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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Galatians: Chapter 5)

5:1 {With freedom} (\tēi eleutheriāi\). Rather dative case
instead of instrumental, "for freedom," "for the (article)
freedom that belongs to us children of the freewoman" (4:31).
{Did Christ set us free} (\hēmas Christos ēleutherōsen\).
Effective aorist active indicative of \eleutheroō\ (from
\erchomai\, to go, go free)
. {Stand fast therefore} (\stēkete
. See on Mr 3:31; 1Co 16:13 for this late word from
perfect stem of \histēmi\, "keep on standing therefore," "stay
free since Christ set you free." {Be not entangled again} (\mē
palin enechesthe\)
. "Stop being held in by a yoke of bondage."
Common word for ensnare by trap. The Judaizers were trying to
lasso the Galatians for the old yoke of Judaism.

5:2 {I Paul} (\egō Paulos\). Asserts all his personal and
apostolic authority. For both words see also 1Th 2:16; 2Co 10:1;
Col 1:23; Eph 3:1. {If ye receive circumcision} (\ean
. Condition of third class and present passive
subjunctive, a supposable case, but with terrible consequences,
for they will make circumcision a condition of salvation. In that
case Christ will help them not at all.

5:3 {A debtor} (\opheiletēs\). Common word from \opheilō\, to owe
for one who has assumed an obligation. See on ¯Mt 6:12. See Ga
3:10. He takes the curse on himself.

5:4 {Ye are severed from Christ} (\katērgēthēte apo Christou\).
First aorist passive of \katargeō\, to make null and void as in
Ro 7:2,6. {Who would be justified by the law} (\hoitines en
nomōi dikaiousthe\)
. Present passive conative indicative, "ye who
are trying to be justified in the law." {Ye are fallen away from
(\tēs charitos exepesate\). Second aorist active
indicative of \ekpiptō\ (with \a\ variable vowel of the first
and followed by the ablative case. "Ye did fall out of
grace," "ye left the sphere of grace in Christ and took your
stand in the sphere of law" as your hope of salvation. Paul does
not mince words and carries the logic to the end of the course.
He is not, of course, speaking of occasional sins, but he has in
mind a far more serious matter, that of substituting law for
Christ as the agent in salvation.

5:5 {For we} (\hēmeis gar\). We Christians as opposed to the
legalists. {Through the Spirit by faith} (\pneumati ek pisteōs\).
By the Spirit (Holy Spirit) out of faith (not law). Clear-cut
repetition to make it plain.

5:6 {Availeth anything} (\ischuei ti\). Old word to have strength
(\isch–s\). See on ¯Mt 5:13. Neither Jew nor Greek has any
recommendation in his state. See 3:28. All stand on a level in
Christ. {Faith working through love} (\pistis di' agapēs
. Middle voice of \energeō\ and "through love," "the
moral dynamic" (Burton) of Paul's conception of freedom from law.

5:7 Who did hinder you? (\tis humas enekopsen?\). First aorist
active indicative of \enkoptō\, to cut in on one, for all the
world like our use of one cutting in on us at the telephone. For
this late verb see on ¯Ac 24:4; 1Th 2:18. Note the singular
\tis\. There was some ringleader in the business. Some one "cut
in" on the Galatians as they were running the Christian race and
tried to trip them or to turn them.

5:8 {This persuasion} (\hē peismonē\). "The art of persuasion,"
the effort of the Judaizers to persuade you. Only here and in
ecclesiastical writers.

5:9 This proverb Paul has in 1Co 5:6. It is merely the
pervasive power of leaven that is involved in the proverb as in
Mt 13:33, not the use of leaven as a symbol of evil.

5:10 {Whosoever he be} (\hostis ean ēi\). Indefinite relative
clause with \ean\ and subjunctive. It seems unlikely that Paul
knew precisely who the leader was. In 1:6 he uses the plural of
the same verb \tarassō\ and see also \anastatountes\ in verse

5:11 {Why am I still persecuted?} (\ti eti diōkomai?\). Some of
the Judaizers even circulated the slander that Paul preached
circumcision in order to ruin his influence.

5:12 {I would} (\ophelon\). Would that, used as conjunction in
wishes. See on ¯1Co 4:2; 2Co 11:1. Here a wish about the future
with future indicative. {They which unsettle you} (\hoi
anastatountes humas\)
. Late verb from \anastatos\, driven from
one's abode, and in papyri in this sense as well as in sense of
upsetting or disturbing one's mind (boy's letter) as here. In Ac
17:6; 21:38 we have it in sense of making a commotion. {Cut
themselves off}
(\apokopsontai\). Future middle of \apokoptō\,
old word to cut off as in Ac 27:32, here to mutilate.

5:13 {Ye were called for freedom} (\ep' eleutheriāi eklēthēte\).
The same point as in 5:1 made plainer by the use of \ep'\ (on
the basis of, for the purpose of)
. See 1Th 4:7 for this use of
\epi\. {Only use not} (\monon mē\). No word for "use" in the
Greek. Probably supply \trepete\ or \strephete\, "turn not your
liberty into an occasion for the flesh" (\eis aphormēn tēi
, as a spring board for license. On \aphormē\, see on ¯2Co
5:12. Liberty so easily turns to license.

5:14 {Even in this} (\en tōi\). Just the article with \en\, "in
the," but it points at the quotation from Le 19:18. Jews (Lu
confined "neighbour" (\plēsion\) to Jews. Paul uses here
a striking paradox by urging obedience to the law against which
he has been arguing, but this is the moral law as proof of the
new love and life. See also Ro 13:8, precisely as Jesus did
(Mt 22:40).

5:15 {If ye bite and devour one another} (\ei allēlous daknete
kai katesthiete\)
. Condition of first class assumed as true. Two
common and old verbs often used together of wild animals, or like
cats and dogs. {That ye be not consumed one of another} (\mē hup'
allēlōn analōthēte\)
. Negative final clause with first aorist
passive subjunctive of \analiskō\, old word to consume or spend.
In N.T. only here and Lu 9:54. There is a famous story of two
snakes that grabbed each other by the tail and each swallowed the

5:16 {Ye shall not fulfil} (\ou mē telesēte\). Rather, "Ye will
not fulfil." Strong double negative with aorist active
subjunctive. {The lust of the flesh} (\epithumian sarkos\). Bad
sense here as usual in Paul, but not so in 1Th 2:17; Php 1:23.
The word is just craving or longing (from \epi, thumos\, yearning

5:17 {Lusteth against} (\epithumei kata\). Like a tug of war.
This use of \sarx\ as opposed to the Spirit (Holy Spirit)
personifies \sarx\. Lightfoot argues that \epithumei\ cannot be
used with the Spirit and so some other verb must be supplied for
it. But that is wholly needless, for the verb, like \epithumia\,
does not mean evil desire, but simply to long for. Christ and
Satan long for the possession of the city of Man Soul as Bunyan
shows. {Are contrary the one to the other} (\allēlois
. Are lined up in conflict, face to face (\anti-\), a
spiritual duel (cf. Christ's temptations), with dative case of
personal interest (\allēlois\). {That ye may not do} (\hina mē
. "That ye may not keep on doing" (present active
subjunctive of \poieō\)
. {That ye would} (\ha ean thelēte\).
"Whatever ye wish" (indefinite relative with \ean\ and present

5:18 {Under the law} (\hupo nomon\). Instead of "under the flesh"
as one might expect. See Ga 3:2-6 for contrast between law and
spirit. The flesh made the law weak (Rom 8:3; Heb 9:10,13).
They are one and the same in result. See same idea in Ro 8:14.
Note present tense of \agesthe\ (if you are continually led by
the Spirit)
. See verse 23.

5:19 {Manifest} (\phanera\). Opposed to "hidden" (\krupta\).
Ancient writers were fond of lists of vices and virtues. Cf.
Stalker's sermons on _The Seven Cardinal Virtues_ and _The Seven
Deadly Sins_. There are more than seven in this deadly list in
verses 19-21. He makes the two lists in explanation of the
conflict in verse 17 to emphasize the command in verses 13f.
There are four groups in Paul's list of manifest vices: (I)
Sensual sins like fornication (\porneia\, prostitution,
, uncleanness (\akatharsia\, moral impurity),
lasciviousness (\aselgeia\, wantonness), sexual vice of all kinds
prevailed in heathenism. (2) Idolatry (\eidōlatreia\, worship of
and witchcraft (\pharmakeia\ from \pharmakon\, a drug, the
ministering of drugs)
, but the sorcerers monopolized the word for
a while in their magical arts and used it in connection with
idolatry. In N.T. only here and Re 18:23. See Ac 19:19
\perierga\, curious arts. (3) Personal relations expressed by
eight words, all old words, sins of the spirit, like enmities
(\exthrai\, personal animosities), strife (\eris\, rivalry,
, jealousies (\zēlos\ or \zēloi\, MSS. vary, our very
, wraths (\thumoi\, stirring emotions, then explosions),
factions (\eritheiai\, from \erithos\, day labourer for hire,
worker in wool, party spirit)
, divisions (\dichostasiai\, splits
in two, \dicha\ and \stasis\)
, heresies (\haireseis\, the very
word, but really choosings from \haireomai\, preferences)
envyings (\phthonoi\, feelings of ill-will). Surely a lively
list. (4) {Drunkenness} (\methai\, old word and plural, drunken
excesses, in N.T. only here and Lu 21:34; Ro 13:13)
, revellings
(\kōmoi\, old word also for drinking parties like those in honour
of Bacchus, in N.T. only here and Ro 13:13; 1Pe 4:3)
. {And such
(\kai ta homoia toutois\). And the things like these
(associative instrumental \toutois\ after \homoia\, like). It is
not meant to be exhaustive, but it is representative.

5:21 {Forewarn} (\prolegō\) {--did forewarn} (\proeipon\). Paul
repeats his warning given while with them. He did his duty then.
Gentile churches were peculiarly subject to these sins. But who
is not in danger from them? {Practise} (\prassontes\). \Prassō\
is the verb for habitual practice (our very word, in fact), not
\poieō\ for occasional doing. The {habit} of these sins is proof
that one is not in the Kingdom of God and will not inherit it.

5:22 {The fruit of the Spirit} (\ho karpos tou pneumatos\). Paul
changes the figure from {works} (\erga\) in verse 19 to fruit
as the normal out-cropping of the Holy Spirit in us. It is a
beautiful tree of fruit that Paul pictures here with nine
luscious fruits on it: {Love} (\agapē\). Late, almost Biblical
word. First as in 1Co 13, which see for discussion as superior
to \philia\ and \erōs\. {Joy} (\chara\). Old word. See on ¯1Th
1:6. {Peace} (\eirēnē\). See on ¯1Th 1:1. {Long-suffering}
(\makrothumia\). See on ¯2Co 6:6. {Kindness} (\chrēstotēs\). See
on ¯2Co 6:6. {Goodness} (\agathōsunē\). See on ¯2Th 1:11.
{Faithfulness} (\pistis\). Same word as "faith." See on ¯Mt
23:33; 1Co 13:7,13. {Meekness} (\prautēs\). See on ¯1Co 4:21;
2Co 10:1. {Temperance} (\egkrateia\). See on ¯Ac 24:25. Old
word from \egkratēs\, one holding control or holding in. In N.T.
only in these passages and 2Pe 1:6. Paul has a better list than
the four cardinal virtues of the Stoics (temperance, prudence,
fortitude, justice)
, though they are included with better notes
struck. Temperance is alike, but kindness is better than justice,
long-suffering than fortitude, love than prudence.

5:24 {Crucified the flesh} (\tēn sarka estaurōsan\). Definite
event, first aorist active indicative of \stauroō\ as in 2:19
(mystical union with Christ). Paul uses \sarx\ here in the same
sense as in verses 16,17,19, "the force in men that makes for
evil" (Burton). {With} (\sun\). "Together with," emphasizing "the
completeness of the extermination of this evil force" and the
guarantee of victory over one's passions and dispositions toward

5:25 {By the Spirit let us also walk} (\pneumati kai
. Present subjunctive (volitive) of \stoicheō\, "Let
us also go on walking by the Spirit." Let us make our steps by
the help and guidance of the Spirit.

5:26 {Let us not be} (\mē ginōmetha\). Present middle subjunctive
(volitive), "Let us cease becoming vainglorious" (\kenodoxoi\),
late word only here in N.T. (\kenos, doxa\). Once in Epictetus in
same sense. {Provoking one another} (\allēlous prokaloumenoi\).
Old word \prokaleō\, to call forth, to challenge to combat. Only
here in N.T. and in bad sense. The word for "provoke" in Heb
10:24 is \paroxusmon\ (our "paroxysm"). {Envying}
(\phthonountes\). Old verb from \phthonos\. Only here in N.T.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Galatians: Chapter 5)