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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Ephesians: Chapter 4)

4:1 {Wherewith ye were called} (\hēs eklēthēte\). Attraction of
the relative \hēs\ to the genitive of the antecedent \klēseōs\
(calling) from the cognate accusative \hēn\ with \eklēthēte\
(first aorist passive indicative of \kaleō\, to call). For the
list of virtues here see Col 3:12. To \anechomenoi allēlōn\
(Col 3:13) Paul here adds "in love" (\en agapēi\), singled out
in Col 3:14.

4:3 {The unity} (\tēn henotēta\). Late and rare word (from
\heis\, one)
, in Aristotle and Plutarch, though in N.T. only here
and verse 13. {In the bond of peace} (\en tōi sundesmōi tēs
. In Col 3:14 \agapē\ (love) is the \sundesmos\
(bond). But there is no peace without love (verse 2).

4:4 {One body} (\hen sōma\). One mystical body of Christ (the
spiritual church or kingdom, cf. 1:23; 2:16)
. {One Spirit}
(\hen pneuma\). One Holy Spirit, grammatical neuter gender (not
to be referred to by "it," but by "he")
. {In one hope} (\en miāi
. The same hope as a result of their calling for both Jew
and Greek as shown in chapter 2.

4:5 {One Lord} (\heis Kurios\). The Lord Jesus Christ and he
alone (no series of aeons). {One faith} (\mia pistis\). One act
of trust in Christ, the same for all (Jew or Gentile), one way of
being saved. {One baptism} (\hen baptisma\). The result of
baptizing (\baptisma\), while \baptismos\ is the act. Only in the
N.T. (\baptismos\ in Josephus) and ecclesiastical writers
naturally. See Mr 10:38. There is only one act of baptism for
all (Jews and Gentiles) who confess Christ by means of this
symbol, not that they are made disciples by this one act, but
merely so profess him, put Christ on publicly by this ordinance.

4:6 {One God and Father of all} (\heis theos kai patēr pantōn\).
Not a separate God for each nation or religion. One God for all
men. See here the Trinity again (Father, Jesus, Holy Spirit).
{Who is over all} (\ho epi pantōn\), {and through all} (\kai dia
, {and in all} (\kai en pāsin\). Thus by three
prepositions (\epi, dia, en\) Paul has endeavoured to express the
universal sweep and power of God in men's lives. The pronouns
(\pantōn, pantōn, pāsin\) can be all masculine, all neuter, or
part one or the other. The last "in all" is certainly masculine
and probably all are.

4:7 {According to the measure of the gifts of Christ} (\kata to
metron tēs dōreas tou Christou\)
. Each gets the gift that Christ
has to bestow for his special case. See 1Co 12:4ff.; Ro 12:4-6.

4:8 {Wherefore he saith} (\dio legei\). As a confirmation of what
Paul has said. No subject is expressed in the Greek and
commentators argue whether it should be \ho theos\ (God) or \hē
graphē\ (Scripture). But it comes to God after all. See Ac
2:17. The quotation is from Ps 68:18, a Messianic Psalm of
victory which Paul adapts and interprets for Christ's triumph
over death. {He led captivity captive} (\ēichmalōteusen
. Cognate accusative of \aichmalōsian\, late word,
in N.T. only here and Re 13:10. The verb also (\aichmalōteuō\)
is from the old word \aichmalōtos\, captive in war (in N.T. only
in Lu 4:18)
, in LXX and only here in N.T.

4:9 {Now this} (\to de\). Paul picks out the verb \anabas\
(second aorist active participle of \anabainō\, to go up),
changes its form to \anebē\ (second aorist indicative), and
points the article (\to\) at it. Then he concludes that it
implied a previous \katabas\ (coming down). {Into the lower parts
of the earth}
(\eis ta katōtera tēs gēs\). If the \anabas\ is the
Ascension of Christ, then the \katabas\ would be the Descent
(Incarnation) to earth and \tēs gēs\ would be the genitive of
apposition. What follows in verse 10 argues for this view.
Otherwise one must think of the death of Christ (the descent into
Hades of Ac 2:31)

4:10 {Is the same also} (\autos estin\). Rather, "the one who
came down (\ho katabas\, the Incarnation) is himself also the one
who ascended (\ho anabas\, the Ascension)." {Far above}
(\huperanō\). See 1:21. {All the heavens} (\pantōn tōn
. Ablative case after \huperanō\. For the plural used of
Christ's ascent see Heb 4:14; 7:27. Whether Paul has in mind
the Jewish notion of a graded heaven like the third heaven in
2Co 12:2 or the seven heavens idea one does not know. {That he
might fill all things}
(\hina plērōsēi ta panta\). This purpose
we can understand, the supremacy of Christ (Col 2:9f.).

4:11 {And he gave} (\kai autos edōken\). First aorist active
indicative of \didōmi\. In 1Co 12:28 Paul uses \etheto\ (more
common verb, appointed)
, but here repeats \edōken\ from the
quotation in verse 8. There are four groups (\tous men\, \tous
de\ three times, as the direct object of \edōken\)
. The titles
are in the predicate accusative (\apostolous, prophētas, poimenas
kai didaskalous\)
. Each of these words occurs in 1Co 12:28
(which see for discussion) except \poimenas\ (shepherds). This
word \poimēn\ is from a root meaning to protect. Jesus said the
good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep (Joh 10:11) and
called himself the Good Shepherd. In Heb 13:20 Christ is the
Great Shepherd (cf. 1Pe 2:25). Only here are preachers termed
shepherds (Latin _pastores_) in the N.T. But the verb \poimainō\,
to shepherd, is employed by Jesus to Peter (Joh 21:16), by
Peter to other ministers (1Pe 5:2), by Paul to the elders
(bishops) of Ephesus (Ac 20:28). Here Paul groups "shepherds
and teachers" together. All these gifts can be found in one man,
though not always. Some have only one.

4:12 {For the perfecting} (\pros ton katartismon\). Late and rare
word (in Galen in medical sense, in papyri for house-furnishing),
only here in N.T., though \katartisis\ in 2Co 13:9, both from
\katartizō\, to mend (Mt 4:21; Ga 6:1). "For the mending
(repair) of the saints." {Unto the building up} (\eis
. See 2:21. This is the ultimate goal in all these
varied gifts, "building up."

4:13 {Till we all attain} (\mechri katantēsōmen hoi pantes\).
Temporal clause with purpose idea with \mechri\ and the first
aorist active subjunctive of \katantaō\, late verb, to come down
to the goal (Php 3:11). "The whole" including every individual.
Hence the need of so many gifts. {Unto the unity of the faith}
(\eis tēn henotēta tēs pisteōs\). "Unto oneness of faith" (of
in Christ (verse 3) which the Gnostics were disturbing.
{And of the knowledge of the Son of God} (\kai tēs epignōseōs tou
huiou tou theou\)
. Three genitives in a chain dependent also on
\tēn henotēta\, "the oneness of full (\epi-\) knowledge of the
Son of God," in opposition to the Gnostic vagaries. {Unto a
full-grown man}
(\eis andra teleion\). Same figure as in 2:15
and \teleios\ in sense of adult as opposed to \nēpioi\ (infants)
in 14. {Unto the measure of the stature} (\eis metron
. So apparently \hēlikia\ here as in Lu 2:52, not age
(Joh 9:21). Boys rejoice in gaining the height of a man. But
Paul adds to this idea "the fulness of Christ" (\tou plērōmatos
tou Christou\)
, like "the fulness of God" in 3:19. And yet some
actually profess to be "perfect" with a standard like this to
measure by! No pastor has finished his work when the sheep fall
so far short of the goal.

4:14 {That we may be no longer children} (\hina mēketi ōmen
. Negative final clause with present subjunctive. Some
Christians are quite content to remain "babes" in Christ and
never cut their eye-teeth (Heb 5:11-14), the victims of every
charlatan who comes along. {Tossed to and fro}
(\kludōnizomenoi\). Present passive participle of \kludōnizomai\,
late verb from \kludōn\ (wave, Jas 1:6), to be agitated by the
waves, in LXX, only here in N.T. One example in Vettius Valens.
{Carried about} (\peripheromenoi\). Present passive participle of
\peripherō\, old verb, to carry round, whirled round "by every
wind (\anemōi\, instrumental case) of teaching." In some it is
all wind, even like a hurricane or a tornado. If not anchored by
full knowledge of Christ, folks are at the mercy of these
squalls. {By the sleight} (\en tēi kubiāi\). "In the deceit," "in
the throw of the dice" (\kubia\, from \kubos\, cube), sometimes
cheating. {In craftiness} (\en panourgiāi\). Old word from
\panourgos\ (\pan, ergon\, any deed, every deed), cleverness,
trickiness. {After the wiles of error} (\pros tēn methodian tēs
. \Methodia\ is from \methodeuō\ (\meta, hodos\) to
follow after or up, to practise deceit, and occurs nowhere else
(Eph 4:13; 6:11) save in late papyri in the sense of method.
The word \planēs\ (wandering like our "planet") adds to the evil
idea in the word. Paul has covered the whole ground in this
picture of Gnostic error.

4:15 {In love} (\en agapēi\). If truth were always spoken only in
love! {May grow into him} (\auxēsōmen eis auton\). Supply \hina\
and then note the final use of the first aorist active
subjunctive. It is the metaphor of verse 13 (the full-grown
. We are the body and Christ is the Head. We are to grow up
to his stature.

4:16 {From which} (\ex hou\). Out of which as the source of
energy and direction. {Fitly framed} (\sunarmologoumenon\). See
2:21 for this verb. {Through that which every joint supplieth}
(\dia pasēs haphēs tēs epichorēgias\). Literally, "through every
joint of the supply." See Col 2:19 for \haphē\ and Php 1:19
for the late word \epichorēgia\ (only two examples in N.T.) from
\epichorēgeō\, to supply (Col 2:19). {In due measure} (\en
. Just "in measure" in the Greek, but the assumption is
that each part of the body functions properly in its own sphere.
{Unto the building up of itself} (\eis oikodomēn heautou\).
Modern knowledge of cell life in the human body greatly
strengthens the force of Paul's metaphor. This is the way the
body grows by cooperation under the control of the head and all
"in love" (\en agapēi\).

4:17 {That ye no longer walk} (\mēketi humas peripatein\).
Infinitive (present active) in indirect command (not indirect
with accusative \humas\ of general reference. {In
vanity of their mind}
(\en mataiotēti tou noos autōn\). "In
emptiness (from \mataios\, late and rare word. See Ro 8:20) of
their intellect (\noos\, late form for earlier genitive \nou\,
from \nous\)

4:18 {Being darkened} (\eskotōmenoi ontes\). Periphrastic perfect
passive participle of \skotoō\, old verb from \skotos\
(darkness), in N.T. only here and Re 9:2; 16:10. {In their
(\tēi dianoiāi\). Locative case. Probably
\dianoia\ (\dia, nous\) includes the emotions as well as the
intellect (\nous\). It is possible to take \ontes\ with
\apēllotriōmenoi\ (see 2:12) which would then be periphrastic
(instead of \eskotōmenoi\) perfect passive participle. {From the
life of God}
(\tēs zōēs tou theou\). Ablative case \zōēs\ after
\apēllotriōmenoi\ (2:12). {Because of the ignorance} (\dia tēn
. Old word from \agnoeō\, not to know. Rare in N.T. See
Ac 3:17. {Hardening} (\pōrōsin\). Late medical term
(Hippocrates) for callous hardening. Only other N.T. examples are
Mr 3:5; Ro 11:25.

4:19 {Being past feeling} (\apēlgēkotes\). Perfect active
participle of \apalgeō\, old word to cease to feel pain, only
here in N.T. {To lasciviousness} (\tēi aselgeiāi\). Unbridled
lust as in 2Co 12:21; Ga 5:19. {To work all uncleanness} (\eis
ergasian akatharsias pasēs\)
. Perhaps prostitution, "for a
trading (or work) in all uncleanness." Certainly Corinth and
Ephesus could qualify for this charge. {With greediness} (\en
. From \pleonektēs\, one who always wants more
whether money or sexual indulgence as here. The two vices are
often connected in the N.T.

4:20 {But ye did not so learn Christ} (\Humeis de ouch houtōs
emathete ton Christon\)
. In sharp contrast to pagan life
(\houtōs\). Second aorist active indicative of \manthanō\.

4:21 {If so be that} (\ei ge\). "If indeed." Condition of first
class with aorist indicatives here, assumed to be true (\ēkousate
kai edidachthēte\)
. {Even as truth is in Jesus} (\kathōs estin
alētheia en tōi Iēsou\)
. It is not clear what Paul's precise idea
is here. The Cerinthian Gnostics did distinguish between the man
Jesus and the aeon Christ. Paul here identifies Christ (verse
and Jesus (verse 21). At any rate he flatly affirms that
there is "truth in Jesus" which is in direct opposition to the
heathen manner of life and which is further explained by the
epexegetical infinitives that follow (\apothesthai, ananeousthai
de, kai endusasthai\)

4:22 {That ye put away} (\apothesthai\). Second aorist middle
infinitive of \apotithēmi\ with the metaphor of putting off
clothing or habits as \apothesthe\ in Col 3:8 (which see) with
the same addition of "the old man" (\ton palaion anthrōpon\) as
in Col 3:9. For \anastrophēn\ (manner of life) see Ga 1:13.
{Which waxeth corrupt} (\ton phtheiromenon\). Either present
middle or passive participle of \phtheirō\, but it is a process
of corruption (worse and worse).

4:23 {That ye be renewed} (\ananeousthai\). Present passive
infinitive (epexegetical, like \apothesthai\, of \alētheia en tōi
and to be compared with \anakainoumenon\ in Col 3:10.
It is an old verb, \ananeoō\, to make new (young) again; though
only here in N.T. {The spirit} (\tōi pneumati\). Not the Holy
Spirit, but the human spirit.

4:24 {Put on} (\endusasthai\). First aorist middle infinitive of
\enduō\ (\-nō\), for which see Col 3:10. {The new man} (\ton
kainon anthrōpon\)
. "The brand-new (see 2:15) man," though \ton
neon\ in Col 3:10. {After God} (\kata theon\). After the
pattern God, the new birth, the new life in Christ, destined to
be like God in the end (Ro 8:29).

4:25 {Wherefore} (\dio\). Because of putting off the old man, and
putting on the new man. {Putting away} (\apothemenoi\). Second
aorist middle participle of \apotithēmi\ (verse 22). {Lying}
(\pseudos\), {truth} (\alētheian\) in direct contrast. {Each one}
(\hekastos\). Partitive apposition with \laleite\. See Col 3:8
\mē pseudesthe\.

4:26 {Be ye angry and sin not} (\orgizesthe kai mē hamartanete\).
Permissive imperative, not a command to be angry. Prohibition
against sinning as the peril in anger. Quotation from Ps 4:4.
{Let not the sun go down upon your wrath} (\ho hēlios mē epiduetō
epi parorgismōi\)
. Danger in settled mood of anger. \Parorgismos\
(provocation), from \parorgizō\, to exasperate to anger, occurs
only in LXX and here in N.T.

4:27 {Neither give place to the devil} (\mēde didote topon tōi
. Present active imperative in prohibition, either stop
doing it or do not have the habit. See Ro 12:19 for this idiom.

4:28 {Steal no more} (\mēketi kleptetō\). Clearly here, cease
stealing (present active imperative with \mēketi\). {The thing
that is good}
(\to agathon\). "The good thing" opposed to his
stealing and "with his hands" (\tais chersin\, instrumental case)
that did the stealing. See 2Th 3:10. Even unemployment is no
excuse for stealing. {To give} (\metadidonai\). Present active
infinitive of \metadidōmi\, to share with one.

4:29 {Corrupt} (\sapros\). Rotten, putrid, like fruit (Mt
, fish (Mt 13:48), here the opposite of \agathos\
(good). {For edifying as the need may be} (\pros oikodomēn tēs
. "For the build-up of the need," "for supplying help
when there is need." Let no other words come out. {That it may
(\hina dōi\). For this elliptical use of \hina\ see on

4:30 {Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God} (\mē lupeite to pneuma
to hagion tou theou\)
. "Cease grieving" or "do not have the habit
of grieving." Who of us has not sometimes grieved the Holy
Spirit? {In whom} (\en hōi\). Not "in which." {Ye were sealed}
(\esphragisthēte\). See 1:13 for this verb, and 1:14 for
\apolutrōseōs\, the day when final redemption is realized.

4:31 {Bitterness} (\pikria\). Old word from \pikros\ (bitter), in
N.T. only here and Ac 8:23; Ro 3:14; Heb 12:15. {Clamour}
(\kraugē\). Old word for outcry (Mt 25:6; Lu 1:42). See Col
3:8 for the other words. {Be put away} (\arthētō\). First aorist
passive imperative of \airō\, old verb, to pick up and carry
away, to make a clean sweep.

4:32 {Be ye kind to one another} (\ginesthe eis allēlous
. Present middle imperative of \ginomai\, "keep on
becoming kind (\chrēstos\, used of God in Ro 2:4) toward one
another." See Col 3:12f. {Tenderhearted} (\eusplagchnoi\). Late
word (\eu, splagchna\) once in Hippocrates, in LXX, here and 1Pe
3:8 in N.T.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Ephesians: Chapter 4)