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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Acts: Chapter 10)

10:1 {Cornelius} (\Kornēlios\). The great Cornelian family of
Rome may have had a freedman or descendant who is {centurion}
(\hekaton-tarchēs\, leader of a hundred, Latin _centurio_). See
on ¯Mt 8:5. These Roman centurions always appear in a favourable
light in the N.T. (Mt 8:5; Lu 7:2; 23:47; Ac 10:1; 22:25;
. Furneaux notes the contrasts between Joppa, the oldest
town in Palestine, and Caesarea, built by Herod; the Galilean
fisherman lodging with a tanner and the Roman officer in the seat
of governmental authority. {Of the band called the Italian} (\ek
speirēs tēs kaloumenēs Italikēs\)
. A legion had ten cohorts or
"bands" and sixty centuries. The word \speirēs\ (note genitive in
\-es\ like the Ionic instead of \-as\)
is here equal to the Latin
_cohors_. In the provinces were stationed cohorts of Italic
citizens (volunteers) as an inscription at Carnuntum on the
Danube (Ramsay) has shown (epitaph of an officer in the second
Italic cohort)
. Once more Luke has been vindicated. The soldiers
could, of course, be Roman citizens who lived in Caesarea. But
the Italian cohorts were sent to any part of the empire as
needed. The procurator at Caesarea would need a cohort whose
loyalty he could trust, for the Jews were restless.

10:2 {Devout} (\eusebēs\). Old word from \eu\ (well) and
\sebomai\ (to worship, to reverence), but rare in the N.T. (Ac
10:2,7; 2Pe 2:1)
. It might refer to a worshipful pagan (Ac
17:23, \sebasmata\, objects of worship)
, but connected with "one
that feared God" (\phoboumenos ton theon\) Luke describes "a
God-fearing proselyte" as in 10:22,35. This is his usual term
for the Gentile seekers after God (13:16, 26;17:4,17, etc.),
who had come into the worship of the synagogue without
circumcision, and were not strictly proselytes, though some call
such men "proselytes of the gate" (cf. Ac 13:43); but clearly
Cornelius and his family were still regarded as outside the pale
of Judaism (10:28,34; 11:1,8; 15:7). They had seats in the
synagogue, but were not Jews. {Gave much alms} (\poiōn
eleemosunas pollas\)
. Doing many alms (the very phrase in Mt
, a characteristic mark of Jewish piety and from a Gentile
to the Jewish people. {Prayed} (\deomenos\). Begging of God.
Almsgiving and prayer were two of the cardinal points with the
Jews (Jesus adds fasting in his picture of the Pharisee in Mt

10:3 {Coming in} (\eiselthonta\). Ingressive second aorist active
participle, not present. So punctiliar, "saw come," not "saw
coming." So also "say" or "speak," not "saying." Luke repeats the
account of this vision to Cornelius twice (10:30; 11:13) and
also the story of the vision to Peter (10:1-16,28; 11:5).

10:4 {Lord} (\kurie\). Cornelius recognizes the angel of God
(verse 3) as God's messenger. {Are gone up} (\anebēsan\).
Timeless second aorist active indicative of \anabainō\. Gone up
like the smoke of incense in sacrifices. {For a memorial} (\eis
. Old word from \mnēmōn\. The only other instance in
the N.T. is by Jesus about the act of Mary of Bethany (Mt 26:13;
Mr 14:9)
. His prayers and his alms proved his sincerity and won
the ear of God.

10:5 {Fetch} (\metapempsai\). First aorist middle (indirect, for
one's self)
imperative of \metapempō\, usual voice in ancient
Greek with this verb in sense of sending another for one's own
sake. Only in Acts in the N.T. See also 10:22.

10:6 {Lodgeth} (\xenizetai\). Present passive indicative of
\xenizō\ old verb from \xenos\, a stranger as a guest. So to
entertain a guest as here or to surprise by strange acts (Ac
17:20; 1Pe 4:4)
. {Whose} (\hōi\). To whom, dative of possession.
{By the seaside} (\para thalassan\). Along by the sea. Note
accusative case. Outside the city walls because a tanner and to
secure water for his trade. Some tanneries are by the seashore at
Jaffa today.

10:8 {Rehearsed} (\exēgēsamenos\). See on ¯Lu 24:35. All the
details about the vision. The soldier was "devout" like Cornelius
and would protect the two household servants (\oiketōn\).

10:9 {On the morrow} (\tēi epaurion\). Locative case of article
with the compound adverb (\hēmerāi\ day being understood), the
second day after leaving Caesarea, 28 miles from Joppa. The third
day (the next morrow, verse 23) they start back home and the
fourth day (on the morrow again, verse 24) they reach Caesarea.
{As they} (\ekeinōn\). The party of three from Caesarea. Genitive
absolute with present participle \hodoiporountōn\ (journeying)
and \eggizontōn\ (drew nigh). {The housetop} (\to dōma\). Old
word and in Gospels (Lu 3:19, etc.), but only here in Acts.
From \demō\, to build, and so any part of the building (hall,
dining room, and then roof)
. The roof was nearly flat with walls
around and so was a good place for meditation and prayer and

10:10 {Hungry} (\prospeinos\) Only instance of the word known, a
\hapax legomenon\. Probably "very hungry" (\pros\=besides, in
. {Desired} (\ēthelen\). Imperfect active. Was longing
to eat. It was about twelve o'clock noon and Peter may even have
smelt the savory dishes, "while they made ready"
(\paraskeuazontōn\). "The natural and the supernatural border
closely on one another, with no definable limits" (Furneaux). {He
fell into a trance}
(\egeneto ep' auton ekstasis\). More exactly,
"An ecstasy came upon him," in which trance he passed out of
himself (\ekstasis\, from \existēmi\) and from which one came to
himself (12:11). Cf. also 11:5; 22:17. It is thus different
from a vision (\horama\) as in verse 3.

10:11 {Beholdeth} (\theōrei\). Vivid historical present and
change from past time. {Opened} (\aneōigmenon\, perfect passive
participle with double reduplication, state of completion)
{Descending} (\katabainon\). Present active participle describing
the process. {Sheet} (\othonēn\). Old word for linen cloth and
only here in the N.T. Accusative case in apposition with \skeuos\
(vessel). {Let down} (\Kathiemenon\). Present passive participle
of \Kathiēmi\. Old verb, but in the N.T. only here and Lu 5:19;
Ac 9:25. Linear action here picturing the process, "being let
down." {By four corners} (\tessarsin archais\). Instrumental case
of \archē\, beginning. We say "end" or extremity for this use of
the word. The picture is the sheet held up by four cords to which
the sheet is fastened. Isa 11:12 had said that Israel would be
gathered from the four corners of the earth. Knowling follows
Hobart in taking the four corners of the sheet to be a medical
phrase for bandage (the end of a bandage).

10:12 {Were} (\hupērchen\). Imperfect of \huparchō\ in sense of
\ēn\, to exist, be. Fish are not mentioned, perhaps because the
sheet had no water, though they were clean and unclean also (Le
11:9; De 14:9)
. {All manner of} (\panta\). Literally, all, but
clearly all varieties, not all individuals. Both clean and
unclean animals are in the sheet.

10:14 {Not so, Lord} (\Mēdamōs, kurie\). The negative \mēdamōs\
calls for the optative \eiē\ (may it not be) or the imperative
\estō\ (let it be). It is not \oudamōs\, a blunt refusal (I shall
not do it)
. And yet it is more than a mild protest as Page and
Furneaux argue. It is a polite refusal with a reason given. Peter
recognizes the invitation to slay (\thuson\) the unclean animals
as from the Lord (\kurie\) but declines it three times. {For I
have never eaten anything}
(\hoti oudepote ephagon pan\). Second
aorist active indicative, I never did anything like this and I
shall not do it now. The use of \pan\ (everything) with
\oudepote\ (never) is like the Hebrew (_lo--kōl_) though a like
idiom appears in the vernacular _Koinē_ (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
. {Common and unclean} (\koinon kai akatharton\). \Koinos\
from epic \xunos\ (\xun, sun\, together with) originally meant
common to several (Latin _communis_) as in Ac 2:44; 4:32; Tit
1:4; Jude 1:3. The use seen here (also Mr 7:2,5; Ro 14:14; Heb
10:29; Re 21:27; Ac 10:28; 11:8)
, like Latin _vulgaris_ is
unknown in ancient Greek. Here the idea is made plain by the
addition of \akatharton\ (unclean), ceremonially unclean, of
course. We have the same double use in our word "common." See on
¯Mr 7:18f. where Mark adds the remarkable participle
\katharizōn\ (making all meats clean), evidently from Peter who
recalls this vision. Peter had been reared from childhood to make
the distinction between clean and unclean food and this new
proposal even from the Lord runs against all his previous
training. He did not see that some of God's plans for the Jews
could be temporary. This symbol of the sheet was to show Peter
ultimately that Gentiles could be saved without becoming Jews. At
this moment he is in spiritual and intellectual turmoil.

10:15 {Make not thou common} (\su mē koinou\). Note emphatic
position of \su\ (thou). Do thou stop making common what God
cleansed (\ekatharisen\). The idiom of \mē\ with the present
active imperative \koinou\ means precisely this. Peter had just
called "common" what God had invited him to slay and eat.

10:16 {Thrice} (\epitris\). For three times. Peter remained
unconvinced even by the prohibition of God. Here is a striking
illustration of obstinacy on the part of one who acknowledges the
voice of God to him when the command of the Lord crosses one's
preferences and prejudices. There are abundant examples today of
precisely this thing. In a real sense Peter was maintaining a
pose of piety beyond the will of the Lord. Peter was defiling
what God had cleansed. {Was received up} (\anelēmphthē\). First
aorist passive indicative of \analambanō\, to take up. The word
used of the Ascension (1:22).

10:17 {Was much perplexed in himself} (\en heautōi diēporei\).
Imperfect active of \diaporeō\, intensive compound (\dia\,
thoroughly, and \a\ privative and \poros\, way)
, to be completely
at a loss to know what road to take. Old verb, but in N.T. only
in Luke and Acts. Page notes that Luke is singularly fond of
verbs compounded with \dia\. See on ¯Lu 9:7 and Ac 2:12. When
out of the ecstasy he was more puzzled than ever. {Might be} (\an
. Optative with \an\ in indirect question simply retained
from the direct (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1021, 1044). See Ac
17:18, for the direct and Lu 1:62 for the indirect (\an
theloi\ both times)
. It is the conclusion of a fourth class
condition. {Having made inquiry} (\dierōtēsantes\). First aorist
active participle of \dierōtaō\, another compound of \dia\, to
ask one after another, to ask through, old verb, but only here in
the N.T. It took diligent inquiry to find the obscure house of
Simon the tanner. {Stood before the gate} (\epestēsan epi ton
. Second aorist active indicative of \ephistēmi\,
intransitive. Note repetition of \epi\. The messengers stopped
right at the folding gates of the passage (\pulōna\) which led
from the street to the inner court or house.

10:18 {Called} (\phōnēsantes\). In a loud voice that those inside
the house might hear. {Asked} (\epunthanonto\). Imperfect middle
of \punthanomai\, old verb to make inquiry especially with an
indirect question as here. Kept on inquiring. Westcott and Hort
follow B C here and read \eputhonto\ (second aorist middle,
effective aorist)
. Either makes sense, though the imperfect is
more picturesque. {Were lodging} (\xenizetai\). Present middle
indicative retained in indirect question. See on verse ¯6 for
the verb.

10:19 {Thought} (\dienthumoumenou\). Genitive absolute of present
middle participle of \dienthumeomai\, a double compound (\dia\
and \en-\ with \thumos\)
and another \hapax legomenon\ save in
ecclesiastical writers, though \enthumeomai\ is common enough and
Textus Receptus so reads here. Peter was revolving in his mind,
through and through, in and out, to find the meaning of the
strange vision.

10:20 {But} (\alla\). So usually, though it is open to question
whether \alla\ is adversative here and not rather, "Now then."
{Get thee down} (\katabēthi\). Second aorist active imperative,
at once. {Go} (\poreuou\). Present middle imperative, go on.
{Nothing doubting} (\mēden diakrinomenos\). Another compound of
\dia\, old and common verb for a divided mind (\dia\ like \duo\,
. Note usual negative of the present middle participle, the
subjective \mēden\. The notion of wavering (Jas 1:6) is common
with this verb in the middle voice. In Ac 11:12 the aorist
active (\mēden diakrinanta\) is used perhaps with the idea of
conduct towards others rather than his own internal doubt as here
(Page). {For I} (\hoti egō\). The Holy Spirit assumes
responsibility for the messengers from Cornelius and thus
connects their mission with the vision which was still troubling
Peter. Peter had heard his name called by the man (verse 19).

10:21 {Cause} (\aitia\). Or reason. Common in this sense. See on
¯Mt 19:3.

10:22 {Righteous} (\dikaios\). In the Jewish sense as in Lu 1:6;
2:25. {Well reported of} (\marturoumenos\). Present passive
participle as in 6:3. Cf. the other centurion in Lu 7:4.
{Nation} (\ethnous\). Not \laou\, for the speakers are Gentiles.
{Was warned} (\echrēmatisthē\). First aorist passive of
\chrēmatizō\, old word for doing business, then consulting an
oracle, and here of being divinely (word God not expressed)
warned as in Mt 2:12,22; Lu 2:26; Heb 11:7. Then to be called
or receive a name from one's business as in Ac 11:26; Ro 7:3.

10:23 {Lodged them} (\exenisen\). Active voice here rather than
passive as in 10:6. {Accompanied him} (\sunēlthan autōi\).
Associative instrumental case after verb. The wisdom of having
these half dozen Jewish Christians from Joppa with Peter in the
house of Cornelius in Caesarea becomes manifest in Jerusalem

10:24 {Was waiting} (\ēn prosdokōn\). Periphrastic imperfect
active, in eager expectation and hope, directing the mind
(\dokaō\) towards (\pros\) anything. Old and common verb. {Near}
(\anagkaious\). Only instance in the N.T. of this sense of
\anagkaios\ from \anagkē\, necessity, what one cannot do without,
necessary (1Co 12:22), duty (Ac 13:46), or blood relations as
here. The ancient Greek writers combined these two words
(\suggeneis\, kinsmen, \anagkaious\, necessary friends) as here.
It was a homogeneous group of Gentiles close to Cornelius and
predisposed to hear Peter favourably.

10:25 {That Peter entered} (\tou eiselthein ton Petron\). This is
a difficult construction, for the subject of \egeneto\ (it
has to be the articular genitive infinitive \tou
eiselthein\ with the accusative of general reference \ton
Petron\. Most commentators consider it inexplicable. It is
probably an extension of the ordinary articular infinitive under
the influence of the Hebrew infinitive construct without regard
to the case, regarding it as a fixed case form and so using it as
nominative. Precisely this construction of \tou\ and the
infinitive as the subject of a verb occurs in the LXX (2Ch 6:7,
. See Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1067f. for full discussion
of this obvious Hebraism. Somewhat similar examples appear in Ac
20:3; 27:1. But the Codex Bezae avoids this awkward idiom by the
genitive absolute (\proseggizontos tou Petrou\) and some
additional details (one of the servants ran forward and announced
that he was come)
. {Worshipped him} (\prosekunēsen\). "Cornelius
was not an idolator and would not have honoured Peter as a god"
(Furneaux). The word probably means here reverence like old
English usage (Wycliff) and not actual worship, though Peter took
it that way (verse 26). Jesus accepted such worship (Mt 8:2;
Lu 5:8 by Peter)

10:27 {As he talked with him} (\sunomilōn autōi\). Present active
participle of \sunomileō\, rare compound and here alone in the
N.T., with associative instrumental case. The uncompounded verb
is common enough though in the N.T. only in Lu 24:14 which see
and Ac 20:11; 24:26. {Findeth} (\heuriskei\). Vivid historical
present indicative active. {Come together} (\sunelēluthotas\).
Second perfect active participle of \sunerchomai\. It was an
expectant group of Gentiles eager for Peter's interpretation of
the vision of Cornelius.

10:28 {How that it is an unlawful thing} (\hōs athemiton estin\).
The conjunction \hōs\ is sometimes equivalent to \hoti\ (that).
The old form of \athemitos\ was \athemistos\ from \themisto\
(\themizō, themis\, law custom) and \a\ privative. In the N.T.
only here and 1Pe 4:3 (Peter both times). But there is no O.T.
regulation forbidding such social contact with Gentiles, though
the rabbis had added it and had made it binding by custom. There
is nothing more binding on the average person than social custom.
On coming from the market an orthodox Jew was expected to immerse
to avoid defilement (Edersheim, _Jewish Social Life_, pp. 26-28;
Taylor's _Sayings of the Jewish Fathers_, pp. 15, 26, 137, second
. See also Ac 11:3; Ga 2:12. It is that middle wall of
partition between Jew and Gentile (Eph 2:14) which Jesus broke
down. {One of another nation} (\allophulōi\). Dative case of an
old adjective, but only here in the N.T. (\allos\, another,
\phulon\, race)
. Both Juvenal (_Sat_. XIV. 104, 105) and Tacitus
(_History_, V. 5) speak of the Jewish exclusiveness and
separation from Gentiles. {And yet unto} (\kamoi\). Dative of the
emphatic pronoun (note position of prominence) with \kai\
(\crasis\) meaning here "and yet" or adversative "but" as often
with \kai\ which is by no means always merely the connective
"and" (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1182f.). Now Peter takes back
both the adjectives used in his protest to the Lord (verse 14)
"common and unclean." It is a long journey that Peter has made.
He here refers to "no one" (\mēdena\), not to "things," but that
is great progress.

10:29 {Without gainsaying} (\anantirrhētōs\). \A\ privative with
compound adverb from \anti\ (back, in return, against) and verbal
\rhētos\ (from \errhēthēn\, to speak). Late and rare and here
only in the N.T., but the adjective in 19:36. Without answering
back. That is true after the Holy Spirit expressly told Peter to
go with the messengers of Cornelius (10:19-23). Peter's
objections were made to the Lord in the vision which he did not
understand. But that vision prepared him for this great step
which he had now taken. He had stepped over the line of Jewish
custom. {With what intent} (\tini logōi\). More exactly, "for
what reason" as in Plato, _Gorgias_ 512 C.

10:30 {Four days ago} (\apo tetartēs hēmeras\). From the fourth
day, reckoning backwards from this day. {I was keeping the ninth
hour of prayer}
(\ēmēn tēn enatēn proseuchomenos\). Periphrastic
middle imperfect and accusative of extension of time (all the
ninth hour)

10:31 {Is heard} (\eisēkousthē\). Sort of timeless first aorist
passive indicative as is "are had in remembrance" (\emnēsthēsan\.
See verse 4 "are gone up for a memorial")

10:32 {In the house of Simon} (\en oikiāi Simōnos\). See 9:43
for \para Simōni\ with same idea.

10:33 {And thou hast well done that thou art come} (\su te kalōs
epoiēsas paragenomenos\)
. "And thou didst well in coming." A
regular formula for expressing thanks as in Php 4:14; 3Jo 1:6;
2Pe 1:19. The participle completes the idea of \kalōs poieō\
neatly. Cornelius commends Peter for his courage in breaking away
from Jewish custom and takes no offence at the implied
superiority of the Jews over the Gentiles. Cornelius and his
circle of kinsmen and close friends are prepared soil for a new
era in the history of Christianity. The Samaritans were now
nominal Jews and the Ethiopian eunuch was a single case, but here
Peter the chief apostle, not Philip the preaching deacon
(evangelist), was involved. It was a crisis. Cornelius reveals an
open mind for the message of God through Peter. {Commanded thee}
(\prostetagmena soi\). Perfect passive participle with the dative
case (\soi\). Cornelius is a military man and he employs a
military term (\prostassō\, old word to command). He is ready for
orders from the Lord.

10:34 {Opened his mouth} (\anoixas to stoma\). Solemn formula for
beginning his address (8:35; 18:14; Mt 5:2; 13:35). But also
good elocution for the speaker. {I perceive} (\katalambanomai\).
Aoristic present middle of \katalambanō\, to take hold of, the
middle noting mental action, to lay hold with the mind (Ac 4:13;
10:34; 25:25; Eph 3:18)
. It had been a difficult thing for Peter
to grasp, but now "of a truth" (\ep' alētheias\) the light has
cleared away the fogs. It was not until Peter had crossed the
threshold of the house of Cornelius in the new environment and
standpoint that he sees this new and great truth. {Respecter of
(\prosōpolēmptēs\). This compound occurs only here and
in Chrysostom. It is composed of \prosōpon\ face or person
(\pros\ and \ops\, before the eye or face) and \lambanō\. The
abstract form \prosōpolēmpsia\ occurs in Jas 2:1 (also Ro
2:11; Eph 6:9; Col 3:25)
and the verb \prosōpolempteō\ in Jas
2:9. The separate phrase (\lambanein prosōpon\) occurs in Lu
20:21; Ga 2:6. The phrase was already in the LXX (De 10:17; 2Ch
19:7; Ps 82:6)
. Luke has simply combined the two words into one
compound one. The idea is to pay regard to one's looks or
circumstances rather than to his intrinsic character. The Jews
had come to feel that they were the favourites of God and
actually sons of the kingdom of heaven because they were
descendants of Abraham. John the Baptist rebuked them for this

10:35 {Acceptable to him} (\dektos autōi\). Verbal adjective from
\dechomai\. _Acceptabilis_. That is to say, a Gentile would not
have to become a Jew in order to become a Christian. Evidently
Peter had not before perceived this fact. On the great Day of
Pentecost when he spoke of the promise "to all those afar off"
(2:39) Peter understood that they must first become Jews and
then Christians. The new idea that now makes a revolution in
Peter's outlook is precisely this that Christ can and will save
Gentiles like this Cornelius group without their becoming Jews at

10:36 {The word which he sent} (\ton logon hon apesteilen\). Many
ancient MSS. (so Westcott and Hort) read merely \ton logon
apesteilen\ (he sent the word). This reading avoids the
anacoluthon and inverse attraction of \logon\ to the case of the
relative \hon\ (which). {Preaching good tidings of peace through
Jesus Christ}
(\euaggelizomenos eirēnēn dia Iēsou Christou\).
Gospelizing peace through Jesus Christ. There is no other way to
have real peace between individuals and God, between races and
nations, than by Jesus Christ. Almost this very language occurs
in Eph 2:17 where Paul states that Jesus on the cross "preached
(gospelized) peace to you who are afar off and peace to you who
are near." Peter here sees what Paul will see later with great
clearness. {He is Lord of all} (\houtos estin pantōn kurios\). A
triumphant parenthesis that Peter throws in as the reason for his
new truth. Jesus Christ is Lord of all, both Jews and Gentiles.

10:37 {Ye know} (\humeis oidate\). Peter reminds his Gentile
audience that the main facts concerning Jesus and the gospel were
known to them. Note emphatic expression of \humeis\ (you).
{Beginning} (\arxamenos\). The Textus Receptus has \arxamenon\
(accusative), but the nominative is given by Aleph A B C D E H
and is certainly correct. But it makes a decided anacoluthon. The
accusative would agree with \rhēma\ used in the sense of message
or story as told by the disciples. The nominative does not agree
with anything in the sentence. The same phrase occurs in Lu
23:5. Here is this aorist middle participle almost used like an
adverb. See a similar loose use of \arxamenos\ in the same sense
by Peter in Ac 1:22. The baptism of John is given as the
_terminus a quo_. The story began with a skip to Galilee after
the baptism just like the Gospel of Mark. This first message of
Peter to the Gentiles (10:37-44) corresponds in broad outline
with Mark's Gospel. Mark heard Peter preach many times and
evidently planned his Gospel (the Roman Gospel) on this same
model. There is in it nothing about the birth and childhood of
Jesus nor about the intervening ministry supplied by John's
Gospel for the period (a year) between the baptism and the
Galilean Ministry. Peter here presents an objective statement of
the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus with proof from the
Scriptures that he is the Messiah. It is a skilful presentation.

10:38 {Jesus of Nazareth} (\Iēsoun ton apo Nazareth\). Jesus the
one from Nazareth, the article before the city identifying him
clearly. The accusative case is here by \prolepsis\, Jesus being
expressed for emphasis before the verb "anointed" and the pronoun
repeated pleonastically after it. "Jesus transfers the mind from
the gospel-history to the personal subject of it" (Hackett). {God
anointed him}
(\echrisen, auton, ho theos\). First aorist active
of the verb \chriō\, to anoint, from which the verbal \Christos\
is formed (Ac 2:36). The precise event referred to by Peter
could be the Incarnation (Lu 1:35f.), the Baptism (Lu 3:22),
the Ministry at Nazareth (Lu 4:14). Why not to the life and
work of Jesus as a whole? {Went about doing good} (\diēlthen
. Beautiful description of Jesus. Summary (constative)
aorist active of \dierehomai\, to go through (\dia\) or from
place to place. The present active participle \euergetōn\ is from
the old verb \euergeteō\ (\eu\, well, \ergon\, work) and occurs
only here in the N.T. The substantive \euergetēs\ (benefactor)
was often applied to kings like Ptolemy Euergetes and that is the
sense in Lu 22:25 the only N.T. example. But the term applies
to Jesus far more than to Ptolemy or any earthly king (Cornelius
a Lapide)
. {And healing} (\kai iōmenos\). And in particular
healing. Luke does not exclude other diseases (cf. Lu
, but he lays special emphasis on demoniacal possession
(cf. Mr 1:23). {That were oppressed} (\tous
. Present passive articular participle of
\katadunasteuō\. A late verb in LXX and papyri. In the N.T. only
here and Jas 2:6 (best MSS.). One of the compounds of \kata\
made transitive. The reality of the devil (the slanderer,
is recognized by Peter. {For God was with him} (\hoti
ho theos ēn met' autou\)
. Surely this reason does not reveal "a
low Christology" as some charge. Peter had used the same language
in Ac 7:9 and earlier in Lu 1:28,66 as Nicodemus does in Joh

10:39 {And we are witnesses} (\kai hēmeis martures\). Compare "ye
yourselves know" (verse 37). Peter thus appeals to what the
audience know and to what the disciples know. He made the same
claim about personal witnesses of the Resurrection of Jesus at
Pentecost (2:32). Here Peter affirms full knowledge of the work
of Jesus in Judea (for whole country including Galilee and Perea)
and Jerusalem (given mainly in John's Gospel). In the Greek \hōn\
(which) is attracted into the genitive case to agree with the
antecedent \pantōn\ (all), a common enough idiom. {Whom also they
(\hon kai aneilan\). Second aorist active indicative of
\anaireō\ with \a\ as often in Acts (2:23; 5:30). But note
\kai\ (also) in the old MSS., not in the Textus Receptus. They
"also" slew him, went that far, "this crowning atrocity"
(Vincent), \kai\ could here be "even." {Hanging him on a tree}
(\kremasantes epi xulou\). This same expression used by Peter in
5:30 which see for discussion.

10:40 {Gave him to be made manifest} (\edōken auton emphanē
. Peculiar phrase, here only in the N.T. and in Ro
10:20 (quoted from Isa 65:1). \Emphanē\, predicate accusative
after infinitive \genesthai\ agreeing with \auton\ object of

10:41 {Chosen before} (\prokecheirotonēmenois\). Perfect passive
participle dative plural from \procheirotoneō\, to choose or
designate by hand (\cheirotoneō, cheir\, hand, and \teinō\, to
stretch, as in Ac 14:23; 2Co 8:19)
, beforehand (\pro\), a
double compound as old as Plato, but here alone in the N.T. Peter
is evidently stating the thing as it happened and not trying to
make a convincing story by saying that both friends and foes saw
him after his resurrection. It is the "historian's candour"
(Paley) in Luke here that adds to the credibility of the
narrative. The sceptical Jews would not have believed and Jesus
was kept from open contact with the world of sin after his
Passion. {To us who did eat and drink with him} (\hēmin hoitines
sunephagomen kai sunepiomen autōi\)
. The "who" (\hoitines\) is
first person agreeing with "us" (\hēmin\). Second aorist active
indicative of the common verbs \sunesthiō\ and \sumpinō\. \Autōi\
is associative instrumental case. There are difficulties to us in
understanding how Jesus could eat and drink after the
resurrection as told here and in Lu 24:41-3, but at any rate
Peter makes it clear that it was no hallucination or ghost, but
Jesus himself whom they saw after he rose from the dead, "after
the rising as to him" (\meta to anastēnai auton\, \meta\ with the
accusative articular infinitive second aorist active and the
accusative \auton\ of general reference)
. Furneaux dares to think
that the disciples misunderstood Jesus about eating after the
resurrection. But that is to deny the testimony merely because we
cannot explain the transition state of the body of Jesus.

10:42 {He charged} (\parēggeilen\). First aorist active
indicative as in 1:4. There Jesus is the subject and so
probably here, though Page insists that \ho theos\ (God) is here
because of verse 40. {To testify} (\diamarturasthai\). First
aorist middle infinitive. See on ¯2:40. {Ordained}
(\hōrismenos\). Perfect passive participle of \horizō\, old verb,
to mark out, to limit, to make a horizon. {Judge} (\kritēs\). The
same point made by Peter in 1Pe 4:5. He does not use the word
"Messiah" to these Gentiles though he did say "anointed"
(\echrisen\) in verse 38. Peter's claim for Jesus is that he is
the Judge of Jew and Gentile (living and dead).

10:43 {Every one that believeth} (\panta ton pisteuonta\). This
accusative active participle of general reference with the
infinitive in indirect discourse is the usual idiom. Only
\labein\ (second aorist active infinitive of \lambanō\) is not
indirect statement so much as indirect command or arrangement.
The prophets bear witness to Jesus Christ to this effect. It is
God's plan and no race distinctions are drawn. Peter had already
said the same thing at Pentecost (2:38), but now he sees
himself that Gentiles do not have to become Jews, but have only
to believe in Jesus as Messiah and Judge as foretold by the
prophets. It was glorious news to Cornelius and his group.
{Through his name} (\dia tou onomatos autou\), not as a _title_
or magic formula (Ac 18:13), but the power of Christ himself
represented by his name.

10:44 {While Peter yet spake} (\eti lalountos tou Petrou\).
Genitive absolute of present participle, still going on. {The
Holy Ghost fell}
(\epepesen to pneuma to hagion\). Second aorist
active indicative of \epipiptō\, old verb to fall upon, to
recline, to come upon. Used of the Holy Spirit in 8:16; 10:44;
11:15. It appears that Peter was interrupted in his sermon by
this remarkable event. The Jews had received the Holy Spirit
(2:4), the Samaritans (8:17), and now Gentiles. But on this
occasion it was before baptism, as was apparently true in Paul's
case (9:17f.). In 8:16; 19:5 the hands of the apostles were
also placed after baptism on those who received the Holy Spirit.
Here it was unexpected by Peter and by Cornelius and was
indubitable proof of the conversion of these Gentiles who had
accepted Peter's message and had believed on Jesus Christ as

10:45 {They of the circumcision which believed} (\hoi ek
peritomēs pistoi\)
. The believing ones of the circumcision, more
exactly. {Were amazed} (\exestēsan\). Second aorist active
indicative, intransitive, of \existēmi\. They stood out of
themselves. {On the Gentiles also} (\kai epi ta ethnē\). Or, even
upon the Gentiles. {Was poured out} (\ekkechutai\). Present
perfect passive retained in indirect discourse of \ekcheō\ or
\ekchunō\, old verb, used metaphorically of the Holy Spirit also
in 2:17 (from Joe 2:28f.), Ac 2:33.

10:46 {They heard} (\ēkouon\). Imperfect active, were hearing,
kept on hearing. {Speak} (\lalountōn\). Present active
participle, speaking, for they kept it up. {With tongues}
(\glōssais\). Instrumental case as in 2:4,11 which see. The
fuller statement there makes it clear that here it was new and
strange tongues also as in 19:6; 1Co 14:4-19. This sudden
manifestation of the Holy Spirit's power on uncircumcised
Gentiles was probably necessary to convince Peter and the six
brethren of the circumcision that God had opened the door wide to
Gentiles. It was proof that a Gentile Pentecost had come and
Peter used it effectively in his defence in Jerusalem (Ac

10:47 {Can any man forbid the water?} (\Mēti to hudōr dunatai
kōl–sai tis?\)
. The negative \mēti\ expects the answer _No_. The
evidence was indisputable that these Gentiles were converted and
so were entitled to be baptized. See the similar idiom in Lu
6:39. Note the article with "water." Here the baptism of the
Holy Spirit had preceded the baptism of water (Ac 1:5; 11:16).
"The greater had been bestowed; could the lesser be withheld?"
(Knowling). {That these should not be baptized} (\tou mē
baptisthēnai toutous\)
. Ablative case of the articular first
aorist passive infinitive of \baptizō\ with the redundant
negative after the verb of hindering (\kōl–sai\) and the
accusative of general reference (\toutous\). The redundant
negative after the verb of hindering is not necessary though
often used in ancient Greek and in the _Koinē_ (papyri). Without
it see Mt 19:14; Ac 8:36 and with it see Lu 4:42; 24:16; Ac
14:18. Cf. Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1061, 1094, 1171. The
triple negatives here are a bit confusing to the modern mind
(\mēti\ in the question, \kōl–sai\, to hinder or to cut off, \mē\
with \baptisthēnai\)
. Literally, Can any one cut off the water
from the being baptized as to these? Meyer: "The water is in this
animated language conceived as the element offering itself for
the baptism." {As well as we} (\hōs kai hēmeis\). The argument
was conclusive. God had spoken. Note the query of the eunuch to
Philip (Ac 8:36).

10:48 {Commanded} (\prosetaxen\). First aorist active indicative.
Peter himself abstained from baptizing on this occasion (cf. Paul
in 1Co 1:14)
. Evidently it was done by the six Jewish brethren.
{Them to be baptized} (\autous baptisthēnai\). Accusative of
general reference with the first aorist passive infinitive. {In
the name of Jesus Christ}
(\en tōi onomati Iēsou Christou\). The
essential name in Christian baptism as in 2:38; 19:5. But these
passages give the authority for the act, not the formula that was
employed (Alvah Hovey in Hackett's _Commentary_. See also chapter
on the Baptismal Formula in my _The Christ of the Logia_)
"Golden days" (\aurei dies\, Bengel) were these for the whole

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(Acts: Chapter 10)