13. Here the word has
a special application to a crisp proverb which involves a
comparison. The word physician is the point of comparison. Luke
the physician alone gives this saying of Jesus. The proverb means
that the physician was expected to take his own medicine and to
heal himself. The word \parabolē\ in the N.T. is confined to the
Synoptic Gospels except Heb 9:9; 11:19. This use for a proverb
occurs also in Lu 5:36; 6:39. This proverb in various forms
appears not only among the Jews, but in Euripides and Aeschylus
among the Greeks, and in Cicero's _Letters_. Hobart quotes the
same idea from Galen, and the Chinese used to demand it of their
physicians. The point of the parable seems to be that the people
were expecting him to make good his claim to the Messiahship by
doing here in Nazareth what they had heard of his doing in
Capernaum and elsewhere. "Establish your claims by direct
evidence" (Easton). This same appeal (Vincent) was addressed to
Christ on the Cross (Mt 27:40,42). There is a tone of sarcasm
towards Jesus in both cases. {Heard done} (\ēkousamen genomena\).
The use of this second aorist middle participle \genomena\ after
\ēkousamen\ is a neat Greek idiom. It is punctiliar action in
indirect discourse after this verb of sensation or emotion
(Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1040-42, 1122-24). {Do also here}
(\poiēson kai hōde\). Ingressive aorist active imperative. Do it
here in thy own country and town and do it now. Jesus applies the
proverb to himself as an interpretation of their real attitude
towards himself.

4:24 {And he said} (\eipen de\). Also in 1:13. The interjection
of these words here by Luke may indicate a break in his address,
though there is no other indication of an interval here. Perhaps
they only serve to introduce solemnly the new proverb like the
words {Verily I say unto you} (\amēn legō humin\). This proverb
about the prophet having no honour in his own country Jesus had
already applied to himself according to Joh 4:44. Both Mr 6:4
and Mt 13:57 give it in a slightly altered form on the last
visit of Jesus to Nazareth. The devil had tempted Jesus to make a
display of his power to the people by letting them see him
floating down from the pinnacle of the temple (Lu 4:9-11).

4:25 {Three years and six months} (\etē tria kai mēnas hex\).
Accusative of duration of time without \epi\ (doubtful). The same
period is given in Jas 5:17, the popular Jewish way of
speaking. In 1Ki 18:1 the rain is said to have come in the
third year. But the famine probably lasted still longer.

4:26 {Unto Zarephath} (\eis Sarepta\). The modern village
Surafend on the coast road between Tyre and Sidon. {Unto a woman
that was a widow}
(\pros gunaika chēran\). Literally, unto a
woman a widow (like our vernacular widow woman). This is an
illustration of the proverb from the life of Elijah (1Ki
. This woman was in the land of Sidon or Phoenicia, a
heathen, where Jesus himself will go later.

4:27 {In the time of Elisha the prophet} (\epi Elisaiou tou
. This use of \epi\ with the genitive for "in the time
of" is a good Greek idiom. The second illustration of the proverb
is from the time of Elisha and is another heathen, {Naaman the
(\Naiman ho Syros\). He was the lone leper that was
cleansed by Elisha (2Ki 5:1,14).

4:28 {They were all filled with wrath} (\eplēsthēsan pantes
. First aorist passive indicative of the common verb
\pimplēmi\ followed by the genitive case. The people of Nazareth
at once caught on and saw the point of these two Old Testament
illustrations of how God in two cases blessed the heathen instead
of the Jewish people. The implication was evident. Nazareth was
no better than Capernaum if as good. He was under no special
obligation to do unusual things in Nazareth because he had been
reared there. Town pride was insulted and it at once exploded in
a burst of rage.

4:29 {They rose up and cast him forth} (\anastantes exebalon\).
Second aorist ingressive active participle and second aorist
effective active indicative. A movement towards lynching Jesus.
{Unto the brow of the hill} (\hēos ophruos tou orous\). Eyebrow
(\ophrus\), in Homer, then any jutting prominence. Only here in
the N.T. Hippocrates speaks of the eyebrow hanging over. {Was
(\ōikodomēto\). Past perfect indicative, stood built.
{That they might throw him down headlong} (\hōste katakrēmnisai
. Neat Greek idiom with \hōste\ for intended result, "so
as to cast him down the precipice." The infinitive alone can
convey the same meaning (Mt 2:2; 20:28; Lu 2:23). \Krēmnos\ is
an overhanging bank or precipice from \kremannumi\, to hang.
\Kata\ is down. The verb occurs in Xenophon, Demosthenes, LXX,
Josephus. Here only in the N.T. At the southwest corner of the
town of Nazareth such a cliff today exists overhanging the
Maronite convent. Murder was in the hearts of the people. By
pushing him over they hoped to escape technical guilt.

4:30 {He went his way} (\eporeueto\). Imperfect tense, he was
going on his way.

4:31 {Came down} (\katēlthen\). Mr 1:21 has the historical
present, {they go into} (\eisporeuontai\). Capernaum (Tell Hum)
is now the headquarters of the Galilean ministry, since Nazareth
has rejected Jesus. Lu 4:31-37 is parallel with Mr 1:21-28
which he manifestly uses. It is the first of Christ's miracles
which they give. {Was teaching them} (\ēn didaskōn autous\).
Periphrastic imperfect. Mark has \edidasken\ first and then \en
didaskōn\. "Them" here means the people present in the synagogue
on the sabbath, construction according to sense as in Mr 1:22.

4:32 Rest of the sentence as in Mark, which see, except that Luke
omits "and not as their scribes" and uses \hoti ēn\ instead of
\hōs echōn\.

4:33 {Which had} (\echōn\). Mark has \en\. {A spirit of an
unclean demon}
(\pneuma daimoniou akathartou\). Mark has "unclean
spirit." Luke's phrase here is unique in this combination.
Plummer notes that Matthew has \daimonion\ ten times and
\akatharton\ twice as an epithet of \pneuma\; Mark has
\daimonion\ thirteen times and \akatharton\ eleven times as an
epithet of \pneuma\. Luke's Gospel uses \daimonion\ twenty-two
times and \akatharton\ as an epithet, once of \daimonion\ as here
and once of \pneuma\. In Mark the man is in (\en\) the power of
the unclean spirit, while here the man "has" a spirit of an
unclean demon. {With a loud voice} (\phōnēi megalēi\). Not in
Mark. Really a scream caused by the sudden contact of the demon
with Jesus.

4:34 {Ah!} (\Ea\). An interjection frequent in the Attic poets,
but rare in prose. Apparently second person singular imperative
of \eaō\, to permit. It is expressive of wonder, fear,
indignation. Here it amounts to a diabolical screech. For the
rest of the verse see discussion on ¯Mr 1:24 and ¯Mt 8:29. The
muzzle (\phimos\) occurs literally in 1Co 9:9, 1Ti 5:18, and
metaphorically here and Mr 1:25; 4:39; Mt 22:12.

4:35 {Had thrown him down in the midst} (\rhipsan auton eis to
. First aorist (effective) participle of \rhiptō\, an old
verb with violent meaning, to fling, throw, hurl off or down.
{Having done him no hurt} (\mēden blapsan auton\). Luke as a
physician carefully notes this important detail not in Mark.
\Blaptō\, to injure, or hurt, occurs in the N.T. only here and in
Mr 16:18, though a very common verb in the old Greek.

4:36 {Amazement came} (\egeneto thambos\). Mark has
\ethambēthēsan\. {They spake together one with another}
(\sunelaloun pros allēlous\). Imperfect indicative active and the
reciprocal pronoun. Mark has simply the infinitive \sunzētein\
(question). {For} (\hoti\). We have here an ambiguous \hoti\ as
in 1:45, which can be either the relative "that" or the casual
\hoti\ "because" or "for," as the Revised Version has it. Either
makes good sense. Luke adds here \dunamei\ (with power) to Mark's
"authority" (\exousian\). {And they come out} (\exerchontai\). So
Luke where Mark has "and they obey him" (\kai upakouousin

4:37 {Went forth a rumour} (\exeporeueto ēchos\). Imperfect
middle, kept on going forth. Our very word \echo\ in this word.
Late Greek form for \ēchō\ in the old Greek. Used for the roar of
the waves on the shore. So in Lu 21:25. Vivid picture of the
resounding influence of this day's work in the synagogue, in

4:38 {He rose up} (\anastas\). Second aorist active participle of
\anistēmi\, a common verb. B. Weiss adds here "from the teacher's
seat." Either from his seat or merely leaving the synagogue. This
incident of the healing of Peter's mother-in-law is given in Mr
1:29-34 and Mt 8:14-17, which see for details. {Into the house
of Simon}
(\eis tēn oikian Simōnos\). "Peter's house" (Mt
. "The house of Simon and Andrew" (Mr 1:29). Paul's
reference to Peter's wife (1Co 9:5) is pertinent. They lived
together in Capernaum. This house came also to be the Capernaum
home of Jesus. {Simon's wife's mother} (\penthera tou Simōnos\).
The word \penthera\ for mother-in-law is old and well established
in usage. Besides the parallel passages (Mr 1:30; Mt 8:14; Lu
it occurs in the N.T. only in Lu 12:53. The
corresponding word \pentheros\, father-in-law, occurs in Joh
18:13 alone in the N.T. {Was holden with a great fever} (\ēn
sunechomenē puretōi megalōi\)
. Periphrastic imperfect passive,
the analytical tense accenting the continuous fever, perhaps
chronic and certainly severe. Luke employs this verb nine times
and only three others in the N.T. (Mt 4:24 passive with
diseases here; 2Co 5:14 active; Php 1:23 passive)
. In Ac
28:8 the passive "with dysentery" is like the construction here
and is a common one in Greek medical writers as in Greek
literature generally. Luke uses the passive with "fear," Lu
8:37, the active for holding the hands over the ears (Ac 7:57)
and for pressing one or holding together (Lu 8:45; 19:43;
, the direct middle for holding oneself to preaching (Ac
. It is followed here by the instrumental case. Hobart
(_Medical Language of Luke_, p. 3) quotes Galen as dividing
fevers into "great" (\megaloi\) and "small" (\smikroi\).

4:39 {He stood over her} (\epistas epanō autēs\). Second aorist
active participle. Only in Luke. Surely we are not to take Luke
to mean that Jesus here took the exorcist's position and was
rebuking a malignant personality. The attitude of Jesus is
precisely that of any kindly sympathetic physician. Mr 1:31; Mt
8:15 mention the touch of her hand rather than the tender look
over her head. {Rebuked} (\epetimēsen\). Only in Luke. Jesus bade
the fever leave her as he spoke to the wind and the waves and
Luke uses this same verb (8:24). {Rose up and ministered}
(\anastāsa diēkonei\). Second aorist active participle as in
verse 38, but inchoative imperfect tense \diēkonei\, from
\diakoneō\ (note augment of compound verb). She rose up
immediately, though a long high fever usually leaves one very
weak. The cure was instantaneous and complete. She began to
minister at once and kept it up.

4:40 {When the sun was setting} (\dunontos tou hēliou\). Genitive
absolute and present participle (\dunō\, late form of \duō\)
picturing the sunset scene. Even Mr 1:32 has here the aorist
indicative \edusen\ (punctiliar active). It was not only cooler,
but it was the end of the sabbath when it was not regarded as
work (Vincent) to carry a sick person (Joh 5:10). And also by
now the news of the cure of the demoniac of Peter's mother-in-law
had spread all over the town. {Had} (\eichon\). Imperfect tense
including all the chronic cases. {With divers diseases} (\nosois
. Instrumental case. For "divers" say "many coloured"
or "variegated." See on ¯Mt 4:24; Mr 1:34. {Brought} (\ēgagon\).
Constative summary second aorist active indicative like Mt
8:16, \prosenegkan\, where Mr 1:32 has the imperfect
\epheron\, brought one after another. {He laid his hands on every
one of them and healed them}
(\ho de heni hekastōi autōn tas
cheiras epititheis etherapeuen autous\)
. Note the present active
participle \epititheis\ and the imperfect active \etherapeuen\,
picturing the healing one by one with the tender touch upon each
one. Luke alone gives this graphic detail which was more than a
mere ceremonial laying on of hands. Clearly the cures of Jesus
reached the physical, mental, and spiritual planes of human
nature. He is Lord of life and acted here as Master of each case
as it came.

4:41 {Came out} (\exērcheto\, singular, or \exērchonto\, plural).
Imperfect tense, repetition, from one after another. {Thou art
the Son of God}
(\Su ei ho huios tou theou\). More definite
statement of the deity of Jesus than the witness of the demoniac
in the synagogue (Lu 4:34; Mr 1:24), like the words of the
Father (Lu 3:22) and more so than the condition of the devil
(Lu 4:3,9). In the Canterbury Revision "devils" should always
be "demons" (\daimonia\) as here. {Suffered them not to speak}
(\ouk eia auta lalein\). Imperfect third singular active of
\eaō\, very old and common verb with syllabic augment \ei\. The
tense accents the continued refusal of Jesus to receive testimony
to his person and work from demons. Cf. Mt 8:4 to the lepers.
{Because they knew} (\hoti ēideisan\). Causal, not declarative,
\hoti\. Past perfect of the second perfect \oida\. {That he was
the Christ}
(\ton Christon auton einai\). Infinitive in indirect
assertion with the accusative of general reference. \Ton
Christon\ = {the Anointed}, the Messiah.

4:42 {When it was day} (\genomenēs hēmeras\). Genitive absolute
with aorist middle participle. Mr 1:35 notes it was "a great
while before day" (which see for discussion) when Jesus rose up
to go after a restless night. No doubt, because of the excitement
of the previous sabbath in Capernaum. He went out to pray (Mr
. {Sought after him} (\epezētoun auton\). Imperfect active
indicative. The multitudes kept at it until "they came unto him"
(\ēlthon heōs autou\, aorist active indicative). They
accomplished their purpose, \heōs autou\, right up to him. {Would
have stayed him}
(\kateichon auton\). Better, {They tried to
hinder him}
. The conative imperfect active of \katechō\, an old
and common verb. It means either to hold fast (Lu 8:15), to
take, get possession of (Lu 14:9) or to hold back, to retain,
to restrain (Phm 1:13; Ro 1:18; 7:6; 2Th 2:6; Lu 4:42). In this
passage it is followed by the ablative case. {That he should not
go from them}
(\tou mē poreuesthai ap' autōn\). Literally, "from
going away from them." The use of \mē\ (not) after \kateichon\ is
the neat Greek idiom of the redundant negative after a verb of
hindering like the French _ne_ (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1171) .

4:43 {I must} (\me dei\). Jesus felt the urge to go with the work
of evangelism "to the other cities also," to all, not to a
favoured few. {For therefore was I sent} (\hoti epi touto
. "A phrase of Johannine ring" (Ragg). Second aorist
passive indicative of \apostellō\. Christ is the great Apostle of
God to men.

4:44 {Was preaching} (\ēn kērussōn\). Periphrastic imperfect
active, describing his first tour of Galilee in accord with the
purpose just stated. One must fill in details, though Mr 1:39
and Mt 8:23-25 tell of the mass of work done on this campaign.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Luke: Chapter 4)