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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Luke: Chapter 12)

12:1 {In the meantime} (\en hois\). It is a classic idiom to
start a sentence or even a paragraph as here with a relative, "in
which things or circumstances," without any expressed antecedent
other than the incidents in 11:53f. In 12:3 Luke actually
begins the sentence with two relatives \anth' hōn hosa\
(wherefore whatsoever). {Many thousands} (\muriadōn\). Genitive
absolute with \episunachtheisōn\ (first aorist passive participle
feminine plural because of \muriadōn\)
, a double compound late
verb, \episunagō\, to gather together unto. The word "myriads" is
probably hyperbolical as in Ac 21:20, but in the sense of ten
thousand, as in Ac 19:19, it means a very large crowd
apparently drawn together by the violent attacks of the rabbis
against Jesus. {Insomuch that they trode one upon another}
(\hōste katapatein allēlous\). The imagination must complete the
picture of this jam. {Unto his disciples first of all} (\pros
tous mathētas autou prōton\)
. This long discourse in Lu 12 is
really a series of separate talks to various groups in the vast
crowds around Jesus. This particular talk goes through verse
12. {Beware of} (\prosechete heautois apo\). Put your mind
(\noun\ understood) for yourselves (dative) and avoid (\apo\ with
the ablative)
. {The leaven of the Pharisees which is hypocrisy}
(\tēs zumēs hētis estin hupocrisis tōn Pharisaiōn\). In Mr 8:15
Jesus had coupled the lesson of the Pharisees with that of Herod,
in Mt 16:6 with that of the Sadducees also. He had long ago
called the Pharisees hypocrites (Mt 6:2,5,16). The occasion was
ripe here for this crisp saying. In Mt 13:33 leaven does not
have an evil sense as here, which see. See Mt 23:13 for
hypocrites. Hypocrisy was the leading Pharisaic vice (Bruce) and
was a mark of sanctity to hide an evil heart.

12:2 {Covered up} (\sugkekalummenon estin\). Periphrastic perfect
passive indicative of \sugkaluptō\, an old verb, but here only in
the N.T., to cover up on all sides and so completely. Verses
2-9 here are parallel with Mt 10:26-33 spoken to the Twelve
on their tour of Galilee, illustrating again how often Jesus
repeated his sayings unless we prefer to say that he never did so
and that the Gospels have hopelessly jumbled them as to time and
place. See the passage in Matthew for discussion of details.

12:3 {In the inner chambers} (\en tois tameiois\). Old form
\tamieion\, a store chamber (Lu 12:24), secret room (Mt 6:6;
Lu 12:3)

12:4 {Unto you my friends} (\humin tois philois\). As opposed to
the Pharisees and lawyers in 11:43,46,53. {Be not afraid of}
(\mē phobēthēte apo\). First aorist passive subjunctive with
\mē\, ingressive aorist, do not become afraid of, with \apo\ and
the ablative like the Hebrew _min_ and the English "be afraid
of," a translation Hebraism as in Mt 10:28 (Moulton,
_Prolegomena_, p. 102)
. {Have no more that they can do} (\mē
echontōn perissoteron ti poiēsai\)
. Luke often uses the
infinitive thus with \echō\, a classic idiom (7:40,42; 12:4,50;
14:14; Ac 4:14, etc.)

12:5 {Whom ye shall fear} (\tina phobēthēte\). First aorist
passive subjunctive deliberative retained in the indirect
question. \Tina\ is the accusative, the direct object of this
transitive passive verb (note \apo\ in verse 4). {Fear him who}
(\phobēthēte ton\). First aorist passive imperative, differing
from the preceding form only in the accent and governing the
accusative also. {After he hath killed} (\meta to apokteinai\).
Preposition \meta\ with the articular infinitive. Literally,
"After the killing" (first aorist active infinitive of the common
verb \apokteinō\, to kill. {Into hell} (\eis tēn geennan\)
. See
on ¯Mt 5:22. Gehenna is a transliteration of _Ge-Hinnom_, Valley
of Hinnon where the children were thrown on to the red-hot arms
of Molech. Josiah (2Ki 23:10) abolished these abominations and
then it was a place for all kinds of refuse which burned
ceaselessly and became a symbol of punishment in the other world.
{This one fear} (\touton phobēthēte\). As above.

12:6 {Is forgotten} (\estin epilelēsmenon\). Periphrastic perfect
passive indicative of \epilanthanomai\, common verb to forget.
See Mt 10:29 for a different construction.

12:7 {Numbered} (\ērithmēntai\). Perfect passive indicative.
Periphrastic form in Mt 10:30 which see for details about
sparrows, etc.

12:8 {Everyone who shall confess me} (\pas hos an homologēsei en
. Just like Mt 10:32 except the use of \an\ here which
adds nothing. The Hebraistic use of \en\ after \homologeō\ both
here and in Matthew is admitted by even Moulton (_Prolegomena_,
p. 104)
. {The Son of man} (\ho huios tou anthrōpou\). Here Mt
10:32 has \k'agō\ (I also) as the equivalent.

12:9 {Shall be denied} (\aparnēthēsetai\). First future passive
of the compound verb \aparneomai\. Here Mt 10:33 has
\arnēsomai\ simply. Instead of "in the presence of the angels of
God" (\emprosthen tōn aggelōn tou theou\) Mt 10:33 has "before
my Father who is in heaven."

12:10 {But unto him that blasphemeth against the Holy Spirit}
(\tōi de eis to hagion pneuma blasphēmēsanti\). This unpardonable
sin is given by Mr 3:28f.; Mt 12:31f. immediately after the
charge that Jesus was in league with Beelzebub. Luke here
separates it from the same charge made in Judea (11:15-20). As
frequently said, there is no sound reason for saying that Jesus
only spoke his memorable sayings once. Luke apparently finds a
different environment here. Note the use of \eis\ here in the
sense of "against."

12:11 {Be not anxious} (\mē merimnēsēte\). First aorist active
subjunctive with \mē\ in prohibition. Do not become anxious. See
a similar command to the Twelve on their Galilean tour (Mt
and in the great discourse on the Mount of Olives at
the end (Mr 13:11; Lu 21:14f.), given twice by Luke as we see.
{How or what ye shall answer} (\pōs ē ti apologēsēsthe\).
Indirect question and retaining the deliberative subjunctive
\apologēsēsthe\ and also \eipēte\ (say).

12:12 {What ye ought to say} (\hā dei eipein\). Literally, what
things it is necessary (\dei\) to say. This is no excuse for
neglect in pulpit preparation. It is simply a word for courage in
a crisis to play the man for Christ and to trust the issue with
God without fear.

12:13 {Bid my brother} (\eipe tōi adelphōi mou\). This volunteer
from the crowd draws attention to the multitude (verses 13-21).
He does not ask for arbitration and there is no evidence that his
brother was willing for that. He wants a decision by Jesus
against his brother. The law (De 21:17) was two-thirds to the
elder, one-third to the younger.

12:14 {A judge or a divider} (\kritēn ē meristēn\). Jesus
repudiates the position of judge or arbiter in this family fuss.
The language reminds one of Ex 2:14. Jesus is rendering unto
Caesar the things of Caesar (Lu 20:25) and shows that his
kingdom is not of this world (Joh 18:36). The word for divider
or arbiter (\meristēs\) is a late word from \merizomai\ (verse
and occurs here only in the N.T.

12:15 {From all covetousness} (\apo pasēs pleonexias\). Ablative
case. From every kind of greedy desire for more (\pleon\, more,
\hexia\, from \echō\, to have)
an old word which we have robbed
of its sinful aspects and refined to mean business thrift. {In
the abundance of the things which he possesseth}
(\en tōi
perisseuein tini ek tōn huparchontōn autōi\)
. A rather awkward
Lukan idiom: "In the abounding (articular infinitive) to one out
of the things belonging (articular participle) to him."

12:16 {A parable unto them} (\parabolēn pros autous\). The
multitude of verses 13,15. A short and pungent parable
suggested by the covetousness of the man of verse 13. {Brought
forth plentifully}
(\euphorēsen\). Late word from \euphoros\
(bearing well), in medical writers and Josephus, here only in the

12:17 {Reasoned within himself} (\dielogizeto en hautōi\).
Imperfect middle, picturing his continued cogitations over his
perplexity. {Where to bestow} (\pou sunaxō\). Future indicative
deliberative, where I shall gather together. {My fruits} (\tous
karpous mou\)
. So it is with the rich fool: my fruits, my barns,
my corn, my goods, just like Nabal whose very name means fool
(1Sa 25:11), whether a direct reference to him or not.

12:18 {I will pull down} (\kathelō\). Future active of
\kathaireō\, an old verb, the usual future being \kathairēsō\.
This second form from the second aorist \katheilon\ (from
obsolete \helō\)
like \aphelei\ in Re 22:19. {My barns} (\mou
tas apothēkas\)
. From \apotithēmi\, to lay by, to treasure. So a
granary or storehouse, an old word, six times in the N.T. (Mt
3:12; 6:26; 13:30; Lu 3:17; 12:18,24)
. {All my corn} (\panta ton
. Better grain (wheat, barley), not maize or Indian corn.
{My goods} (\ta agatha mou\). Like the English, my good things.
So the English speak of goods (freight) train.

12:19 {Laid up for many years} (\keimena eis etē polla\). Not in
D and some other Latin MSS. The man's apostrophe to his "soul"
(\psuchē\) is thoroughly Epicurean, for his soul feeds on his
goods. The asyndeton here (take thine ease, eat, drink, be merry)
shows his eagerness. Note difference in tenses (\anapauou\, keep
on resting, \phage\, eat at once, \pie\, drink thy fill,
\euphrainou\, keep on being merry)
, first and last presents, the
other two aorists.

12:20 {Thou foolish one} (\aphrōn\). Fool, for lack of sense (\a\
privative and \phrēn\, sense)
as in 11:40; 2Co 11:19. Old word,
used by Socrates in Xenophon. Nominative form as vocative. {Is
thy soul required of thee}
(\tēn psuchēn sou aitousin apo sou\).
Plural active present, not passive: "They are demanding thy soul
from thee." The impersonal plural (aitousin) is common enough
(Lu 6:38; 12:11; 16:9; 23:31). The rabbis used "they" to avoid
saying "God."

12:21 {Not rich toward God} (\mē eis theon ploutōn\). The only
wealth that matters and that lasts. Cf. 16:9; Mt 6:19f. Some
MSS. do not have this verse. Westcott and Hort bracket it.

12:22 {Unto his disciples} (\pros tous mathētas autou\). So Jesus
turns from the crowd to the disciples (verses 22-40, when Peter
interrupts the discourse)
. From here to the end of the chapter
Luke gives material that appears in Matthew, but not in one
connection as here. In Matthew part of it is in the charge to the
Twelve on their tour in Galilee, part in the eschatological
discourse on the Mount of Olives. None of it is in Mark. Hence Q
or the Logia seems to be the source of it. The question recurs
again whether Jesus repeated on other occasions what is given
here or whether Luke has here put together separate discourses as
Matthew is held by many to have done in the Sermon on the Mount.
We have no way of deciding these points. We can only say again
that Jesus would naturally repeat his favourite sayings like
other popular preachers and teachers. So Lu 12:22-31
corresponds to Mt 6:25-33, which see for detailed discussion.
The parable of the rich fool was spoken to the crowd, but this
exhortation to freedom from care (22-31) is to the disciples.
So the language in Lu 12:22 is precisely that in Mt 6:25. See
there for \mē merimnāte\ (stop being anxious) and the
deliberative subjunctive retained in the indirect question
(\phagēte, endusēsthe\). So verse 23 here is the same in Mt
6:25 except that there it is a question with \ouch\ expecting
the affirmative answer, whereas here it is given as a reason
(\gar\, for) for the preceding command.

12:24 {The ravens} (\tous korakas\). Nowhere else in the N.T. The
name includes the whole crow group of birds (rooks and jackdaws).
Like the vultures they are scavengers. Mt 6:26 has simply "the
birds" (\ta peteina\). {Storechamber} (tameion). Not in Mt
6:26. Means secret chamber in Lu 12:3. {Of how much more}
(\posōi māllon\). Mt 6:26 has question, \ouch māllon\.

12:25 {A cubit} (\pēchun\). Mt 6:27 has \pēchun hena\ (one
cubit, though \hena\ is sometimes merely the indefinite article.
{Stature} (\hēlikian\)
as in Matthew, which see.

12:26 {Not able to do even that which is least} (\oude elachiston
. Negative \oude\ in the condition of the first class.
Elative superlative, very small. This verse not in Matthew and
omitted in D. Verse 27 as in Mt 6:28, save that the verbs for
toil and spin are plural in Matthew and singular here (neuter
plural subject, \ta krina\)

12:28 {Clothe} (\amphiazei\). Late Greek verb in the _Koinē_
(papyri) for the older form \amphiennumi\ (Mt 6:30). See
Matthew for discussion of details. Matthew has "the grass of the
field" instead of "the grass in the field" as here.

12:29 {Seek not ye} (\humeis mē zēteite\). Note emphatic position
of "ye" (\humeis\). Stop seeking (\mē\ and present imperative
. Mt 6:31 has: "Do not become anxious" (\mē
, \mē\ and ingressive subjunctive occur as direct
questions (What are we to eat? What are we to drink? What are we
to put on?)
whereas here they are in the indirect form as in
verse 22 save that the problem of clothing is not here
mentioned: {Neither be ye of doubtful mind} (\kai mē
. \Mē\ and present passive imperative (stop being
of \meteōrizō\. An old verb from \meteōros\ in midair,
high (our meteor), to lift up on high, then to lift oneself up
with hopes (false sometimes), to be buoyed up, to be tossed like
a ship at sea, to be anxious, to be in doubt as in late writers
(Polybius, Josephus). This last meaning is probably true here. In
the LXX and Philo, but here only in the N.T.

12:31 See Mt 6:33 for this verse. Luke does not have "first"
nor "his righteousness" nor "all."

12:32 {Little flock} (\to mikron poimnion\). Vocative with the
article as used in Hebrew and often in the _Koinē_ and so in the
N.T. See both \pater\ and \ho patēr\ in the vocative in Lu
10:21. See Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 465f. \Poimnion\ (flock) is
a contraction from \poimenion\ from \poimēn\ (shepherd) instead
of the usual \poimnē\ (flock). So it is not a diminutive and
\mikron\ is not superfluous, though it is pathetic. {For it is
your Father's good pleasure}
(\hoti eudokēsen ho patēr humōn\).
First aorist active indicative of \eudokeō\. Timeless aorist as
in Lu 3:22. This verse has no parallel in Matthew.

12:33 {Sell that ye have} (\Pōlēsate ta huparchonta humōn\). Not
in Matthew. Did Jesus mean this literally and always? Luke has
been charged with Ebionism, but Jesus does not condemn property
as inherently sinful. "The attempt to keep the letter of the rule
here given (Ac 2:44,45) had disastrous effects on the church of
Jerusalem, which speedily became a church of paupers, constantly
in need of alms (Ro 15:25,26; 1Co 16:3; 2Co 8:4; 9:1)"
(Plummer). {Purses which wax not old} (\ballantia mē
. So already \ballantion\ in Lu 10:4. Late verb
\palaioō\ from \palaios\, old, to make old, declare old as in
Heb 8:13, is passive to become old as here and Heb 1:11.
{That faileth not} (\anekleipton\). Verbal from \a\ privative and
\ekleipō\, to fail. Late word in Diodorus and Plutarch. Only here
in the N.T. or LXX, but in papyri. "I prefer to believe that even
Luke sees in the words not a mechanical rule, but a law for the
spirit" (Bruce). {Draweth near} (\eggizei\). Instead of Mt 6:19
"dig through and steal." {Destroyeth} (\diaphtheirei\). Instead
of "doth consume" in Mt 6:19.

12:34 {Will be} (\estai\). Last word in the sentence in Luke.
Otherwise like Mt 6:21. See 1Co 7:32-34 for similar

12:35 {Be girded about} (\estōsan periezōsmenai\). Periphrastic
perfect passive imperative third plural of the verb \perizōnnumi\
or \perizōnnuō\ (later form), an old verb, to gird around, to
fasten the garments with a girdle. The long garments of the
orientals made speed difficult. It was important to use the
girdle before starting. Cf. 17:8; Ac 12:8. {Burning}
(\kaiomenoi\). Periphrastic present middle imperative, already
burning and continuously burning. The same point of the Parable
of the Ten Virgins (Mt 25:1-13) is found here in condensed
form. This verse introduces the parable of the waiting servants
(Lu 12:35-40).

12:36 {When he shall return from the marriage feast} (\pote
analusēi ek tōn gamōn\)
. The interrogative conjunction \pote\ and
the deliberative aorist subjunctive retained in the indirect
question. The verb \analuō\, very common Greek verb, but only
twice in the N.T. (here and Php 1:23). The figure is breaking
up a camp or loosening the mooring of a ship, to depart. Perhaps
here the figure is from the standpoint of the wedding feast
(plural as used of a single wedding feast in Lu 14:8),
departing from there. See on ¯Mt 22:2. {When he cometh and
(\elthontos kai krousantos\). Genitive absolute of the
aorist active participle without \autou\ and in spite of \autoi\
(dative) being used after \anoixōsin\ (first aorist active
subjunctive of \anoigō\)

12:37 {He shall gird himself} (\perizōsetai\). Direct future
middle. Jesus did this (Joh 13:4), not out of gratitude, but to
give the apostles an object lesson in humility. See the usual
course in Lu 17:7-10 with also the direct middle (verse 8) of

12:38 {And if} (\k'an = kai + ean\). Repeated. \Elthēi\ and
\heurēi\, both second aorist subjunctive with \ean\, condition of
the third class, undetermined, but with prospect of being
determined. {Blessed} (\makarioi\). Beatitude here as in verse

12:39 {The thief} (\ho kleptēs\). The change here almost makes a
new parable to illustrate the other, the parable of the
housebreaking (verses 39,40) to illustrate the parable of the
waiting servants (35-38). This same language appears in Mt
24:43f. "The Master returning from a wedding is replaced by a
thief whose study it is to come to the house he means to plunder
at an unexpected time" (Bruce). The parallel in Mt 24:43-51
with Lu 12:39-46 does not have the interruption by Peter. {He
would have watched}
(\egrēgorēsen an\). Apodosis of second-class
condition, determined as unfulfilled, made plain by use of \an\
with aorist indicative which is not repeated with \ouk aphēken\
(first aorist active indicative of \aphiēmi\, \k\ aorist), though
it is sometimes repeated (Mt 24:43).

12:40 {Be ye} (\ginesthe\). Present middle imperative, keep on
becoming. {Cometh} (\erchetai\). Futuristic present indicative.
See Mt 24:43-51 for details in the comparison with Luke.

12:41 {Peter said} (\Eipen de ho Petros\). This whole paragraph
from verse 22-40 had been addressed directly to the disciples.
Hence it is not surprising to find Peter putting in a question.
This incident confirms also the impression that Luke is giving
actual historical data in the environment of these discourses. He
is certain that the Twelve are meant, but he desires to know if
others are included, for he had spoken to the multitude in verses
13-21. Recall Mr 13:37. This interruption is somewhat like
that on the Mount of Transfiguration (Lu 9:33) and is
characteristic of Peter. Was it the magnificent promise in verse
37 that stirred Peter's impulsiveness? It is certainly more
than a literary device of Luke. Peter's question draws out a
parabolic reply by Jesus (42-48).

12:42 {Who then} (\tis ara\). Jesus introduces this parable of
the wise steward (42-48) by a rhetorical question that answers
itself. Peter is this wise steward, each of the Twelve is, anyone
is who acts thus. {The faithful and wise steward} (\ho pistos
oikonomos ho phronimos\)
. The faithful steward, the wise one. A
steward is house manager (\oikos, nemō\, to manage). Each man is
a steward in his own responsibilities. {Household}
(\therapeias\). Literally, service from \therapeuō\. medical
service as in Lu 9:11, by metonymy household (a body of those
domestics who serve)
. {Their portion of food} (\to sitometrion\).
Late word from \sitometreō\ (Ge 47:12) for the Attic \ton siton
metreō\, to measure the food, the rations. Here only in the N.T.
or anywhere else till Deissmann (_Bible Studies_, p. 158) found
it in an Egyptian papyrus and then an inscription in Lycia
(_Light from the Ancient East_, p. 104).

12:44 {Over all} (\epi pāsin\). See Mt 24-47 for \epi\ with
locative in this sense. Usually with genitive as in verse 42
and sometimes with accusative as in verse 14.

12:45 {Shall say} (\eipēi\). Second aorist subjunctive, with
\ean\, condition of the third class, undetermined, but with
prospect of being determined. {Delayeth} (\chronizei\). From
\chronos\, time, spends time, lingers. {Shall begin} (\arxētai\).
First aorist middle subjunctive with \ean\ and the same condition
as \eipēi\, above. {The menservants} (\tous paidas\) {and the
(\kai tas paidiskas\). \Paidiskē\ is a diminutive
of \pais\ for a young female slave and occurs in the papyri,
orginally just a damsel. Here \pais\ can mean slave also though
strictly just a boy.

12:46 {Shall cut him asunder} (\dichotomēsei\). An old and
somewhat rare word from \dichotomos\ and that from \dicha\ and
\temnō\, to cut, to cut in two. Used literally here. In the N.T.
only here and Mt 24:51. {With the unfaithful} (\meta tōn
. Not here "the unbelieving" though that is a common
meaning of \apistos\ (\a\ privative and \pistos\, from \peithō\),
but the unreliable, the untrustworthy. Here Mt 24:51 has "with
the hypocrites," the same point. The parallel with Mt 24:43-51
ends here. Mt 24:51 adds the saying about the wailing and the
gnashing of teeth. Clearly there Luke places the parable of the
wise steward in this context while Matthew has it in the great
eschatological discourse. Once again we must either think that
Jesus repeated the parable or that one of the writers has
misplaced it. Luke alone preserves what he gives in verses

12:47 {Which knew} (\ho gnous\). Articular participle (second
aorist active, punctiliar and timeless)
. The one who knows. So as
to \mē hetoimasas ē poiēsas\ (does not make ready or do). {Shall
be beaten with many stripes}
(\darēsetai pollas\). Second future
passive of \derō\, to skin, to beat, to flay (see on Mt 21:35;
Mr 12:3,5)
. The passive voice retains here the accusative
\pollas\ (supply \plēgas\, present in Lu 10:30). The same
explanation applies to \oligas\ in verse 48.

12:48 {To whomsoever much is given} (\panti de hōi edothē polu\).
Here is inverse attraction from \hoi\ to \panti\ (Robertson,
_Grammar_, pp. 767f.)
. Note \par' autou\ (from him) without any
regard to \panti\. {They commit} (\parethento\). Second aorist
middle indicative, timeless or gnomic aorist. Note the impersonal
plural after the passive voice just before.

12:49 {I came to cast fire} (\Pur ēlthon balein\). Suddenly Jesus
lets the volcano in his own heart burst forth. The fire was
already burning. "Christ came to set the world on fire, and the
conflagration had already begun" (Plummer). The very passion in
Christ's heart would set his friends on fire and his foes in
opposition as we have just seen (Lu 11:53f.). It is like the
saying of Jesus that he came to bring not peace, but a sword, to
bring cleavage among men (Mt 10:34-36). {And what will I, if it
is already kindled?}
(\kai ti thelō ei ēdē anēphthē;\). It is not
clear what this passage means. Probably \ti\ is be taken in the
sense of "how" (\pōs\). How I wish. Then \ei\ can be taken as
equal to \hoti\. How I wish that it were already kindled.
\Anēphthē\ is first aorist passive of \anaptō\, to set fire to,
to kindle, to make blaze. Probably Luke means the conflagration
to come by his death on the Cross for he changes the figure and
refers to that more plainly.

12:50 {I have a baptism} (\baptisma de echō\). Once again Jesus
will call his baptism the baptism of blood and will challenge
James and John to it (Mr 10:32f.; Mt 20:22f.). So here. "Having
used the metaphor of fire, Christ now uses the metaphor of water.
The one sets forth the result of his coming as it affects the
world, the other as it affects himself. The world is lit up with
flames and Christ is bathed in blood" (Plummer). {And how I am
(\kai pōs sunechomai\). See this same vivid verb
\sunechomai\ in Lu 8:37; Ac 18:5; Php 1:23 where Paul uses it
of his desire for death just as Jesus does here. The urge of the
Cross is upon Jesus at the moment of these words. We catch a
glimpse of the tremendous passion in his soul that drove him on.
{Till it be accomplished} (\heōs hotou telesthēi\). First aorist
passive subjunctive of \teleō\ with \heōs hotou\ (until which
, the common construction for the future with this

12:51 {But rather division} (\all' ē diamerismon\). Peace at any
price is not the purpose of Christ. It is a pity for family jars
to come, but loyalty to Christ counts more than all else. These
ringing words (Lu 12:51-53) occur in Mt 10:34-36 in the
address to the Twelve for the Galilean tour. See discussion of
details there. These family feuds are inevitable where only part
cleave to Christ. In Matthew we have \kata\ with the genitive
whereas in Luke it is \epi\ with the dative (and accusative

12:54 {To the multitudes also} (\kai tois ochlois\). After the
strong and stirring words just before with flash and force Jesus
turns finally in this series of discourses to the multitudes
again as in verse 15. There are similar sayings to these verses
54-59 in Mt 16:1f; 5:25f. There is a good deal of difference
in phraseology whether that is due to difference of source or
different use of the same source (Q or Logia) we do not know. Not
all the old MSS. give Mt 16:2,3. In Matthew the Pharisees and
Sadducees were asking for a sign from heaven as they often did.
These signs of the weather, "a shower" (\ombros\, Lu 12:54) due
to clouds in the west, "a hot wave" (\kausōn\, verse 55) due to a
south wind (\noton\) blowing, "fair weather" (\eudia\, Mt 16:2)
when the sky is red, are appealed to today. They have a more or
less general application due to atmospheric and climatic

12:56 {To interpret this time} (\ton kairon touton dokimazein\).
To test \dokimazein\ as spiritual chemists. No wonder that Jesus
here calls them "hypocrites" because of their blindness when
looking at and hearing him. So it is today with those who are
willfully blind to the steps of God among men. This ignorance of
the signs of the times is colossal.

12:57 {Even of yourselves} (\kai aph' heautōn\). Without the
presence and teaching of Jesus they had light enough to tell what
is right (\to dikaion\) and so without excuse as Paul argued in
Ro 1-3.

12:58 {Give diligence to be quit of him} (\dos ergasian
apēllachthai ap' autou\)
. Second aorist active imperative \dos\
from \didōmi\. \Apēllachthai\, perfect passive infinitive of
\apallassō\ an old verb common, but only twice in the N.T. (here
and Ac 19:12)
. Used here in a legal sense and the tense
emphasizes a state of completion, to be rid of him for good.
{Hale thee} (\katasurēi\). Drag down forcibly, old verb, only
here in the N.T. {To the officer} (\tōi praktori\). The doer, the
proctor, the exactor of fines, the executor of punishment. Old
word, only here in the N.T.

12:59 {Till thou have paid} (\heōs apodōis\). Second aorist
active subjunctive of \apodidōmi\, to pay back in full. {The last
(\to eschaton lepton\). From \lepō\, to peel off the bark.
Very small brass coin, one-eighth of an ounce. In the N.T. only
here and Lu 21:2; Mr 12:42 (the poor widow's mite) which see.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Luke: Chapter 12)