[Table of Contents]
[Previous] [Next]
Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Luke: Chapter 14)

14:1 {When he went} (\en tōi elthein auton\). Luke's favourite
temporal clause = "on the going as to him." {That} (\kai\).
Another common Lukan idiom, \kai=hoti\ after \egeneto\, like
Hebrew _wav_. {They} (\autoi\). Emphatic. {Were watching} (\ēsan
. Periphrastic imperfect middle. Note force of
\autoi\, middle voice, and \para-\. They were themselves watching
on the side (on the sly), watching insidiously, with evil intent
as in Mr 3:2 (active).

14:2 {Which had the dropsy} (\hudrōpikos\). Late and medical word
from \hudōr\ (water), one who has internal water (\hudrōps\).
Here only in the N.T. and only example of the disease healed by
Jesus and recorded.

14:3 {Answering} (\apokritheis\). First aorist passive participle
without the passive meaning. Jesus answered the thoughts of those
mentioned in verse 1. Here "lawyers and Pharisees" are treated
as one class with one article (\tous\) whereas in 7:30 they are
treated as two classes with separate articles. {Or not} (\ē ou\).
The dilemma forestalled any question by them. {They held their
(\hēsuchasan\). Ingressive aorist active of old verb
\hēsuchazō\. They became silent, more so than before.

14:4 {Took him} (\epilabomenos\). Second aorist middle participle
of \epilambanō\, an old verb, only in the middle in the N.T. It
is not redundant use, "took and healed," but "took hold of him
and healed him." Only instance in the N.T. of its use in a case
of healing. {Let him go} (\apelusen\). Probably, dismissed from
the company to get him away from these critics.

14:5 {An ass or an ox} (\onos ē bous\). But Westcott and Hort
\huios ē bous\ ({a son or an ox}). The manuscripts are much
divided between \huios\ (son) and \onos\ (ass) which in the
abbreviated uncials looked much alike (TC, OC) and were much
alike. The sentence in the Greek reads literally thus: Whose ox
or ass of you shall fall (\peseitai\, future middle of \pipto\)
into a well and he (the man) will not straightway draw him up
(\anaspasei\, future active of \anaspaō\) on the sabbath day? The
very form of the question is a powerful argument and puts the
lawyers and the Pharisees hopelessly on the defensive.

14:6 {Could not answer again} (\ouk ischusan antapokrithēnai\).
Did not have strength to answer back or in turn (\anti-\) as in
Ro 9:20. They could not take up the argument and were helpless.
They hated to admit that they cared more for an ox or ass or even
a son than for this poor dropsical man.

14:7 {A parable for those which were bidden} (\pros tous
keklēmenous parabolēn\)
. Perfect passive participle of \kaleō\,
to call, to invite. This parable is for the guests who were there
and who had been watching Jesus. {When he marked} (\epechōn\).
Present active participle of \epechō\ with \ton noun\ understood,
holding the mind upon them, old verb and common. {They chose out}
(\exelegonto\). Imperfect middle, were picking out for
themselves. {The chief seats} (\tas prōtoklisias\). The first
reclining places at the table. Jesus condemned the Pharisees
later for this very thing (Mt 23:6; Mr 12:39; Lu 20:46). On a
couch holding three the middle place was the chief one. At
banquets today the name of the guests are usually placed at the
plates. The place next to the host on the right was then, as now,
the post of honour.

14:8 {Sit not down} (\mē kataklithēis\). First aorist
(ingressive) passive subjunctive of \kataklinō\, to recline. Old
verb, but peculiar to Luke in the N.T. (7:36; 9:14; 14:8;
. {Be bidden} (\ēi keklēmenos\). Periphrastic perfect
passive subjunctive of \kaleō\ after \mē pote\.

14:9 {And say} (\kai erei\). Changes to future indicative with
\mē pote\ as in 12:58. {Shalt begin with shame} (\arxēi meta
. The moment of embarrassment. {To take the lowest
(\ton eschaton topon katechein\). To hold down the lowest
place, all the intermediate ones being taken.

14:10 {Sit down} (\anapese\). Second aorist active imperative of
\anapiptō\, to fall up or back, to lie back or down. Late Greek
word for \anaklinō\ (cf. \kataklinō\ in verse 8). {He that hath
bidden thee}
(\ho keklēkōs se\). Perfect active participle as in
verse 12 (\tōi keklēkoti\) with which compare \ho kalesas\ in
verse 9 (first aorist active participle). {He may say}
(\erei\). The future indicative with \hina\ does occur in the
_Koinē_ (papyri) and so in the N.T. (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
. {Go up higher} (\prosanabēthi\). Second aorist active
imperative second singular of \prosanabainō\, an old double
compound verb, but here only in the N.T. Probably, "Come up
higher," because the call comes from the host and because of

14:11 {Shall be humbled} (\tapeinōthēsetai\). First future
passive. One of the repeated sayings of Jesus (18:14; Mt

14:12 {A dinner or a supper} (\ariston ē deipnon\). More exactly,
a breakfast or a dinner with distinction between them as already
shown. This is a parable for the host as one had just been given
for the guests, though Luke does not term this a parable. {Call
(\mē phōnei\). \Mē\ and the present imperative active,
prohibiting the habit of inviting only friends. It is the
_exclusive_ invitation of such guests that Jesus condemns. There
is a striking parallel to this in Plato's _Phaedrus_ 233.
{Recompense} (\antapodoma\). In the form of a return invitation.
Like \anti\ in "bid thee again" (\antikalesōsin\).

14:13 {When thou makest a feast} (\hotan dochēn poiēis\). \Hotan\
and the present subjunctive in an indefinite temporal clause.
\Dochē\ means reception as in Lu 5:29, late word, only in these
two passages in the N.T. Note absence of article with these
adjectives in the Greek (poor people, maimed folks, lame people,
blind people)

14:14 {To recompense thee} (\antapodounai soi\). Second aorist
active infinitive of this old and common double compound verb, to
give back in return. The reward will come at the resurrection if
not before and thou shalt be happy.

14:15 {Blessed} (\makarios\). Happy, same word in the Beatitudes
of Jesus (Mt 5:3ff.). This pious platitude whether due to
ignorance or hypocrisy was called forth by Christ's words about
the resurrection. It was a common figure among the rabbis, the
use of a banquet for the bliss of heaven. This man may mean that
this is a prerogative of the Pharisees. He assumed complacently
that he will be among the number of the blest. Jesus himself uses
this same figure of the spiritual banquet for heavenly bliss (Lu
. {Shall eat} (\phagetai\). Future middle from \esthiō\,
defective verb, from stem of the aorist (\ephagon\) like \edomai\
of the old Greek.

14:16 {Made} (\epoiei\). Imperfect active, was on the point of
making (inchoative). {Great supper} (\deipnon\). Or dinner, a
formal feast. Jesus takes up the conventional remark of the guest
and by this parable shows that such an attitude was no guarantee
of godliness (Bruce). This parable of the marriage of the King's
son (Lu 14:15-24) has many points of likeness to the parable of
the wedding garment (Mt 22:1-14) and as many differences also.
The occasions are very different, that in Matthew grows out of
the attempt to arrest Jesus while this one is due to the pious
comment of a guest at the feast and the wording is also quite
different. Hence we conclude that they are distinct parables.
{And he bade many} (\kai ekalesen pollous\). Aorist active, a
distinct and definite act following the imperfect \epoiei\.

14:17 {His servant} (\ton doulon autou\). His bondservant.
_Vocator_ or Summoner (Es 5:8; 6:14). This second summons was
the custom then as now with wealthy Arabs. Tristram (_Eastern
Customs_, p. 82)
says: "To refuse the second summons would be an
insult, which is equivalent among the Arab tribes to a
declaration of war."

14:18 {With one consent} (\apo mias\). Some feminine substantive
like \gnōmēs\ or \psuchēs\ has to be supplied. This precise idiom
occurs nowhere else. It looked like a conspiracy for each one in
his turn did the same thing. {To make excuse} (\paraiteisthai\).
This common Greek verb is used in various ways, to ask something
from one (Mr 15:6), to deprecate or ask to avert (Heb 12:19),
to refuse or decline (Ac 25:11), to shun or to avoid (2Ti
, to beg pardon or to make excuses for not doing or to beg
(Lu 14:18ff.). All these ideas are variations of \aiteō\, to
ask in the middle voice with \para\ in composition. {The first}
(\ho prōtos\). In order of time. There are three of the "many"
("all"), whose excuses are given, each more flimsy than the
other. {I must needs} (\echō anagkēn\). I have necessity. The
land would still be there, a strange "necessity." {Have me
(\eche me parēitēmenon\). An unusual idiom somewhat like
the English perfect with the auxiliary "have" and the modern
Greek idiom with \echō\, but certainly not here a Greek
periphrasis for \parēitēso\. This perfect passive participle is
predicate and agrees with \me\. See a like idiom in Mr 3:1; Lu
12:19 (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 902f.). The Latin had a similar
idiom, _habe me excusatum_. Same language in verse 19.

14:19 {To prove them} (\dokimasai auta\). He could have tested
them before buying. The oxen would not run away or be stolen.

14:20 {I cannot come} (\ou dunamai elthein\). Less polite than
the others but a more plausible pretence if he wanted to make it
so. The law excused a newly married man from war (De 24:5),
"but not from social courtesy" (Ragg). The new wife would
probably have been glad to go with him to the feast if asked. But
see 1Co 7:33. There is here as often a sharp difference between
the excuses offered and the reasons behind them.

14:21 {Being angry} (\orgistheis\). First aorist (ingressive)
passive, becoming angry. {Quickly} (\tacheōs\). The dinner is
ready and no time is to be lost. The invitation goes still to
those in the city. {Streets and lanes} (\tas plateias kai
. Broadways and runways (broad streets and narrow lanes).
{Maimed} (\anapeirous\). So Westcott and Hort for the old word
\anapērous\, due to itacism (\ei=ē\ in pronunciation). The word
is compounded of \ana\ and \pēros\, lame all the way up.

14:22 {And yet there is room} (\kai eti topos estin\). The Master
had invited "many" (verse 16) who had all declined. The servant
knew the Master wished the places to be filled.

14:23 {The highways and hedges} (\tas hodous kai phragmous\). The
public roads outside the city of Judaism just as the streets and
lanes were inside the city. The heathen are to be invited this
time. {Hedges} is fenced in places from \phrassō\, to fence in
(Ro 3:19). {Compel} (\anagkason\). First aorist active
imperative of \anagkazō\, from \anagkē\ (verse 18). By
persuasion of course. There is no thought of compulsory
salvation. "Not to use force, but to constrain them against the
reluctance which such poor creatures would feel at accepting the
invitation of a great lord" (Vincent). As examples of such
"constraint" in this verb see Mt 14:22; Ac 26:11; Ga 6:12.
{That my house may be filled} (\hina gemisthēi mou ho oikos\).
First aorist passive subjunctive of \gemizō\, to fill full, old
verb from \gemō\, to be full. Effective aorist. Subjunctive with
\hina\ in final clause. The Gentiles are to take the place that
the Jews might have had (Ro 11:25). Bengel says: _Nec natura
nec gratia patitur vacuum_.

14:24 {My supper} (\mou tou deipnou\). Here it is still the
Master of the feast who is summing up his reasons for his
conduct. We do not have to say that Jesus shuts the door now in
the face of the Jews who may turn to him.

14:25 {And he turned} (\kai strapheis\). Second aorist passive
participle of \strephō\, common verb. It is a dramatic act on the
part of Jesus, a deliberate effort to check the wild and
unthinking enthusiasm of the crowds who followed just to be
following. Note "many multitudes" (\ochloi polloi\) and the
imperfect tense \suneporeuonto\, were going along with him.

14:26 {Hateth not} (\ou misei\). An old and very strong verb
\miseō\, to hate, detest. The orientals use strong language where
cooler spirits would speak of preference or indifference. But
even so Jesus does not here mean that one must hate his father or
mother of necessity or as such, for Mt 15:4 proves the
opposite. It is only where the element of choice comes in (cf.
Mt 6:24)
as it sometimes does, when father or mother opposes
Christ. Then one must not hesitate. The language here is more
sharply put than in Mt 10:37. The \ou\ here coalesces with the
verb \misei\ in this conditional clause of the first class
determined as fulfilled. It is the language of exaggerated
contrast, it is true, but it must not be watered down till the
point is gone. In mentioning "and wife" Jesus has really made a
comment on the excuse given in verse 20 (I married a wife and
so I am not able to come)
. {And his own life also} (\eti te kai
tēn psuchēn heautou\)
. Note \te kai\, both--and. "The \te\ (B L)
binds all the particulars into one bundle of _renuncianda_"
(Bruce). Note this same triple group of conjunctions (\eti te
in Ac 21:28, "And moreover also," "even going as far as
his own life." Martyrdom should be an ever-present possibility to
the Christian, not to be courted, but not to be shunned. Love for
Christ takes precedence "over even the elemental instinct of
self-preservation" (Ragg).

14:27 {His own cross} (\ton stauron heauto–\). This familiar
figure we have had already (Lu 9:23; Mr 8:34; Mt 10:38; 16:24).
Each follower has a cross which he must bear as Jesus did his.
\Bastazō\ is used of cross bearing in the N.T. only here
(figuratively) and Joh 19:17 literally of Jesus. Crucifixion
was common enough in Palestine since the days of Antiochus
Epiphanes and Alexander Jannaeus.

14:28 {Build a tower} (\purgon oikodomēsai\). A common metaphor,
either a tower in the city wall like that by the Pool of Siloam
(Lu 13:4) or a watchtower in a vineyard (Mt 21:33) or a
tower-shaped building for refuge or ornament as here. This
parable of the rash builder has the lesson of counting the cost.
{Sit down} (\kathisas\). Attitude of deliberation. {First}
(\prōton\). First things first. So in verse 31. {Count}
(\psēphizei\). Common verb in late writers, but only here and Re
13:18 in the N.T. The verb is from \psēphos\, a stone, which was
used in voting and so counting. Calculate is from the Latin
_calculus_, a pebble. To vote was to cast a pebble (\tithēmi
. Luke has Paul using "deposit a pebble" for casting his
vote (Ac 26:10). {The cost} (\tēn dapanēn\). Old and common
word, but here only in the N.T. from \daptō\, to tear, consume,
devour. Expense is something which eats up one's resources.
{Whether he hath wherewith to complete it} (\ei echei eis
. If he has anything for completion of it.
\Apartismon\ is a rare and late word (in the papyri and only here
in the N.T.)
. It is from \apartizō\, to finish off (\ap-\ and
\artizō\ like our articulate)
, to make even or square. Cf.
\exērtismenos\ in 2Ti 3:17.

14:29 {Lest haply} (\hina mēpote\). Double final particles
(positive and negative with addition of \pote\). Used here with
aorist middle subjunctive in \arxōntai\ (begin). {When he hath
laid ... and was not able}
(\thentos autou ... kai mē
{to finish} (\ektelesai\). First aorist active
infinitive. Note perfective use of \ek\, to finish out to the
end. Two genitive absolutes, first, second aorist active
participle \thentos\; second, present active participle
\ischuontos\. {To mock him} (\autōi empaizein\). An old verb,
\em-paizō\, to play like a child (\pais\), at or with, to mock,
scoff at, to trifle with like Latin _illudere_.

14:30 {This man} (\houtos ho anthrōpos\). This fellow,
contemptuous or sarcastic use of \houtos\.

14:31 {To encounter} (\sunbalein\). Second aorist active
infinitive of \sunballō\, old and common verb, to throw or bring
together, to dispute, to clash in war as here. {Another king}
(\heterōi basilei\), to grapple with another king in war or for
war (\eis polemon\). Associative instrumental case. {Take
(\bouleusetai\). Future middle indicative of old and
common verb \bouleuō\, from \boulē\, will, counsel. The middle
means to take counsel with oneself, to deliberate, to ponder.
{With ten thousand} (\en deka chiliasin\). Literally, in ten
thousand. See this so-called instrumental use of \en\ in Jude
1:14. Equipped in or with ten thousand. See Lu 1:17. Note
\meta eikosi chiliadōn\ just below (midst of twenty thousand).
{To meet} (\hupantēsai\). Common verb (like \apantaō\) from
\antaō\ (\anta\, end, face to face, from which \anti\) with
preposition \hupo\ (or \apo\), to go to meet. Here it has a
military meaning.

14:32 {Or else} (\ei de mēge\). Same idiom in 5:36. Luke is
fond of this formula. {An ambassage} (\presbeian\). Old and
common word for the office of ambassador, composed of old men
(\presbeis\) like Japanese Elder Statesmen who are supposed to
possess wisdom. In the N.T. only here and Lu 19:14. {Asketh
conditions of peace}
(\erōtāi pros eirēnēn\). The use of \erōtaō\
in this sense of beg or petition is common in the papyri and
_Koinē_ generally. The original use of asking a question survives
also. The text is uncertain concerning \pros eirēnēn\ which means
with \erōtaō\, to ask negotiations for peace. In B we have \eis\
instead of \pros\ like verse 28. Most MSS. have \ta\ before
\pros\ or \eis\, but not in Aleph and B. It is possible that the
\ta\ was omitted because of preceding \tai\ (\homoeoteleuton\),
but the sense is the same. See Ro 14:19 \ta tēs eirēnēs\, the
things of peace, which concern or look towards peace, the
preliminaries of peace.

14:33 {Renounceth not} (\ouk apotassetai\). Old Greek word to set
apart as in a military camp, then in the middle voice to separate
oneself from, say good-bye to (Lu 9:61), to renounce, forsake,
as here. {All that he hath} (\pasin tois heautou huparchousin\).
Dative case, says good-bye to all his property, "all his own
belongings" (neuter plural participle used as substantive) as
named in verse 26. This verse gives the principle in the two
parables of the rash builder and of the rash king. The minor
details do not matter. The spirit of self-sacrifice is the point.

14:35 {Dunghill} (\koprian\). Later word in the _Koinē_
vernacular. Here only in the N.T., though in the LXX. {Men cast
it out}
(\exō ballousin auto\). Impersonal plural. This saying
about salt is another of Christ's repeated sayings (Mt 5:13; Mr
. Another repeated saying is the one here about having ears
to hear (Lu 8:8; 14:35, Mt 11:15; 13:43).

[Table of Contents]
[Previous] [Next]
Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Luke: Chapter 14)