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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Thessalonians: Chapter 1)

1:1 {Paul, etc.} (\Paulos, etc.\). This address or superscription
is identical with that in 1Th 1:1 save that our (\hēmōn\) is
added after {Father} (\patri\).

1:2 {From God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ} (\apo theou
patros kai Kuriou Iēsou Christou\)
. These words are not genuine
in 1Th 1:1, but are here and they appear in all the other
Pauline Epistles. Note absence of article both after \en\ and
\apo\, though both God and Lord Jesus Christ are definite. In
both cases Jesus Christ is put on a par with God, though not
identical. See on ¯1Th 1:1 for discussion of words, but note
difference between \en\, in the sphere of, by the power of, and
\apo\, from, as the fountain head and source of grace and peace.

1:3 {We are bound} (\opheilomen\). Paul feels a sense of
obligation to keep on giving thanks to God (\eucharistein tōi
theōi\, present infinitive with dative case)
because of God's
continued blessings on the Thessalonians. He uses the same idiom
again in 2:13 and nowhere else in his thanksgivings. It is not
necessity (\dei\) that Paul here notes, but a sense of personal
obligation as in 1Jo 2:6 (Milligan). {Even as it is meet}
(\kathōs axion estin\). \Opheilomen\ points to the divine,
\axion\ to the human side of the obligation (Lightfoot), perhaps
to cheer the fainthearted in a possible letter to him in reply to
Paul's First Thessalonian epistle (Milligan). This adjective
\axios\ is from \agō\, to drag down the scales, and so weighty,
worthy, worthwhile, old word and appropriate here. {For that your
faith groweth exceedingly}
(\hoti huperauxanei hē pistis humōn\).
Causal use of \hoti\ referring to the obligation stated in
\opheilomen\. The verb \huperauxanō\ is one of Paul's frequent
compounds in \huper\ (\huper-bainō\, 1Th 4:6; \huper-ek-teinō\,
2Co 10:14; \huper-en-tugchanō\, Ro 8:26; \huper-nikaō\, Ro
8:37; \huper-pleonazō\, 1Ti 1:14)
and occurs only here in N.T.
and rare elsewhere (Galen, Dio Cass.). Figure of the tree of
faith growing above (\huper\) measure. Cf. parable of Jesus about
faith-like a grain of mustard seed (Mt 13:31f.). {Aboundeth}
(\pleonazei\). Same verb in 1Th 3:12, here a fulfilment of the
prayer made there. Milligan finds _diffusive_ growth of love in
this word because of "each one" (\henos hekastou\). Frame finds
in this fulfilment of the prayer of 1Th 3:12 one proof that II
Thessalonians is later than I Thessalonians.

1:4 {So that} (\hōste\). Another example of \hōste\ and the
infinitive (\enkauchāsthai\) for result as in 1Th 1:7 which
see. {We ourselves} (\autous hēmas\). Accusative of general
reference with the infinitive, but not merely \hēmās\ (or
, perhaps in contrast with \en humin\ (in you), as
much as to say, "so that we ourselves, contrary to your
expectations, are boasting" (Frame). \Enkauchaomai\ occurs here
alone in N.T., but is found in the LXX and in _Aesop's Fables_,
proof enough of its vernacular use. Paul was not above praising
one church to other churches, to provoke them to good works. Here
he is boasting of Thessalonica in Macedonia to the Corinthians as
he did later to the Corinthians about the collection (2Co
after having first boasted to the Macedonians about the
Corinthians (2Co 9:1-5). There were other churches in Achaia
besides Corinth (2Co 1:1). {For} (\huper\). Over, about, like
\peri\ (1Th 1:2). {In all your persecutions} (\en pasin tois
diōgmois humōn\)
. Their patience and faith had already attracted
Paul's attention (1Th 1:3) and their tribulations \thlipsesin\
(1Th 1:6). Here Paul adds the more specific term \diōgmos\, old
word from \diōkō\, to chase, to pursue, a word used by Paul of
his treatment in Corinth (2Co 12:10). {Which ye endure} (\hais
. B here reads \enechesthe\, to be entangled in, to
be held in as in Ga 5:1, but \anechesthe\ is probably correct
and the \hais\ is probably attracted to locative case of
\thlipsesin\ from the ablative \hōn\ after \anechesthe\, {from
which ye hold yourselves back}
(cf. Col 3:13).

1:5 {A manifest token of the righteous judgment of God}
(\endeigma tēs dikaias kriseōs tou theou\). Old word from
\endeiknumi\, to point out, result reached (\-ma\), a thing
proved. It is either in the accusative of general reference in
apposition with the preceding clause as in Ro 8:3; 12:1, or in
the nominative absolute when \ho estin\, if supplied, would
explain it as in Php 1:28. This righteous judgment is future
and final (verses 6-10). {To the end that you may be counted
(\eis to kataxiōthēnai humas\). Another example of \eis
to\ for purpose with first aorist passive infinitive from
\kataxioō\, old verb, with accusative of general reference
\humas\ and followed by the genitive \tēs basileias\ (kingdom of
. See 1Th 2:12 for {kingdom of God}. {For which ye also
(\huper hēs kai paschete\). Ye {also} as well as we and
the present tense means that it is still going on.

1:6 {If so be that it is a righteous thing with God} (\eiper
dikaion para theōi\)
. Condition of first class, determined as
fulfilled, assumed as true, but with \eiper\ (if on the whole,
provided that)
as in Ro 8:9,17, and with no copula expressed. A
righteous thing "with God" means by the side of God (\para
and so from God's standpoint. This is as near to the idea
of absolute right as it is possible to attain. Note the phrase in
verse 5. {To recompense affliction to them that afflict you}
(\antapodounai tois thlibousin hēmās thlipsin\). Second aorist
active infinitive of double compound \ant-apodidōmi\, old verb,
either in good sense as in 1Th 3:9 or in bad sense as here.
Paul is certain of this principle, though he puts it

1:7 {Rest with us} (\anesin meth' hēmōn\). Let up, release. Old
word from \aniēmi\, from troubles here (2Co 2:13; 7:5; 8:13),
and hereafter as in this verse. Vivid word. They shared suffering
with Paul (verse 5) and so they will share (\meth'\) the
{rest}. {At the revelation of the Lord Jesus} (\en tēi
apokalupsei tou Kuriou Iēsou\)
. Here the \Parousia\ (1Th 2:19;
3:13; 5:23)
is pictured as a {Revelation} (Un-veiling,
of the Messiah as in 1Co 1:7, 1Pe 1:7,13 (cf.
Lu 17:30)
. At this Unveiling of the Messiah there will come the
{recompense} (verse 6) to the persecutors and the {rest} from
the persecutions. This Revelation will be {from heaven} (\ap'
as to place and {with the angels of his power} (\met'
aggelōn dunameōs autou\)
as the retinue and {in flaming fire}
(\en puri phlogos\, in a fire of flame, fire characterized by
. In Ac 7:30 the text is {flame of fire} where \puros\ is
genitive (like Isa 66:15) rather than \phlogos\ as here (Ex

1:8 {Rendering} (\didontos\). Genitive of present active
participle of \didōmi\, to give, agreeing with \Iēsou\.
{Vengeance} (\ekdikēsin\). Late word from \ekdikeō\, to
vindicate, in Polybius and LXX. {To them that know not God}
(\tois mē eidosin theon\). Dative plural of perfect active
participle \eidōs\. Apparently chiefly Gentiles in mind (1Th
4:3; Ga 4:8; Ro 1:28; Eph 2:12)
, though Jews are also guilty of
wilful ignorance of God (Ro 2:14). {And to them that obey not
the gospel of our Lord Jesus}
(\kai tois mē hupakouousin tōi
euaggeliōi tou kuriou hēmōn Iēsou\)
. Repetition of the article
looks like another class and so Jews (Ro 10:16). Both Jews as
instigators and Gentiles as officials (\politarchs\) were
involved in the persecution in Thessalonica (Ac 17:5-9; 2Th
. Note the use of "gospel" here as in Mr 1:15 "believe in
the gospel."

1:9 {Who} (\hoitines\). Qualitative use, such as. Vanishing in
papyri though surviving in Paul (1Co 3:17; Ro 1:25; Ga 4:26; Php
. {Shall suffer punishment} (\dikēn tisousin\). Future
active of old verb \tinō\, to pay penalty (\dikēn\, right,
, here only in N.T., but \apotinō\ once also to repay
Phm 1:19. In the papyri \dikē\ is used for a case or process in
law. This is the regular phrase in classic writers for paying the
penalty. {Eternal destruction} (\olethron aiōnion\). Accusative
case in apposition with \dikēn\ (penalty). This phrase does not
appear elsewhere in the N.T., but is in IV Macc. 10:15 \ton
aiōnion tou turannou olethron\ the eternal destruction of the
tyrant (Antiochus Epiphanes). Destruction (cf. 1Th 5:3) does
not mean here annihilation, but, as Paul proceeds to show,
separation {from the face of the Lord} (\apo prosōpou tou
and from the {glory of his might} (\kai apo tēs doxēs
tēs ischuos autou\)
, an eternity of woe such as befell Antiochus
Epiphanes. \Aiōnios\ in itself only means age-long and papyri and
inscriptions give it in the weakened sense of a Caesar's life
(Milligan), but Paul means by age-long {the coming age} in
contrast with {this age}, as {eternal} as the New Testament knows
how to make it. See on ¯Mt 25:46 for use of \aiōnios\ both with
\zōēn\, life, and \kolasin\, punishment.

1:10 {When he shall come} (\hotan elthēi\). Second aorist active
subjunctive with \hotan\, future and indefinite temporal clause
(Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 971ff.) coincident with \en tēi
apokalupsei\ in verse 7. {To be glorified} (\endoxasthēnai\).
First aorist passive infinitive (purpose) of \endoxazō\, late
verb, in N.T. only here and verse 12, in LXX and papyri. {In
his saints}
(\en tois hagiois autou\). The sphere in which Christ
will find his glory at the Revelation. {And to be marvelled at}
(\kai thaumasthēnai\). First aorist passive infinitive (purpose),
common verb \thaumazō\. {That believed} (\tois pisteusasin\). Why
aorist active participle instead of present active \pisteuousin\
(that believe)? Frame thinks that Paul thus reassures those who
believed his message when there (1Th 1:6ff.; 2:13f.). The
parenthetical clause, though difficult, falls in with this idea:
{Because our testimony unto you was believed} (\hoti episteuthē
to marturion hēmōn eph' humas\)
. Moffatt calls it an anti-climax.
{On that day} (\en tēi hēmerāi ekeinēi\). The day of Christ's
coming (2Ti 1:12,18; 4:8).

1:11 {To which end} (\eis ho\). So Col 1:29. Probably purpose
with reference to the contents of verses 5-10. We have had the
Thanksgiving (verses 3-10) in a long, complicated, but rich
period or sentence. Now he makes a brief Prayer (verses 11-12)
that God will fulfil all their hopes and endeavours. Paul and his
colleagues can still pray for them though no longer with them
(Moffatt). {That} (\hina\). Common after \proseuchomai\ (Col
4:3; Eph 1:17; Php 1:9)
when the content of the prayer blends
with the purpose (purport and purpose). {Count you worthy}
(\humas axiōsēi\). Causative verb (aorist active subjunctive)
like \kataxioō\ in verse 5 with genitive. {Of your calling}
(\tēs klēseōs\). \Klēsis\ can apply to the beginning as in 1Co
1:26; Ro 11:29, but it can also apply to the final issue as in
Php 3:14; Heb 3:1. Both ideas may be here. It is God's calling
of the Thessalonians. {And fulfil every desire of goodness} (\kai
plērōsēi pasan eudokian agathōsunēs\)
. "Whom he counts worthy he
first makes worthy" (Lillie). Yes, in purpose, but the wonder and
the glory of it all is that God begins to count us worthy in
Christ before the process is completed in Christ (Ro 8:29f.).
But God will see it through and so Paul prays to God. \Eudokia\
(cf. Lu 2:14) is more than mere desire, rather good pleasure,
God's purpose of goodness, not in ancient Greek, only in LXX and
N.T. \Agathōsunē\ like a dozen other words in \-sunē\ occurs only
in late Greek. This word occurs only in LXX, N.T., writings based
on them. It is made from \agathos\, good, akin to \agamai\, to
admire. May the Thessalonians find delight in goodness, a worthy
and pertinent prayer. {Work of faith} (\ergon pisteōs\). The same
phrase in 1Th 1:3. Paul prays for rich fruition of what he had
seen in the beginning. Work marked by faith, springs from faith,
sustained by faith. {With power} (\en dunamei\). In power.
Connect with \plērōsēi\ (fulfil), God's power (Ro 1:29; Col
in Christ (1Co 1:24) through the Holy Spirit (1Th 1:5).

1:12 {That} (\hopōs\). Rare with Paul compared with \hina\ (1Co
1:29; 2Co 8:14)
. Perhaps here for variety (dependent on \hina\
clause in verse 11)
. {The name} (\to onoma\). The Old Testament
(LXX) uses \onoma\ embodying the revealed character of Jehovah.
So here the {Name} of our Lord Jesus means the Messiahship and
Lordship of Jesus. The common Greek idiom of \onoma\ for title or
dignity as in the papyri (Milligan) is not quite this idiom. The
papyri also give examples of \onoma\ for person as in O.T. and
Ac 1:15 (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, pp. 196ff.). {In you, and
ye in him}
(\en humin, kai humeis en autōi\). This reciprocal
glorying is Pauline, but it is also like Christ's figure of the
vine and the branches in Joh 15:1-11. {According to the grace}
(\kata tēn charin\). Not merely standard, but also aim
(Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 609). {Of our God and the Lord Jesus
(\tou theou hēmōn kai kuriou Iēsou Christou\). Here
strict syntax requires, since there is only one article with
\theou\ and \kuriou\ that one person be meant, Jesus Christ, as
is certainly true in Tit 2:13; 2Pe 1:1 (Robertson, _Grammar_,
. This otherwise conclusive syntactical argument, admitted
by Schmiedel, is weakened a bit by the fact that \Kurios\ is
often employed as a proper name without the article, a thing not
true of \sōtēr\ in Tit 2:13; 2Pe 1:1. So in Eph 5:5 \en tēi
basileiāi tou Christou kai theou\ the natural meaning is {in the
Kingdom of Christ and God}
regarded as one, but here again
\theos\, like \Kurios\, often occurs as a proper name without the
article. So it has to be admitted that here Paul may mean
"according to the grace of our God and the Lord Jesus Christ,"
though he may also mean "according to the grace of our God and
Lord, Jesus Christ."

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Thessalonians: Chapter 1)