[Table of Contents]
[Previous] [Next]
Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Acts: Chapter 13)

13:1 {In the church that was there} (\kata tēn ousan ekklēsian\).
Possibly distributed throughout the church (note "in the church"
. Now a strong organization there. Luke here begins the
second part of Acts with Antioch as the centre of operations, no
longer Jerusalem. Paul is now the central figure instead of
Peter. Jerusalem had hesitated too long to carry out the command
of Jesus to take the gospel to the whole world. That glory will
now belong to Antioch. {Prophets and teachers} (\prophētai kai
. All prophets were teachers, but not all teachers
were prophets who were for-speakers of God, sometimes
fore-speakers like Agabus in 11:28. The double use of \te\ here
makes three prophets (Barnabas, Symeon, Lucius) and two teachers
(Manaen and Saul). Barnabas heads the list (11:22) and Saul
comes last. Symeon Niger may be the Simon of Cyrene who carried
the Saviour's cross. Lucius of Cyrene was probably one of the
original evangelists (11:20). The name is one of the forms of
Luke, but it is certainly not Luke the Physician. Manaen shows
how the gospel was reaching some of the higher classes (home of
Herod Antipas)
. {Foster-brother} (\suntrophos\). Old word for
nourished with or brought up with one _collactaneus_ (Vulgate).
These are clearly the outstanding men in the great Greek church
in Antioch.

13:2 {As they ministered to the Lord} (\leitourgountōn autōn toi
. Genitive absolute of \leitourgeō\, old verb, used of
the Attic orators who served the state at their own cost \leōs\
or \laos\, people, and \ergon\, work or service). Common in the
LXX of the priests who served in the tabernacle (Ex 28:31,39)
like \leitourgia\ (Lu 1:23) which see. So in Heb 10:11. In
Ro 15:27 of aiding others in poverty. Here of worship (prayer,
exhortation, fasting)
. The word liturgy grows out of this use.
{And fasted} (\kai nēsteuontōn\). Genitive absolute also.
Christian Jews were keeping up the Jewish fast (Lu 18:12). Note
fasting also in the choice of elders for the Mission Churches
(Ac 14:23). Fasting was not obligatory on the Christians, but
they were facing a great emergency in giving the gospel to the
Gentile world. {Separate me} (\aphorisate dē moi\). First aorist
active imperative of \aphorizō\, old verb to mark off boundaries
or horizon, used by Paul of his call (Ro 1:1; Ga 1:15). The
Greek has \dē\, a shortened form of \ēdē\ and like Latin _jam_
and German _doch_, now therefore. It ought to be preserved in the
translation. Cf. Lu 2:15; Ac 15:36; 1Co 6:20. \Moi\ is the
ethical dative. As in verse 1 Barnabas is named before Saul.
Both had been called to ministry long ago, but now this call is
to the special campaign among the Gentiles. Both had been active
and useful in such work. {Whereunto} (\ho\). Here \eis\ has to be
repeated from \eis to ergon\ just before, "for which" as Jesus
sent the twelve and the seventy in pairs, so here. Paul nearly
always had one or more companions.

13:3 {When they had fasted} (\nēsteusantes\). Either finishing
the same fast in verse 2 or another one (Hackett), but clearly
a voluntary fast. {Laid their hands upon them} (\epithentes tas
cheiras autois\)
. Second aorist active participle of
\epitithēmi\. Not ordination to the ministry, but a solemn
consecration to the great missionary task to which the Holy
Spirit had called them. Whether the whole church took part in
this ceremony is not clear, though in 15:40 "the brethren" did
commend Paul and Silas. Perhaps some of them here acted for the
whole church, all of whom approved the enterprise. But Paul makes
it plain in Php 4:15 that the church in Antioch did not make
financial contribution to the campaign, but only goodwill. But
that was more than the church at Jerusalem would have done as a
whole since Peter had been arraigned there for his activities in
Caesarea (Ac 11:1-18). Clearly Barnabas and Saul had to finance
the tour themselves. It was Philippi that first gave money to
Paul's campaigns. There were still heathen enough in Antioch, but
the church approved the going of Barnabas and Saul, their very

13:4 {So they} (\autoi men oun\). They themselves indeed
therefore. No contrast is necessary, though there is a slight one
in verses 5,6. Luke again refers to the Holy Spirit as the
source of their authority for this campaign rather than the
church at Antioch. {Sent forth} (\ekpemphthentes\). Old verb from
\ekpempō\ and first aorist passive participle, but in the N.T.
only here and Ac 17:10. {Sailed} (\apepleusan\). Effective
aorist active indicative of \apopleō\, old verb to sail away,
depart from. In the N.T. only here and 14:26; 20:15; 27:1.
Barnabas was from Cyprus where there were many Jews.

13:5 {Proclaimed} (\katēggellon\). Imperfect active of
\kataggellō\, inchoative, began to proclaim. This was Paul's rule
of procedure, "to the Jew first" (Ro 1:16; Ac 13:46; 17:2;
18:4,19; 19:8)
. {They had also} (\eichon de kai\). Imperfect
active, descriptive. {As their attendant} (\hupēretēn\).
Literally, "under-rower" (\hupo, ēretēs\) in the trireme.
Probably here minister (\chazzan\) or assistant in the synagogue
as in Lu 4:20. Cf. Mt 5:25. It is not clear what John Mark
did, though he was evidently selected by Barnabas as his cousin.
He may have helped in the baptizing. There were probably others
also in the company (verse 13). The "also" may mean that Mark
did some preaching. Barnabas was probably the leader in the work
in these Jewish synagogues.

13:6 {Unto Paphos} (\achri Paphou\). The new Paphos at the other
end of the island, reached by a fine Roman road, some eight miles
north of the old Paphos famous for the worship of Venus. {A
certain sorcerer, a false prophet, a Jew}
(\andra tina magon
pseudoprophētēn Ioudaion\)
. Literally, "a certain man" (\andra
with various descriptive epithets. The word \magon\ does
not necessarily mean "sorcerer," but only a \magus\ (Mt
2:1,7,10 which see)
. The bad sense occurs in Ac 8:9,11 (Simon
and is made plain here by "false prophet." In verse 8
here Barjesus (Son of Jesus) is called "Elymas the sorcerer (or
," probably his professional title, as Luke interprets the
Arabic or Aramaic word Elymas. These Jewish mountebanks were
numerous and had great influence with the uneducated. In Ac
19:13 the seven sons of Sceva, Jewish exorcists, tried to
imitate Paul. If one is surprised that a man like Sergius Paulus
should fall under the influence of this fraud, he should recall
what Juvenal says of the Emperor Tiberius "sitting on the rock of
Capri with his flock of Chaldaeans around him."

13:7 {With the proconsul Sergius Paulus} (\sun tōi anthupatōi
Sergiōi Paulōi\)
. Luke used to be sharply criticized for applying
this term to Sergius Paulus on the ground that Cyprus was a
province under the appointment of the emperor with the title of
propraetor and not under the control of the senate with the title
of proconsul. That was true B.C. 30, but five years later it was
changed to proconsul by Augustus and put under the control of the
Senate. Two inscriptions have been found with the date A.D. 51
and 52 with the names of proconsuls of Cyprus and one is in the
Cesnola Collection, an inscription found at Soli with the name of
Paulus as Proconsul, undoubtedly this very man, though no date
occurs. {A man of understanding} (\andri sunetōi\). All the more
amazing that he should be a victim of Barjesus. He had given up
idolatry at any rate and was eager to hear Barnabas and Saul.

13:8 {Withstood them} (\anthistato autois\). Imperfect middle of
\anthistēmi\, to stand against (face to face). Dative case
(\autois\). He persisted in his opposition and was unwilling to
lose his great prize. There may have been a public discussion
between Elymas and Saul. {To turn aside} (\diastrepsai\). First
aorist active infinitive of \diastrephō\, old verb to turn or
twist in two, to distort, to pervert (cf. Mt 17:17; Lu 23:2).

13:9 {But Saul, who is also called Paul} (\Saulos de, ho kai
. By this remarkably brief phrase Luke presents this
epoch in the life of Saul Paul. The "also" (\kai\) does not mean
that the name Paul was given now for the first time, rather than
he had always had it. As a Jew and a Roman citizen, he
undoubtedly had both names all the time (cf. John Mark, Symeon
Niger, Barsabbas Justus)
. Jerome held that the name of Sergius
Paulus was adopted by Saul because of his conversion at this
time, but this is a wholly unlikely explanation, "an element of
vulgarity impossible to St. Paul " (Farrar). Augustine thought
that the meaning of the Latin _paulus_ (little) would incline
Saul to adopt, "but as a proper name the word rather suggested
the glories of the Aemilian family, and even to us recalls the
name of another Paulus, who was 'lavish of his noble life'"
(Page). Among the Jews the name Saul was naturally used up to
this point, but from now on Luke employs Paul save when there is
a reference to his previous life (Ac 22:7; 26:14). His real
career is work among the Gentiles and Paul is the name used by
them. There is a striking similarity in sound between the Hebrew
Saul and the Roman Paul. Paul was proud of his tribe of Benjamin
and so of King Saul (Php 3:5). {Filled with the Holy Spirit}
(\plēstheis pneumatos hagiou\). First aorist (ingressive) passive
participle of \pimplēmi\ with the genitive case. A special influx
of power to meet this emergency. Here was a cultured heathen,
typical of the best in Roman life, who called forth all the
powers of Paul plus the special help of the Holy Spirit to expose
the wickedness of Elymas Barjesus. If one wonders why the Holy
Spirit filled Paul for this emergency rather than Barnabas, when
Barnabas was named first in 13:2, he can recall the sovereignty
of the Holy Spirit in his choice of agents (1Co 12:4-11) and
also the special call of Paul by Christ (Ac 9:15; 26:17f.).
{Fastened his eyes} (\atenisas\). As already in Lu 4:20; 22:56;
Ac 3:4,12; 6:15; 10:4.

13:10 {Of all guile} (\pantos dolou\). From \delō\, to catch with
bait, old word, already seen in Mt 26:4; Mr 7:22; 14:1. Paul
denounces Elymas as a trickster. {All villainy} (\pāsēs
. Late compound from \rhāidiourgos\ (\rhāidios\,
easy, facile, \ergon\, deed, one who does a thing adroitly and
with ease)
. So levity in Xenophon and unscrupulousness in
Polybius, Plutarch, and the papyri. Only here in the N.T., though
the kindred word \rhāidiourgēma\ occurs in Ac 18:14. With
deadly accuracy Paul pictured this slick rascal. {Thou son of the
(\huie diabolou\). Damning phrase like that used by Jesus
of the Pharisees in Joh 8:44, a slanderer like the \diabolos\.
This use of son (\huios\) for characteristic occurs in Ac 3:25;
4:36, a common Hebrew idiom, and may be used purposely by Paul
in contrast with the name Barjesus (son of Jesus) that Elymas
bore (13:6). {Enemy of all righteousness} (\echthre pāsēs
. Personal enemy to all justice, sums up all the
rest. Note triple use of "all" (\pantos, pāsēs, pāsēs\), total
depravity in every sense. {Wilt thou not cease?} (\ou pausēi\).
An impatient rhetorical question, almost volitive in force
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 874). Note \ou\, not \mē\, {To pervert}
(\diastrephōn\). Present active participle describing the actual
work of Elymas as a perverter or distorter (see verse 8). More
exactly, Wilt thou not cease perverting? {The right ways of the
(\tas hodous tou kuriou tas eutheias\). The ways of the
Lord the straight ones as opposed to the crooked ways of men
(Isa 40:4; 42:16; Lu 3:5). The task of John the Baptist as of
all prophets and preachers is to make crooked paths straight and
to get men to walk in them. This false prophet was making even
the Lord's straight ways crooked. Elymas has many successors.

13:11 {Upon thee} (\epi se\). The use of \epi\ with the
accusative is rich and varied, the precise shade of meaning
depending on the content. The "hand of the Lord" might be kindly
(Ac 11:21) or hostile (Heb 10:31), but when God's hand
touches one's life (Job 19:21) it may be in judgment as here
with Elymas. He has not humbled himself under the mighty hand of
God (1Pe 5:6). {Not seeing} (\mē blepōn\). Repeating with
negative participle the negative idea in "blind" (\tuphlos\). "It
was a judicial infliction; blindness for blindness, darkness
without for wilful darkness within" (Furneaux). He was an example
of the blind leading the blind that was to cease and Sergius
Paulus was to be led into the light. The blindness was to be "for
a season" (\achri kairou\, Lu 4:13), if it should please God to
restore his sight. Paul apparently recalls his own blindness as
he entered Damascus. {A mist} (\achlus\). Especially a dimness of
the eyes, old poetic word and late prose, in LXX, only here in
N.T. Galen uses it of the opacity of the eye caused by a wound.
{He went about seeking some one to lead him by the hand}
(\periagōn ezētei cheiragōgous\). A rather free rendering.
Literally, "going about (\periagōn\, present active participle of
he was seeking (\ezētei\, imperfect active of \zēteō\)
guides (\cheiragōgous\, from \cheir\, hand, and \agōgos\, guide,
from \agō\, one who leads by the hand)
." The very verb
\cheiragōgeō\, to lead by the hand, Luke uses of Paul in 9:8,
as he entered Damascus.

13:12 {Believed} (\episteusen\). Ingressive aorist active
indicative. Renan considers it impossible that a Roman proconsul
could be converted by a miracle. But it was the teaching about
the Lord (\tou kuriou\, objective genitive) by which he was
astonished (\ekplēssomenos\, present passive participle of
\ekplēssō\, see on ¯Mt 7:28)
or struck out as well as by the
miracle. The blindness came "immediately" (\paraehrēma\) upon the
judgment pronounced by Paul. It is possible that Sergius Paulus
was converted to Christ without openly identifying himself with
the Christians as his baptism is not mentioned as in the case of
Cornelius. But, even if he was baptized, he need not have been
deposed from his proconsulship as Furneaux and Rackham argue
because his office called for "official patronage of idolatrous
worship." But that could have been merely perfunctory as it
probably was already. He had been a disciple of the Jewish
magician, Elymas Barjesus, without losing his position. Imperial
persecution against Christianity had not yet begun. Furneaux even
suggests that the conversion of a proconsul to Christianity at
this stage would have called for mention by the Roman and Greek
historians. There is the name Sergia Paullina in a Christian
cemetery in Rome which shows that one of his family was a
Christian later. One will believe what he wills about Sergius
Paulus, but I do not see that Luke leaves him in the category of
Simon Magus who "believed" (8:13) for revenue only.

13:13 {Paul and his company} (\hoi peri Paulon\). Neat Greek
idiom as in Plato, Cratylus 440 C \hoi peri Herakleiton\. On this
idiom see Gildersleeve, _Syntax_, p. 264. It means a man and his
followers, "those around Paul." Now Paul ranks first always in
Acts save in 14:2; 15:12,25 for special reasons. Heretofore
Saul (Paul) held a secondary position (9:27; 11:30; 13:1f.).
"In nothing is the greatness of Barnabas more manifest than in
his recognition of the superiority of Paul and acceptance of a
secondary position for himself" (Furneaux). {Set sail}
(\anachthentes\). First aorist passive participle of \anagō\.
Thirteen times in the Acts and Lu 8:22 which see. They sailed
up to sea and came down (\katagō, katabainō\) to land. So it
looks. {Departed from them} (\apochōrēsas ap' autōn\). First
aorist active participle of \apochōreō\, old verb to withdraw, go
away from. In the N.T. only here and Mt 7:23; Lu 9:39. He is
called John there as in verse 5 and Mark in 15:39, though
John Mark in 12:12,25. This may be accidental or on purpose
(Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 317). Luke is silent on John's
reasons for leaving Paul and Barnabas. He was the cousin of
Barnabas and may not have relished the change in leadership.
There may have been change in plans also now that Paul is in
command. Barnabas had chosen Cyprus and Paul has led them to
Perga in Pamphylia and means to go on into the highlands to
Antioch in Pisidia. There were perils of many sorts around them
and ahead (2Co 11:26), perils to which John Mark was unwilling
to be exposed. Paul will specifically charge him at Antioch with
desertion of his post (Ac 15:39). It is possible, as Ramsay
suggests, that the mosquitoes at Perga gave John malaria. If so,
they bit Paul and Barnabas also. He may not have liked Paul's
aggressive attitude towards the heathen. At any rate he went home
to Jerusalem instead of to Antioch, _zu seiner Mutter_
(Holtzmann). It was a serious breach in the work, but Paul and
Barnabas stuck to the work.

13:14 {Passing through} (\dielthontes\). It is not clear why Paul
and Barnabas left Perga so soon nor why they went to Antioch in
Pisidia. Ramsay suggests malaria that spurred them on to the
hills after the desertion of John Mark. They preached at Perga on
the return (14:25) and apparently hurried away now. Farrar
thinks that the hot weather had driven the population to the
hills. At any rate it is not difficult to imagine the perils of
this climb over the rough mountain way from Perga to Pisidian
Antioch to which Paul apparently refers in 2Co 11:26. {Sat
(\ekathisan\). Ingressive aorist active indicative, took
their seats as visiting Jews, possibly in the seats of the rabbis
(J. Lightfoot). Whether they expected to be called on or not,
they were given the opportunity as prominent visitors. The
Pisidian Antioch was really in Phrygia, but towards Pisidia to
distinguish it from Antioch on the Maeander (Ramsay, _Church in
the Roman Empire_, p. 25)
. It was a colony like Philippi and so a
free city. If Paul is referring to South Galatia and not North
Galatia in Ga 4:13 when he says that his preaching in Galatia
at first was due to illness, then it was probably here at
Pisidian Antioch. What it was we have no means of knowing, though
it was a temptation in his flesh to them so severe that they were
willing to pluck out their eyes for him (Ga 4:14f.). Opthalmia,
malaria, epilepsy have all been suggested as this stake in the
flesh (2Co 12:7). But Paul was able to preach with power
whatever his actual physical condition was.

13:15 {After the reading of the law and the prophets} (\meta tēn
anagnōsin tou nomou kai tōn prophētōn\)
. The law was first read
in the synagogues till B.C. 163 when Antiochus Epiphones
prohibited it. Then the reading of the prophets was substituted
for it. The Maccabees restored both. There was a reading from the
law and one from the prophets in Hebrew which was interpreted
into the Aramaic or the Greek _Koinē_ for the people. The reading
was followed by the sermon as when Jesus was invited to read and
to preach in Nazareth (Lu 4:16f.). For the service in the
synagogue see Schuerer, _History of the Jewish People_, Div. II,
Vol. II, pp. 79ff. It was the duty of the rulers of the synagogue
(\archisunagōgoi\) to select the readers and the speakers for the
service (Mr 5:22,35-38; Lu 8:49; 13:14; Ac 13:15; 18:8,17). Any
rabbi or distinguished stranger could be called on to speak. {If
ye have any word of exhortation for the people}
(\ei tis estin en
humin logos paraklēseōs pros ton laon\)
. Literally, if there is
among you any word of exhortation for the people. It is a
condition of the first class and assumed to be true, a polite
invitation. On "exhortation" (\paraklēsis\) see 9:31. It may be
a technical phrase used in the synagogue (Heb 13:22; 1Ti 4:13).

13:16 {Paul stood up} (\anastas Paulos\). The Jewish custom was
to sit while speaking (Lu 4:20), but the Greek and Roman was to
stand (Ac 17:22). It is possible as Lewin (_Life of St. Paul_,
Vol. 1, p. 141)
suggests that here Paul stepped upon the platform
and then took his seat as he began to speak or he may have
followed the Greek and Roman custom. Paul is the leader now and
the more gifted speaker (Ac 14:12), so that he responds to the
courteous invitation of the rulers. {Beckoning} (\kataseisas\).
First aorist active participle of \kataseiō\, old verb to shake
down, a dramatic gesture for quiet and order like Peter in
12:17 and Paul on the steps of the tower of Antonia (21:40).
{And ye that fear God} (\kai hoi phoboumenoi ton theon\).
Evidently large numbers of these Gentiles like Cornelius in
Caesarea were present. They offered Paul a great opportunity for
reaching the purely pagan Gentiles. This (verses 16-41) is the
first full report of a sermon of Paul's that Luke has preserved
for us. He is now a practised preacher of the gospel that he
began proclaiming at Damascus, that Jesus of Nazareth is the
Messiah of promise and the Saviour of the whole world both Jew
and Gentile if they will only believe on him and be saved. It is
possible that Paul here based his sermon on the passages of the
law and the prophets that had just been read. He uses two words
from the LXX, one in verse 19 from De 1:31 \etrophophorēsen\
(as a nursing-father bare he them), the reading of many old MSS.
and the one preferred by the American Committee, the other in
verse 17 from Isa 1:2 \hupsōsen\ (exalted). At any rate it is
clear that Paul spoke in Greek so that all could understand his
sermon. He may have written out notes of this sermon afterwards
for Luke. The keynotes of Paul's theology as found in his
Epistles appear in this sermon. It is interesting to observe the
steady growth of Paul's Christology as he faced the great
problems of his day. Here we see Paul's gospel for the Jews and
the God-fearers (Gentiles friendly to the Jews).

13:17 {Chose} (\exelexato\). First aorist middle (indirect),
selected for himself. Israel was the chosen people. {Exalted}
(\hupsōsen\). From \hupsoō\, late verb from \hupsos\ so often
used of Christ. {When they sojourned} (\en tēi paroikiāi\). In
the sojourn. Late word from \paroikos\ (sojourner, dweller, Ac
common in LXX. In N.T. only here and 1Pe 1:17. {With a
high arm}
(\meta brachionos hupsēlou\). Vivid picture from the
LXX (Ex 6:1,6; De 5:15; Ps 136:12).

13:18 {Suffered he their manners} (\etropophorēsen\). First
aorist active indicative of \tropophoreō\, late word from
\tropos\, manner, and \pherō\, reading of Aleph B D and accepted
by Westcott and Hort. But A C Sahidic Bohairic read
\etrophophorēsen\ from \trophophoreō\ (\trophos\, a nurse, and
late word (II Macc. 7:27), probably correct word here
and De 1:31.

13:19 {When he had destroyed} (\kathelōn\). Second aorist active
participle of \kathaireō\, to tear down, old verb. {He gave them
for an inheritance}
(\kateklēronomēsen\). First aorist active
indicative of the double compound verb \kata-klēro-nomeō\, late
verb in LXX (Nu 34:18; De 3:28; Jos 14:1) and only here in the
N.T., to distribute by lot, to distribute as an inheritance. This
is the correct reading and not \kateklērodotēsen\ from
\kataklērodoteō\ of the Textus Receptus. These two verbs were
confused in the MSS. of the LXX as well as here. {For about four
hundred and fifty years}
(\hōs etesin tetrakosiois kai
. Associative instrumental case with an expression of
time as in 8:11; Lu 8:29 (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 527). The
oldest MSS. (Aleph A B C Vg Sah Boh) place these figures before
"after these things" and so in verse 19. This is the true
reading and is in agreement with the notation in 1Ki 6:1. The
difficulty found in the Textus Receptus (King James Version) thus
disappears with the true text. The four hundred and fifty years
runs therefore from the birth of Isaac to the actual conquest of
Canaan and does not cover the period of the Judges. See on ¯Ac

13:20 {And after these things} (\kai meta tauta\). That is, the
time of the Judges then began. Cf. Jud 2:16. {Until Samuel the
(\heōs Samouēl prophētou\). The _terminus ad quem_. He
was the last of the judges and the first of the prophets who
selected the first king (Saul) under God's guidance. Note the
absence of the Greek article with \prophētou\.

13:21 {They asked} (\ēitēsanto\). First aorist indirect middle
indicative, they asked for themselves. They were tired of a
theocracy. Cf. 1Sa 8:5; 10:1. Paul mentions with pride that
Benjamin was the tribe of Saul (his name also), but he does not
allude to Saul's sin (Furneaux). {For the space of forty years}
(\etē tesserakonta\). Accusative of extent of time. Not in the
O.T., but in Josephus, _Ant_. VI. 14, 9.

13:22 {When he had removed him} (\metastēsas auton\). First
aorist active participle of \methistēmi\, old verb to transfer,
to transpose (note force of \meta\). This verb occurs in Lu
16:4 by the unjust steward about his removal from office. Cf.
1Sa 15:16. {To be} (\eis\). As or for, Greek idiom like the
Hebrew _le_, common in the LXX. {A man after my heart} (\andra
kata tēn kardian mou\)
. The words quoted by Paul as a direct
saying of God are a combination of Ps 89:20, 21; 1Sa 13:14 (the
word of the Lord to Samuel about David)
. Knowling thinks that
this free and rather loose quotation of the substance argues for
the genuineness of the report of Paul's sermon. Hackett observes
that the commendation of David is not absolute, but, as compared
with the disobedient Saul, he was a man who did God's will in
spite of the gross sin of which he repented (Ps 51). Note
"wills" (\thelēmata\), plural, of God.

13:23 {Of this man's seed} (\toutou apo tou spermatos\). Emphatic
position of \toutou\. Of this one from the (his) seed. {According
to promise}
(\kat' epaggelian\). This phrase in Ga 3:29; 2Ti
1:1. See the promise in 2Sa 7:2; Ps 132:11; Isa 11:1,10; Jer
23:5f.; Zec 3:8. In Zec 3:8 the verb \agō\ is used of the
sending of the Messiah as here. {A Saviour Jesus} (\Sōtēra
. Jesus is in apposition with Saviour (accusative case)
and comes at the end of the sentence in contrast with "this man"
(David) at the beginning. Paul goes no further than David because
he suggests to him Jesus, descendant in the flesh from David. By
"Israel" here Paul means the Jewish people, though he will later
enlarge this promise to include the spiritual Israel both Gentile
and Jew (Ro 9:6f.).

13:24 {When John had first preached} (\prokēruxantos Iōanou\).
Literally, John heralding beforehand, as a herald before the king
(Lu 3:3). Genitive absolute of first aorist active participle
of \prokērussō\, old verb to herald beforehand, here alone in the
N.T., though Textus Receptus has it also in Ac 3:20. {Before
his coming}
(\pro prosōpou tēs eisodou autou\). Literally, before
the face of his entering in (here act of entrance as 1Th 1:9,
not the gate as in Heb 10:19)
. See Mal 3:1 quoted in Mt
11:10 (Lu 7:27) for this Hebrew phrase and also Lu 1:76.
{The baptism of repentance} (\baptisma metanoias\). Baptism
marked by, characterized by (genitive case, case of kind or
repentance (change of mind and life). The very phrase
used of John's preaching in Mr 1:4; Lu 3:3. It is clear
therefore that Paul understood John's ministry and message as did
Peter (Ac 2:38; 10:37).

13:25 {As John was fulfilling his course} (\hōs eplērou Iōanēs
ton dromon\)
. Imperfect active of \plēroō\, describing his vivid
ministry without defining the precise period when John asked the
question. Paul uses this word \dromos\ (course) of his own race
(Ac 20:24; 2Ti 4:7). {What suppose ye that I am?} (\Ti eme
huponoeite einai?\)
Note \ti\ (neuter), not \tina\ (masculine),
{what} not {who}, character, not identity. It is indirect
discourse (the infinitive \einai\ and the accusative of general
. {Huponoeō} (\hupo, noeō\) is to think secretly, to
suspect, to conjecture. {I am not he} (\ouk eimi egō\). These
precise words are not given in the Gospels, but the idea is the
same as the disclaimers by the Baptist in Joh 1:19-27 (cf. also
Mt 3:11; Mr 1:7; Lu 3:16)
. Paul had a true grasp of the message
of the Baptist. He uses the very form \l–sai\ (first aorist
active infinitive of \luō\)
found in Mr 1:7; Lu 3:16 and the
word for shoes (\hupodēma\, singular) in all three. His quotation
is remarkably true to the words in the Synoptic Gospels. How did
Paul get hold of the words of the Baptist so clearly?

13:26 {To us} (\hēmin\). Both Jews and Gentiles, both classes in
Paul's audience, dative of advantage. {Is sent forth}
(\exapestalē\). Second aorist passive indicative of the double
compound verb \exapostellō\, common verb to send out (\ex\) and
forth (\apo\). It is a climacteric or culminative aorist tense.
It has come to us in one day, this glorious promise. {The word of
this salvation}
(\ho logos tēs sōtērias tautēs\). The message of
Jesus as Saviour (verse 23), long ago promised and now come to
us as Saviour.

13:27 {Because they knew him not} (\touton agnoēsantes\). First
aorist active participle (causal) of \agnoeō\, old verb, not to
know. Peter gives "ignorance" (\agnoia\) as the excuse of the
Jews in the death of Christ (3:17) and Paul does the same about
his conduct before his conversion (1Ti 1:13). This ignorance
mitigated the degree of their guilt, but it did not remove it,
for it was willing ignorance and prejudice. {The voices of the
prophets which are read}
(\tas phōnas tōn prophētōn tas
. Object also of \agnoēsantes\, though it could
be the object of \eplērōsan\ (fulfilled) if \kai\ is taken as
"also". The "voices" were heard as they were read aloud each
Sabbath in the synagogue. In their ignorant condemnation they
fulfilled the prophecies about the suffering Messiah.

13:28 {Though they found no cause of death} (\mēdemian aitian
thanatou heurontes\)
. Second aorist active with usual negative of
the participle. As a matter of fact the Sanhedrin did charge
Jesus with blasphemy, but could not prove it (Mt 26:65; 27:24;
Lu 23:22)
. At this time no Gospel had probably been written, but
Paul knew that Jesus was innocent. He uses this same idiom about
his own innocence (Ac 28:18). {That he should be slain}
(\anairethēnai auton\). First aorist passive infinitive, the
accusative case, the direct object of \ēitēsanto\ (first aorist
middle indicative, asked as a favour to themselves)

13:29 {From the tree} (\apo tou xulou\). Not here strictly a
tree, but wood as already in 5:30; 10:29 and later in Ga
3:13. Strictly speaking, it was Joseph of Arimathea and
Nicodemus who took the body of Jesus down from the cross, though
the Jews had asked Pilate to have the bones of Jesus broken that
his body should not remain on the cross during the Sabbath (Joh
. Paul does not distinguish the details here. {Laid}
(\ethēkan\). First (kappa) aorist active indicative third plural
of \tithēmi\ in place of \ethesan\ the usual second aorist active
plural form. {Tomb} (\mnēmeion\). Memorial, common in the

13:30 {But God raised him from the dead} (\ho de theos ēgeiren ek
. This crucial fact Paul puts sharply as he always did.

13:31 {Was seen for many days} (\ōphthē epi hēmeras pleious\).
The common verb (first aorist passive indicative of \horaō\, to
for the appearance of the Risen Christ, the one used by Paul
of his own vision of Christ (1Co 15:8), which is not reported
by Luke here. For more days (than a few), the language means,
forty in all (1:3). {Of them that came up with him} (\tois
sunanabāsin autōi\)
. Dative (after \ōphthē\) articular participle
(second aorist active of \sunanabainō\) with associative
instrumental case (\autōi\), the very men who knew him best and
who could not be easily deceived about the reality of his
resurrection. But this fact rules Paul out on this point, for he
had not fellowshipped with Jesus from Galilee to Jerusalem. {Who
are now his witnesses}
(\hoitines nun eisin martures autou\). The
very point that Peter used to clinch his argument with such
powerful effect (2:32; 3:15).

13:32 {We bring you good tidings of the promise} (\hēmeis humās
euaggelizometha tēn epaggelian\)
. Two accusatives here (person
and thing)
, old Greek did not use accusative of the person with
this verb as in 16:10; Lu 3:18. Note "we you" together. Here
the heart of Paul's message on this occasion.

13:33 {Hath fulfilled} (\ekpeplērōken\). Hath filled out (\ek\).
{Unto our children} (\tois teknois hēmōn\). The MSS. vary greatly
here about \hēmōn\ (our), some have \autōn\, some \autōn hēmin\.
Westcott and Hort consider these readings "a primitive error" for
\hēmin\ (to us) taken with \anastēsas Iēsoun\ (having for us
raised up Jesus)
. This raising up (from \anistēmi\, set up) as in
3:22; 7:37 refers not to resurrection (verse 34), but to the
sending of Jesus (two raisings up). {In the second psalm} (\en
tōi psalmōi tōi deuterōi\)
. Ps 2:7. D has \prōtōi\ because the
first psalm was often counted as merely introductory.

13:34 {Now no more to return to corruption} (\mēketi mellonta
hupostrephein eis diaphthoran\)
. No longer about to return as
Lazarus did. Jesus did not die again and so is the first fruits
of the resurrection (1Co 15:23; Ro 6:9). {He hath spoken}
(\eirēken\). Present perfect active indicative, common way of
referring to the permanent utterances of God which are on record
in the Scriptures. {The holy and sure blessings of David} (\ta
hosia Daueid ta pista\)
. See 2Sa 7:13. Literally, "the holy
things of David the trustworthy things." He explains "the holy
things" at once.

13:35 {Because} (\dioti\). Compound conjunction (\dia, hoti\)
like our "because that." The reason for the previous statement
about "the holy things." {Thou wilt not give thy holy one to see
(\ou dōseis ton hosion sou idein diaphthoran\).
Quotation from Ps 16:10 to show that Jesus did not see
corruption in his body, a flat contradiction for those who deny
the bodily resurrection of Jesus.

13:36 {His own generation} (\idiāi geneāi\). Either locative
case, "in his own generation" or dative object of \hupēretēsas\
(served). {The counsel of God} (\tēi tou theou boulēi\). So here,
either the dative, the object of \hupēretēsas\ if \geneāi\ is
locative, or the instrumental case "by the counsel of God" which
again may be construed either with \hupēretēsas\ (having served)
or after \ekoimēthē\ (fell on sleep). Either of the three ways is
grammatical and makes good sense. \Koimaomai\ for death we have
already had (Ac 7:60). So Jesus (Joh 11:11) and Paul (1Co
. {Was laid} (\prosetethē\). Was added unto (first
aorist passive indicative of \prostithēmi\)
. See the verb in
2:47; 5:14. This figure for death probably arose from the
custom of burying families together (Ge 15:15; Jud 2:10). {Saw
(\eiden diaphthoran\). As Jesus did not (Ac 2:31)
as he shows in verse 37.

13:38 {Through this man} (\dia toutou\). This very man whom the
Jews had crucified and whom God had raised from the dead.
Remission of sins (\aphesis hamartiōn\) is proclaimed
(\kataggelletai\) to you. This is the keynote of Paul's message
as it had been that of Peter at Pentecost (2:38; 5:31; 10:43).
Cf. 26:18. This glorious message Paul now presses home in his

13:39 {And by him every one that believeth is justified from all
things, from which ye could not be justified by the law of Moses}

(\kai apo pantōn hōn ouk ēdunēthēte en nomōi Mōuseōs dikaiothēnai
en toutōi pās ho pisteuōn dikaioutai\)
. This is a characteristic
Greek sentence with the principal clause at the end and Pauline
to the core. A literal rendering as to the order would be: "And
from all the things from (\apo\ not repeated in the Greek, but
understood, the ablative case being repeated)
which ye were not
able to be justified in this one every one who believes is
justified." The climax is at the close and gives us the heart of
Paul's teaching about Christ. "We have here the germ of all that
is most characteristic in Paul's later teaching. It is the
argument of the Epistle to Galatians and Romans in a sentence"
(Furneaux). The failure of the Mosaic law to bring the kind of
righteousness that God demands is stated. This is made possible
in and by (\en\) Christ alone. Paul's favourite words occur here,
\pisteuō\, believe, with which \pistis\, faith, is allied,
\dikaioō\, to set right with God on the basis of faith. In Ro
6:7 Paul uses \apo\ also after \dikaioō\. These are key words
(\pisteuō\ and \dikaioō\) in Paul's theology and call for
prolonged and careful study if one is to grasp the Pauline
teaching. \Dikaioō\ primarily means to make righteous, to declare
righteous like \axioō\, to deem worthy (\axios\). But in the end
Paul holds that real righteousness will come (Ro 6-8) to those
whom God treats as righteous (Ro 3-5) though both Gentile and
Jew fall short without Christ (Ro 1-3). This is the doctrine of
grace that will prove a stumbling block to the Jews with their
ceremonial works and foolishness to the Greeks with their
abstract philosophical ethics (1Co 1:23-25). It is a new and
strange doctrine to the people of Antioch.

13:40 {Beware therefore} (\blepete oun\). The warning is
pertinent. Perhaps Paul noticed anger on the faces of some of the
rabbis. {Lest there come upon you} (\mē epelthēi\). Second aorist
active subjunctive with the negative final conjunction \mē\. {In
the prophets}
(\en tois prophētais\). The quotation is from the
LXX text of Hab 1:5. The plural here refers to the prophetic
collection (Lu 24:44; Ac 24:14). "The Jews of Habakkuk's day
had refused to believe in the impending invasion by the
Chaldeans, and yet it had come" (Furneaux).

13:41 {Ye despisers} (\hoi kataphronētai\). Not in the Hebrew,
but in the LXX. It is pertinent for Paul's purpose. {Perish}
(\aphanisthēte\). Or vanish away. First aorist passive
imperative. Added by the LXX to the Hebrew. {If one declare it
unto you}
(\ean tis ekdiēgētai humin\). Condition of third class
with present middle subjunctive, if one keep on outlining (double
compound, \ek-di-ēgeomai\)
it unto you. Paul has hurled a
thunderbolt at the close.

13:42 {And as they went out} (\Exiontōn de autōn\). Genitive
absolute with present active participle of \exeimi\, to go out,
old verb, in the N.T. only in Ac 12:42; 17:15; 20:7; 27:43. As
they (Paul and Barnabas) were going out with all the excitement
and hubbub created by the sermon. {They besought} (\parekaloun\).
Imperfect active, inchoative, began to beseech. The Textus
Receptus inserts wrongly \ta ethnē\ (the Gentiles) as if the Jews
were opposed to Paul from the first as some doubtless were. But
both Jews and Gentiles asked for the repetition of the sermon
(\lalēthēnai\, first aorist passive infinitive object of
\parekaloun\ with accusative of general reference)
. {The next
(\eis to metaxu sabbaton\). Late use (Josephus,
Plutarch, etc.)
of \metaxu\ (\meta\ and \xun\=\sun\) in sense of
after or next instead of between (sense of \meta\ prevailing).
Note use of \eis\ for "on" or "by."

13:43 {When the synagogue broke up} (\lutheisēs tēs sunagōgēs\).
Genitive absolute of first aorist passive participle of \luō\.
Apparently Paul and Barnabas had gone out before the synagogue
was formally dismissed. {Of the devout proselytes} (\tōn
sebomenōn prosēlutōn\)
. Of the worshipping proselytes described
in verses 16,25 as "those who fear God" (cf. 16:14) employed
usually of the uncircumcised Gentiles who yet attended the
synagogue worship, but the word \prosēlutoi\ (\pros, ēlutos\
verbal from \erchomai\, a new-comer)
means usually those who had
become circumcised (proselytes of righteousness). Yet the rabbis
used it also of proselytes of the gate who had not yet become
circumcised, probably the idea here. In the N.T. the word occurs
only in Mt 23:15; Ac 2:10; 6:5; 13:43. Many (both Jews and
followed (\ēkolouthēsan\, ingressive aorist active
indicative of \akoloutheō\)
Paul and Barnabas to hear more
without waiting till the next Sabbath. So we are to picture Paul
and Barnabas speaking (\proslalountes\, late compound, in N.T.
only here and 28:20)
to eager groups. {Urged} (\epeithon\).
Imperfect active of \peithō\, either descriptive (were
or conative (were trying to persuade). Paul had great
powers of persuasion (18:4; 19:8,26; 26:28; 28:23; 2Co 5:11; Ga
. These Jews "were beginning to understand for the first
time the true meaning of their national history" (Furneaux), "the
grace of God" to them.

13:44 {The next Sabbath} (\tōi erchomenōi sabbatōi\). Locative
case, on the coming (\erchomenōi\, present middle participle of
Sabbath. So the best MSS., though some have
\echomenōi\ (present middle participle of \echō\ in sense of
near, bordering, following as in Lu 13:33; Ac 29:15)
. {Almost}
(\schedon\). Old word, but in N.T. only here, Ac 19:26; Heb
9:22. {Was gathered together} (\sunēchthē\). First aorist
(effective) passive indicative of \sunagō\, old and common verb.
The "whole city" could hardly all gather in the synagogue.
Perhaps Paul spoke in the synagogue and Barnabas to the overflow
outside (see verse 46). It was an eager and earnest gathering
"to hear (\akousai\, first aorist active infinitive of purpose)
the word of God" and a great opportunity for Paul and Barnabas.
The Codex Bezae has it "to hear Paul." It was the new preacher
(Paul) that drew the big crowd. It was a crowd such as will later
hang on the words of John Wesley and George Whitfield when they
preach Jesus Christ.

13:45 {The Jews} (\hoi Ioudaioi\). Certainly not the proselytes
of verse 43. Probably many of the Jews that were then
favourably disposed to Paul's message had reacted against him
under the influence of the rabbis during the week and evidently
on this Sabbath very many Gentiles ("almost the whole city," "the
multitudes" \tous ochlous\)
had gathered, to the disgust of the
stricter Jews. Nothing is specifically stated here about the
rabbis, but they were beyond doubt the instigators of, and the
ringleaders in, the opposition as in Thessalonica (17:5). No
such crowds (\ochlous\) came to the synagogue when they were the
speakers. {With jealousy} (\zēlou\). Genitive case of \zēlos\
(from \zeō\, to boil) after \eplēsthēsan\ (effective first aorist
passive indicative of \pimplēmi\)
. Envy and jealousy arise
between people of the same calling (doctors towards doctors,
lawyers towards lawyers, preachers towards preachers)
. So these
rabbis boiled with jealousy when they saw the crowds gathered to
hear Paul and Barnabas. {Contradicted} (\antelegon\). Imperfect
active of \antilegō\, old verb to speak against, to say a word in
opposition to (\anti\, face to face). It was interruption of the
service and open opposition in the public meeting. Paul and
Barnabas were guests by courtesy and, of course, could not
proceed further, when denied that privilege. {Blasphemed}
(\blasphēmountes\). Blaspheming. So the correct text without the
addition \antilegontes\ (repeated from \antelegon\ above). Common
verb in the Gospels for saying injurious and harmful things.
Doubtless these rabbis indulged in unkind personalities and made
it plain that Paul and Barnabas were going beyond the limitations
of pure Judaism in their contacts with Gentiles.

13:46 {Spake out boldly} (\parrēsiasamenoi\). First aorist middle
participle of \parrēsiazomai\, to use freedom in speaking, to
assume boldness. Both Paul and Barnabas accepted the challenge of
the rabbis. They would leave their synagogue, but not without a
word of explanation. {It was necessary to you first} (\Humin ēn
anagkaion prōton\)
. They had done their duty and had followed the
command of Jesus (1:8). They use the very language of Peter in
3:26 (\humin prōton\) "to you first." This position Paul as the
apostle to the Gentiles will always hold, the Jew first in
privilege and penalty (Ro 1:16; 2:9,10). {Ye thrust it from
(\apōtheisthe auton\). Present middle (indirect, from
indicative of \apōtheō\, to push from. Vigorous verb
seen already in Ac 7:27,39 which see. {Judge yourselves
(\ouk axious krinete heautous\). Present active
indicative of the common verb \krinō\, to judge or decide with
the reflexive pronoun expressed. Literally, Do not judge
yourselves worthy. By their action and their words they had taken
a violent and definite stand. {Lo, we turn to the Gentiles}
(\idou strephometha eis ta ethnē\). It is a crisis (\idou\, lo):
"Lo, we turn ourselves to the Gentiles." Probably also aoristic
present, we now turn (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 864-70).
\Strephometha\ is probably the direct middle (Robertson,
_Grammar_, pp. 806-08)
though the aorist passive \estraphēn\ is
so used also (7:39). It is a dramatic moment as Paul and
Barnabas turn from the Jews to the Gentiles, a prophecy of the
future history of Christianity. In Ro 9-11 Paul will discuss at
length the rejection of Christ by the Jews and the calling of the
Gentiles to be the real (the spiritual) Israel.

13:47 {For so hath the Lord commanded us} (\houtōs gar entetaltai
hēmin ho kurios\)
. Perfect middle indicative of \entellō\, poetic
(Pindar) and late verb to enjoin (1:2). The command of the Lord
Paul finds in Isa 49:6 quoted by Simeon also (Lu 2:32). The
conviction of Paul's mind was now made clear by the fact of the
rejection by the Jews. He could now see more clearly the words of
the prophet about the Gentiles: The Messiah is declared by God in
Isaiah to be "a light to the Gentiles" (\ethnōn\, objective
, "a light for revelation to the Gentiles" (\phōs eis
apokalupsin ethnōn\, Lu 2:32)
. So Paul is carrying out the will
of God in turning to the Gentiles. He will still appeal to the
Jews elsewhere as they allow him to do so, but not here. {That
thou shouldest be}
(\tou einai se\). Genitive articular
infinitive of purpose with the accusative of general reference.
This is all according to God's fixed purpose (\tetheika\, perfect
active indicative of \tithēmi\)
. {Unto the uttermost part of the
(\heōs eschatou tēs gēs\). Unto the last portion (genitive
neuter, not feminine)
of the earth. It is a long time from Paul
to now, not to say from Isaiah to now, and not yet has the gospel
been carried to half of the people of earth. God's people are
slow in carrying out God's plans for salvation.

13:48 {As the Gentiles heard this they were glad} (\akouonta ta
ethnē echairon\)
. Present active participle of \akouō\ and
imperfect active of \chairō\, linear action descriptive of the
joy of the Gentiles. {Glorified the word of God} (\edoxazon ton
logon tou theou\)
. Imperfect active again. The joy of the
Gentiles increased the fury of the Jews. "The synagogue became a
scene of excitement which must have been something like the
original speaking with tongues" (Rackham). The joy of the
Gentiles was to see how they could receive the higher blessing of
Judaism without circumcision and other repellent features of
Jewish ceremonialism. It was the gospel of grace and liberty from
legalism that Paul had proclaimed. Whether Ga 4:13 describes
this incident or not (the South Galatian theory), it illustrates
it when Gentiles received Paul as if he were Christ Jesus
himself. It was triumph with the Gentiles, but defeat with the
Jews. {As many as were ordained to eternal life} (\hosoi ēsan
tetagmenoi eis zōēn aiōnion\)
. Periphrastic past perfect passive
indicative of \tassō\, a military term to place in orderly
arrangement. The word "ordain" is not the best translation here.
"Appointed," as Hackett shows, is better. The Jews here had
voluntarily rejected the word of God. On the other side were
those Gentiles who gladly accepted what the Jews had rejected,
not all the Gentiles. Why these Gentiles here ranged themselves
on God's side as opposed to the Jews Luke does not tell us. This
verse does not solve the vexed problem of divine sovereignty and
human free agency. There is no evidence that Luke had in mind an
_absolutum decretum_ of personal salvation. Paul had shown that
God's plan extended to and included Gentiles. Certainly the
Spirit of God does move upon the human heart to which some
respond, as here, while others push him away. {Believed}
(\episteusan\). Summary or constative first aorist active
indicative of \pisteuō\. The subject of this verb is the relative
clause. By no manner of legerdemain can it be made to mean "those
who believe were appointed." It was saving faith that was
exercised only by those who were appointed unto eternal life, who
were ranged on the side of eternal life, who were thus revealed
as the subjects of God's grace by the stand that they took on
this day for the Lord. It was a great day for the kingdom of God.

13:49 {Was spread abroad} (\diephereto\). Imperfect passive of
\diapherō\, to carry in different directions (\dia\). By the
recent converts as well as by Paul and Barnabas. This would seem
to indicate a stay of some months with active work among the
Gentiles that bore rich fruit. {Throughout all the region} (\di'
holēs tēs chōras\)
. Antioch in Pisidia as a Roman colony would be
the natural centre of a Roman _Regio_, an important element in
Roman imperial administration. There were probably other
_Regiones_ in South Galatia (Ramsay, _St. Paul the Traveller and
Roman Citizen_, pp. 102-12)

13:50 {Urged on} (\parōtrunan\). First aorist (effective) active
of \par-otrunō\, old verb, but here alone in the N.T., to incite,
to stir up. The Jews were apparently not numerous in this city as
they had only one synagogue, but they had influence with people
of prominence, like "the devout women of honourable estate" (\tas
sebomenas gunaikas tas euschēmonas\)
, the female proselytes of
high station, a late use of an old word used about Joseph of
Arimathea (Mr 15:43). The rabbis went after these Gentile women
who had embraced Judaism (cf. Ac 17:4 in Thessalonica) as Paul
had made an appeal to them. The prominence of women in public
life here at Antioch is quite in accord with what we know of
conditions in the cities of Asia Minor. "Thus women were
appointed under the empire as magistrates, as presidents of the
games, and even the Jews elected a woman as Archisynagogos, at
least in one instance at Smyrna" (Knowling). In Damascus Josephus
(_War_ II. 20, 21) says that a majority of the married women were
proselytes. Strabo (VIII. 2) and Juvenal (VI. 542) speak of the
addiction of women to the Jewish religion. {The chief men of the
(\tous prōtous tēs poleōs\). Probably city officials (the
Duumviri, the Praetors, the First Ten in the Greek Cities of the
or other "foremost" men, not officials. The rabbis were
shrewd enough to reach these men (not proselytes) through the
women who were proselytes of distinction. {Stirred up a
(\epēgeiran diōgmon\). First aorist active
indicative of \epegeirō\, old verb, but in the N.T. only here and
14:2. Paul seems to allude to this persecution in 2Ti 3:11
"persecutions, sufferings, what things befell me at Antioch, at
Iconium, at Lystra, what persecutions I endured." Here Paul had
perils from his own countrymen and perils from the Gentiles after
the perils of rivers and perils of robbers on the way from Perga
(2Co 11:26). He was thrice beaten with rods (\tris
erhabdisthēn\, 2Co 11:25)
by Roman lictors in some Roman
colony. If that was here, then Paul and Barnabas were publicly
scourged by the lictors before they left. Probably the Jews
succeeded in making the Roman officials look on Paul and Barnabas
as disturbers of the public peace. So "they cast them out of
their borders" (\exebalon autous apo tōn horiōn autōn\). Second
aorist active indicative of \ekballō\, forcible expulsion plainly
as public nuisances. Just a few days before they were the heroes
of the city and now!

13:51 {But they shook off the dust of their feet against them}
(\Hoi de ektinaxamenoi ton koniorton tōn podōn ep' autous\).
First aorist middle (indirect) participle of \ektinassō\, to
shake out or off. Homer uses it for knocking out teeth. In the
papyri. The middle aorist participle occurs again in 18:6 and
the active imperative with the dust of the feet in Mr 6:11 (Lu
10:11 has \apomassometha\)
. and Mt 10:14 (command of Jesus).
It is a dramatic gesture that forbids further intercourse. "As a
protest against the injustice which cast them out. The sandal was
taken off and the dust shaken out as a symbolic token that the
very soil of the country was defiling" (Furneaux). {Unto Iconium}
(\eis Ikonion\). About 45 miles southeast from Antioch in
Pisidia, at the foot of the Taurus mountains. At various times it
was reckoned also in Pisidia or Phrygia as well as Lycaonia,
Phrygian in population and distinguished by Luke (Ac 14:6) from
Lystra and Derbe, cities of Lycaonia. As compared with Antioch (a
Roman colony)
it was a native Phrygian town. When the province of
Galatia was divided, Iconium became the capital of Lycaonia and
eclipsed Antioch in Pisidia. Strictly speaking at this time
Lystra and Derbe were cities of Lycaonia-Galatica while Iconium
was in Phrygia-Galatica (all three in the Roman Province of
. It was at the meeting place of several Roman roads and
on the highway from east to west. It is still a large town Konieh
with 30,000 population.

13:52 {And the disciples} (\hoi te\ or \hoi de mathētai\). The
Gentile Christians in Antioch in Pisidia. Persecution had
precisely the opposite effect to the intention of the Jews for
they "were filled with joy and the Holy Spirit" (\eplērounto
charas kai pneumatos hagiou\)
. Imperfect passive, they kept on
being filled. It had been so before (Ac 4:31; 8:4; 9:31;
. The blood of the martyrs is still the seed of the

[Table of Contents]
[Previous] [Next]
Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Acts: Chapter 13)