[Table of Contents]
[Previous] [Next]
Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Luke: Chapter 24)

24:1 {At early dawn} (\orthrou batheos\). Genitive of time.
Literally, at deep dawn. The adjective \bathus\ (deep) was often
used of time. This very idiom occurs in Aristophanes, Plato, et
cetera. Joh 20:1 adds "while it was yet dark." That is, when
they started, for the sun was risen when they arrived (Mr
. {Which they had prepared} (\ha hētoimasan\). Mr 16:1
notes that they bought other spices after the sabbath was over
besides those which they already had (Lu 23:56).

24:2 {Rolled away} (\apokekulismenon\). Perfect passive
participle of \apokuliō\, late verb and in the N.T. only in this
context (Mr 16:3; Mt 28:2) while Joh 20:1 has \ērmenon\
(taken away).

24:3 {Of the Lord Jesus} (\tou kuriou Iēsou\). The Western family
of documents does not have these words and Westcott and Hort
bracket them as Western non-interpolations. There are numerous
instances of this shorter Western text in this chapter. For a
discussion of the subject see my _Introduction to the Textual
Criticism of the New Testament_, pp. 225-237. This precise
combination (the Lord Jesus) is common in the Acts, but nowhere
else in the Gospels.

24:4 {While they were perplexed thereabout} (\en tōi aporeisthai
autas peri toutou\)
. Luke's common Hebraistic idiom, \en\ with
the articular infinitive (present passive \aporeisthai\ from
\aporeō\, to lose one's way)
and the accusative of general
reference. {Two men} (\andres duo\). Men, not women. Mr 16:5
speaks of a young man (\neaniskon\) while Mt 28:5 has "an
angel." We need not try to reconcile these varying accounts which
agree in the main thing. The angel looked like a man and some
remembered two. In verse 23 Cleopas and his companion call them
"angels." {Stood by} (\epestēsan\). Second aorist active
indicative of \ephistēmi\. This common verb usually means to step
up suddenly, to burst upon one. {In dazzling apparel} (\en
esthēti astraptousēi\)
. This is the correct text. This common
simplex verb occurs only twice in the N.T., here and Lu 17:24
(the Transfiguration). It has the same root as \astrapē\
(lightning). The "men" had the garments of "angels."

24:5 {As they were affrighted} (\emphobōn genomenōn autōn\).
Genitive absolute with second aorist middle of \ginomai\, to
become. Hence, {when they became affrighted}. They had utterly
forgotten the prediction of Jesus that he would rise on the third

24:6 {He is not here, but is risen} (\ouk estin hōde, alla
. Another Western non-interpolation according to
Westcott and Hort. The words are genuine at any rate in Mr 16:6;
Mt 28:7. {The third day rise again} (\tēi tritēi hēmerāi
. See 9:22; 18:32,33 where Jesus plainly foretold
this fact. And yet they had forgotten it, for it ran counter to
all their ideas and hopes.

24:9 {From the tomb} (\apo tou mnēmeiou\). Some documents omit
these words. This word for tomb is like our "memorial" from
\mimnēskō\, to remind. {Told} (\apēggeilan\). It was a wonderful
proclamation. Luke does not separate the story of Mary Magdalene
from that of the other women as John does (Joh 20:2-18).

24:11 {As idle talk} (\hōs lēros\). Old word for nonsense, only
here in the N.T. Medical writers used it for the wild talk of
those in delirium or hysteria. {Disbelieved} (ēpistoun).
Imperfect active of \apisteō\, old verb from \apistos\, without
confidence or faith in. They kept on distrusting the story of the

24:12 This entire verse is a Western non-interpolation. This
incident is given in complete form in Joh 18:2-10 and most of
the words in this verse are there also. It is of a piece with
many items in this chapter about which it is not easy to reach a
final conclusion. {Stooping and looking in} (\parakupsas\). First
aorist active participle of \parakuptō\, to stoop besides and
peer into. Old verb used also in Joh 20:5,11; Jas 1:25; 1Pe
1:12. {By themselves} (\mona\). Without the body. {To his home}
(\pros hauton\). Literally, "to himself."

24:13 {Were going} (\ēsan poreuomenoi\). Periphrastic imperfect
middle of \poreuomai\. {Sixty stadia} (\stadious hexēkonta\).
About seven miles.

24:14 {They communed} (\hōmiloun\). Imperfect active of
\homileō\, old and common verb (from \homilos\, in company with).
In the N.T. only here (and verse 15) and Ac 20:11; 24:26. Our
word homiletics is derived from this word for preaching was at
first largely conversational in style and not declamatory.

24:15 {While they communed and questioned together} (\en tōi
homilein autous kai sunzētein\)
. Same idiom as in verse 14,
which see. Note \sunzētein\; each questioned the other. {Jesus
(\autos Iēsous\). In actual person. {Went with them}
(\suneporeueto autois\). Imperfect middle, was going along with

24:16 {Were holden that they should not know him} (\ekratounto
tou mē epignōnai auton\)
. Imperfect passive of \krateō\,
continued being held, with the ablative case of the articular
infinitive, "from recognizing him," from knowing him fully
(\epi-gnōnai\, ingressive aorist of \epiginōsko\). The \mē\ is a
redundant negative after the negative idea in \ekratounto\.

24:17 {That you have with another} (\hous antiballete pros
. \Anti-ballō\ is an old verb and means to throw in
turn, back and forth like a ball, from one to another, a
beautiful picture of conversation as a game of words. Only here
in the N.T. {They stood still} (\estathēsan\). First aorist
passive of \histēmi\, intransitive. They stopped. {Looking sad}
(\skuthrōpoi\). This is the correct text. It is an old adjective
from \skuthros\, gloomy and \ops\, countenance. Only here in the

24:18 {Dost thou alone sojourn?} (\su monos paroikeis;\). \Monos\
is predicate adjective. "Hast thou been dwelling alone (all by
?" {And not know?} (\kai ouk egnōs;\). Second aorist
active indicative and difficult to put into English as the aorist
often is. The verb \paroikeō\ means to dwell beside one, then as
a stranger like \paroikoi\ (Eph 2:19). In Jerusalem everybody
was talking about Jesus.

24:21 {But we hoped} (\hēmeis de ēlpizomen\). Imperfect active,
we were hoping. Note emphasis in \hēmeis\ (we). {Redeem}
(\lutrousthai\). From the bondage of Rome, no doubt. {Yea and
beside all this}
(\alla ge kai sun pāsin toutois\). Particles
pile up to express their emotions. {Yea} (\alla\ here
affirmative, as in verse 22, not adversative)
at least (\ge\)
also (\kai\) together with all these things (\sun pāsin
. Like Pelion on Ossa with them in their perplexity.
{Now the third day} (\tritēn tautēn hēmeran agei\). A difficult
idiom for the English. "One is keeping this a third day." And he
is still dead and we are still without hope.

24:22 {Amazed us} (\exestēsan hēmas\). First aorist active
(transitive) indicative with accusative \hēmas\ of \existēmi\.
The second aorist active is intransitive. {Early} (\orthrinai\).
A poetic and late form for \orthrios\. In the N.T. only here and
Re 24:22. Predicate adjective agreeing with the women.

24:23 {Had seen} (\heōrakenai\). Perfect active infinitive in
indirect assertion after \legousai\. Same construction for \zēin\
after \legousin\. But all this was too indirect and uncertain
(women and angels) for Cleopas and his companion.

24:25 {Foolish men} (\anoētoi\). Literally without sense
(\nous\), not understanding. Common word. {Slow of heart}
(\bradeis tēi kardiāi\). Slow in heart (locative case). Old word
for one dull, slow to comprehend or to act. {All that} (\pāsin
. Relative attracted from the accusative \ha\ to the case
of the antecedent \pāsin\ (dative). They could only understand
part of the prophecies, not all.

24:26 {Behooved it not?} (\ouchi edei;\). Was it not necessary?
The very things about the death of Jesus that disturbed them so
were the strongest proof that he was the Messiah of the Old

24:27 {Interpreted} (\diērmēneusen\). First aorist active
(constative aorist) indicative of \diermēneuō\ (Margin has the
imperfect \diērmēneuen\)
, intensive compound (\dia\) of
\hermēneuō\, the old verb to interpret from \hermēneus\,
interpreter, and that from \Hermēs\, the messenger of the gods as
the people of Lystra took Paul to be (Ac 14:12). But what
wonderful exegesis the two disciples were now hearing!
{Concerning himself} (\peri heauton\). Jesus found himself in the
Old Testament, a thing that some modern scholars do not seem able
to do.

24:28 {Made as though} (\prosepoiēsato\). First aorist active
middle (Some MSS. have \prosepoieito\ imperfect) indicative of
\prospoieō\, old verb to conform oneself to, to pretend. Only
here in the N.T. Of course he would have gone on if the disciples
had not urged him to stay.

24:29 {Constrained} (\parebiasanto\). Strong verb \parabiazomai\,
to compel by use of force (Polybius and LXX). In the N.T. only
here and Ac 16:15. It was here compulsion of courteous words.
{Is far spent} (\kekliken\). Perfect active indicative of
\klinō\. The day "has turned" toward setting.

24:30 {When he had sat down} (\en tōi kataklithēnai auton\).
Luke's common idiom as in verses 4,15. Note first aorist
passive infinitive (on the reclining as to him). {Gave}
(\epedidou\). Imperfect, inchoative idea, began to give to them,
in contrast with the preceding aorist (punctiliar) participles.

24:31 {Were opened} (\diēnoichthēsan\). Ingressive first aorist
passive indicative of \dianoigō\. {Knew} (\epegnōsan\). Effective
first aorist active indicative fully recognized him. Same word in
verse 16. {Vanished} (\aphantos egeneto\). Became invisible or
unmanifested. \Aphantos\ from \a\ privative and \phainomai\, to
appear. Old word, only here in the N.T.

24:32 {Was not our heart burning?} (\Ouchi hē kardia hemōn
kaiomenē ēn;\)
. Periphrastic imperfect middle. {Spake}
(\elalei\). Imperfect active, was speaking. This common verb
\laleō\ is onomatopoetic, to utter a sound, \la-la\ and was used
of birds, children chattering, and then for conversation, for
preaching, for any public speech. {Opened} (\diēnoigen\).
Imperfect active indicative of the same verb used of the eyes in
verse 31.

24:33 {That very hour} (\autēi tēi hōrāi\). Locative case and
common Lukan idiom, at the hour itself. They could not wait.
{Gathered} (\ēthroismenous\). Perfect passive participle of
\athroizō\, old verb from \athroos\ (copulative \a\ and \throos\,
. Only here in the N.T.

24:34 {Saying} (\legontas\). Accusative present active participle
agreeing with "the eleven and those with them" in verse 33.
{Indeed} (\ontōs\). Really, because "he has appeared to Simon"
(\ōpthē Simōni\). First aorist passive indicative of \horaō\.
This is the crucial evidence that turned the scales with the
disciples and explains "indeed." Paul also mentions it (1Co

24:35 {Rehearsed} (\exēgounto\). Imperfect middle indicative of
\exēgeomai\, verb to lead out, to rehearse. Our word exegesis
comes from this verb. Their story was now confirmatory, not
revolutionary. The women were right then after all. {Of them}
(\autois\). To them, dative case. They did not recognize Jesus in
his exegesis, but did in the breaking of bread. One is reminded
of that saying in the _Logia of Jesus_: "Raise the stone and
there thou shalt find me, cleave the wood and there am I."

24:36 {He himself stood} (\autos estē\). He himself stepped and
stood. Some documents do not have "Peace be unto you."

24:37 {Terrified} (\ptoēthentes\). First aorist passive
participle of \ptoeō\, old verb and in the N.T. only here and Lu
21:9 which see. {Affrighted} (\emphoboi genomenoi\). Late
adjective from \en\ and \phobos\ (fear). Both these terms of fear
are strong. {Supposed} (\edokoun\). Imperfect active of \dokeō\,
kept on thinking so.

24:38 {Why are ye troubled?} (\ti tetaragmenoi este;\).
Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of \tarassō\, old verb,
to agitate, to stir up, to get excited.

24:39 {Myself} (\autos\). Jesus is patient with his proof. They
were convinced before he came into the room, but that
psychological shock had unnerved them all. {Handle}
(\psēlaphēsate\). This very word is used in 1Jo 1:1 as proof of
the actual human body of Jesus. It is an old verb for touching
with the hand. {Flesh and bones} (\sarka kai ostea\). At least
this proves that he is not just a ghost and that Jesus had a real
human body against the Docetic Gnostics who denied it. But
clearly we are not to understand that our resurrection bodies
will have "flesh and bones." Jesus was in a transition state and
had not yet been glorified. The mystery remains unsolved, but it
was proof to the disciples of the identity of the Risen Christ
with Jesus of Nazareth.

24:40 Another Western non-interpolation according to Westcott and
Hort. It is genuine in Joh 20:20.

24:41 {Disbelieved for joy} (\apistountōn autōn apo tēs charas\).
Genitive absolute and a quite understandable attitude. They were
slowly reconvinced, but it was after all too good to be true.
{Anything to eat} (\brōsimon\). Only here in the N.T., though an
old word from \bibrōskō\, to eat.

24:42 {A piece of broiled fish} (\ichthuos optou meros\). \Optos\
is a verbal from \optaō\, to cook, to roast, to broil. Common
word, but only here in the N.T. The best old documents omit "and
a honeycomb" (\kai apo melissiou kēriou\).

24:44 {While I was yet with you} (\eti ōn sun humin\). Literally,
{Being yet with you}. The participle \ōn\ takes the time of the
principal verb.

24:45 {Opened he their mind} (\diēnoixen autōn ton noun\). The
same verb as that in verses 31,32 about the eyes and the
Scriptures. Jesus had all these years been trying to open their
minds that they might understand the Scriptures about the Messiah
and now at last he makes one more effort in the light of the
Cross and the Resurrection. They can now see better the will and
way of God, but they will still need the power of the Holy Spirit
before they will fully know the mind of Christ.

24:46 {It is written} (\gegraptai\). Perfect passive indicative
of \graphō\, to write, the usual phrase for quoting Scripture.
Jesus now finds in the Old Testament his suffering, his
resurrection, and the preaching of repentance and forgiveness of
sins to all nations. Note the infinitives \pathein, anastēnai,

24:47 {Beginning} (\arxamenoi\). Aorist middle participle of
\archō\, but the nominative plural with no syntactical connection
(an anacoluthon).

24:49 {Until ye be clothed} (\heōs hou endusēsthe\). First aorist
middle subjunctive of \enduō\ or \endunō\. It is an old verb for
putting on a garment. It is here the indirect middle, put on
yourselves power from on high as a garment. They are to wait till
this experience comes to them. This is "the promise of the
Father." It is an old metaphor in Homer, Aristophanes, Plutarch,
and Paul uses it often.

24:50 {Over against Bethany} (\heōs pros Bēthanian\). That is on
Olivet. On this blessed spot near where he had delivered the
great Eschatological Discourse he could see Bethany and

24:51 {He parted from them} (\diestē ap' autōn\). Second aorist
active (intransitive) indicative of \diistēmi\. He stood apart
(\dia\) and he was gone. Some manuscripts do not have the words
"and was carried into heaven." But we know that Jesus was taken
up into heaven on a cloud (Ac 1:9).

24:52 {Worshipped him} (\proskunēsantes auton\). Here again we
have one of Westcott and Hort's Western non-interpolations that
may be genuine or not. {With great joy} (\meta charas megalēs\).
Now that the Ascension has come they are no longer in despair.
Joy becomes the note of victory as it is today. No other note can
win victories for Christ. The bells rang in heaven to greet the
return of Jesus there, but he set the carillon of joy to ringing
on earth in human hearts in all lands and for all time.

[Table of Contents]
[Previous] [Next]
Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Luke: Chapter 24)