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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Corinthians: Chapter 11)

11:1 {Would that ye could bear with me} (\ophelon aneichesthe
. _Koinē_ way of expressing a wish about the present,
\ophelon\ (as a conjunction, really second aorist active
indicative of \opheilō\ without augment)
and the imperfect
indicative instead of \eithe\ or \ei gar\ (Robertson, _Grammar_,
p. 1003)
. Cf. Re 3:15. See Ga 5:12 for future indicative with
\ophelon\ and 1Co 4:8 for aorist. \Mou\ is ablative case after
\aneichesthe\ (direct middle, hold yourselves back from me).
There is a touch of irony here. {Bear with me} (\anechesthe
. Either imperative middle or present middle indicative (ye
do bear with me)
. Same form. {In a little foolishness} (\mikron
ti aphrosunēs\)
. Accusative of general reference (\mikron ti\).
"Some little foolishness" (from \aphrōn\, foolish). Old word only
in this chapter in N.T.

11:2 {With a godly jealousy} (\theou zēlōi\). Instrumental case
of \zēlos\. With a jealousy of God. {I espoused} (\hērmosamēn\).
First aorist middle indicative of \harmozō\, old verb to join, to
fit together (from \harmos\, joint). Common for betrothed, though
only here in N.T. The middle voice indicates Paul's interest in
the matter. Paul treats the Corinthians as his bride.

11:3 {The serpent beguiled Eve} (\ho ophis exēpatēsen Heuan\).
Paul's only mention of the serpent in Eden. The compound
\exapataō\ means to deceive completely. {Lest by any means} (\mē
. Common conjunction after verbs of fearing. {Corrupted}
(\phtharēi\). Second aorist passive subjunctive with \mē pōs\ of
\phtheirō\, to corrupt.

11:4 {Another Jesus} (\allon Iēsoun\). Not necessarily a
different Jesus, but any other "Jesus" is a rival and so wrong.
That would deny the identity. {A different spirit} (\pneuma
. This is the obvious meaning of \heteron\ in
distinction from \allon\ as seen in Ac 4:12; Ga 1:6f. But this
distinction in nature or kind is not always to be insisted on. {A
different gospel}
(\euaggelion heteron\). Similar use of
\heteron\. {Ye do well to bear with him} (\kalōs anechesthe\).
Ironical turn again. "Well do you hold yourselves back from him"
(the coming one, whoever he is). Some MSS. have the imperfect
\aneichesthe\ (did bear with).

11:5 {That I am not a whit behind the very chiefest apostles}
(\mēden husterēkenai tōn huperlian apostolōn\). Perfect active
infinitive of \hustereō\, old verb to fall short with the
ablative case. The rare compound adverb \huperlian\ (possibly in
use in the vernacular)
is probably ironical also, "the super
apostles" as these Judaizers set themselves up to be. "The
extra-super apostles" (Farrar). Also in 12:11. He is not
referring to the pillar-apostles of Ga 2:9.

11:6 {Rude in speech} (\idiōtēs tōi logōi\). Locative case with
\idiōtēs\ for which word see on ¯Ac 4:13; 1Co 14:16,23,24. The
Greeks regarded a man as \idiōtēs\ who just attended to his own
affairs (\ta idia\) and took no part in public life. Paul admits
that he is not a professional orator (cf. 10:10), but denies
that he is unskilled in knowledge (\all' ou tēi gnōsei\). {Among
all men}
(\en pāsin\). He has made his mastery of the things of
Christ plain among all men. He knew his subject.

11:7 {In abasing myself} (\emauton tapeinōn\). Humbling myself by
making tents for a living while preaching in Corinth. He is
ironical still about "doing a sin" (\hamartian epoiēsa\). {For
(\dōrean\). _Gratis_. Accusative of general reference,
common adverb. It amounts to sarcasm to ask if he did a sin in
preaching the gospel free of expense to them "that ye may be

11:8 {I robbed} (\esulēsa\). Old verb to despoil, strip arms from
a slain foe, only here in N.T. He allowed other churches to do
more than their share. {Taking wages} (\labōn opsōnion\). For
\opsōnion\ see on ¯1Co 9:7; Ro 6:17. He got his "rations" from
other churches, not from Corinth while there.

11:9 {I was not a burden to any man} (\ou katenarkēsa outhenos\).
First aorist active indicative of \katanarkaō\. Jerome calls this
word one of Paul's _cilicisms_ which he brought from Cilicia. But
the word occurs in Hippocrates for growing quite stiff and may be
a medical term in popular use. \Narkaō\ means to become numb,
torpid, and so a burden. It is only here and 12:13f. Paul "did
not benumb the Corinthians by his demand for pecuniary aid"
(Vincent). {From being burdensome} (\abarē\). Old adjective, free
from weight or light (\a\ privative and \baros\, weight) . See on
¯1Th 2:9 for same idea. Paul kept himself independent.

11:10 {No man shall stop me of this glorying} (\hē kauchēsis
hautē ou phragēsetai eis eme\)
. More exactly, "This glorying
shall not be fenced in as regards me." Second future passive of
\phrassō\, to fence in, to stop, to block in. Old verb, only here
in N.T. {In the regions of Achaia} (\en tois klimasin tēs
. \Klima\ from \klinō\, to incline, is _Koinē_ word for
declivity slope, region (our climate). See chapter 1Co 9 for
Paul's boast about preaching the gospel without cost to them.

11:11 {God knoweth} (\ho theos oiden\). Whether they do or not.
He knows that God understands his motives.

11:12 {That I may cut off occasion} (\hina ekkopsō tēn
. Purpose clause with \hina\ and first aorist active
subjunctive of \ekkoptō\, old verb to cut out or off (Mt 3:10;
. See 2Co 5:12 for \aphormēn\. {From them which desire an
(\tōn thelontōn aphormēn\). Ablative case after
\ekkopsō\. There are always some hunting for occasions to start
something against preachers. {They may be found} (\heurethōsin\).
First aorist passive subjunctive of \heuriskō\, to find with
final conjunction \hina\.

11:13 {False apostles} (\pseudapostoloi\). From \pseudēs\, false,
and \apostolos\. Paul apparently made this word (cf. Re 2:2).
In verse 26 we have \pseudadelphos\, a word of like formation
(Ga 2:4). See also \pseudochristoi\ and \pseudoprophētai\ in
Mr 13:22. {Deceitful} (\dolioi\). Old word from \dolos\ (lure,
, only here in N.T. (cf. Ro 16:18). {Fashioning
(\metaschēmatizomenoi\). Present middle (direct)
participle of the old verb \metaschēmatizō\ for which see on 1Co
4:6. Masquerading as apostles of Christ by putting on the
outward habiliments, posing as ministers of Christ ("gentlemen of
the cloth," nothing but cloth)
. Paul plays with this verb in
verses 13,14,15.

11:14 {An angel of light} (\aggelon phōtos\). The prince of
darkness puts on the garb of light and sets the fashion for his
followers in the masquerade to deceive the saints. "Like master
like man." Cf. 2:11; Ga 1:8. This terrible portrayal reveals
the depth of Paul's feelings about the conduct of the Judaizing
leaders in Corinth. In Ga 2:4 he terms those in Jerusalem
"false brethren."

11:15 {As ministers of righteousness} (\hōs diakonoi
. Jesus (Joh 10:1-21) terms these false shepherds
thieves and robbers. It is a tragedy to see men in the livery of
heaven serve the devil.

11:16 {Let no man think me foolish} (\mē tis me doxēi aphrona
. Usual construction in a negative prohibition with \mē\
and the aorist subjunctive \doxēi\ (Robertson, _Grammar_, p.
. {But if ye do} (\ei de mē ge\). Literally, "But if not at
least (or otherwise)," that is, If you do think me foolish. {Yet
as foolish}
(\kan hōs aphrona\). "Even if as foolish." Paul feels
compelled to boast of his career and work as an apostle of Christ
after the terrible picture just drawn of the Judaizers. He feels
greatly embarrassed in doing it. Some men can do it with complete
composure (_sang froid_).

11:17 {Not after the Lord} (\ou kata Kurion\). Not after the
example of the Lord. He had appealed to the example of Christ in
10:1 (the meekness and gentleness of Christ). Paul's conduct
here, he admits, is not in keeping with that. But circumstances
force him on.

11:18 {After the flesh} (\kata sarka\). It is \kata sarka\ not
\kata Kurion\. {I also} (\kagō\). But he knows that it is a bit
of foolishness and not like Christ.

11:19 {Gladly} (\hēdeōs\). Irony again. Cf. \kalos\ in 11:4
(Mr 7:9). So as to \phronimoi ontes\ (being wise).

11:20 {For ye bear with a man} (\anechesthe gar\). " You tolerate
tyranny, extortion, craftiness, arrogance, violence, and insult"
(Plummer). Sarcasm that cut to the bone. Note the verb with each
of the five conditional clauses (enslaves, devours, takes
captive, exalteth himself, smites on the face)
. The climax of
insult, smiting on the face.

11:21 {By way of disparagement} (\kata atimian\). Intense irony.
Cf. 6:8. {As though} (\hōs hoti\). Presented as the charge of
another. "They more than tolerate those who trample on them while
they criticize as 'weak' one who shows them great consideration"
(Plummer). After these prolonged explanations Paul "changes his
tone from irony to direct and masterful assertion" (Bernard). {I
am bold also}
(\tolmō kagō\). Real courage. Cf. 10:2,12.

11:22 {So am I} (\kagō\). This is his triumphant refrain with
each challenge.

11:23 {As one beside himself} (\paraphronōn\). Present active
participle of \paraphroneō\. Old verb from \paraphrōn\ (\para,
, beside one's wits. Only here in N.T. Such open boasting
is out of accord with Paul's spirit and habit. {I more} (\huper
. This adverbial use of \huper\ appears in ancient Greek
(Euripides). It has no effect on \egō\, not "more than I," but "I
more than they." He claims superiority now to these "superextra
apostles." {More abundant} (\perissoterōs\). See on ¯7:15. No
verbs with these clauses, but they are clear. {In prisons} (\en
. Plural also in 6:5. Clement of Rome (_Cor_. V.)
says that Paul was imprisoned seven times. We know of only five
(Philippi, Jerusalem, Caesarea, twice in Rome), and only one
before II Corinthians (Philippi). But Luke does not tell them all
nor does Paul. Had he been in prison in Ephesus? So many think
and it is possible as we have seen. {Above measure}
(\huperballontōs\). Old adverb from the participle
\huperballontōn\ (\huperballō\, to hurl beyond). Here only in
N.T. {In deaths oft} (\en thanatois pollakis\). He had nearly
lost his life, as we know, many times (1:9f.; 4:11).

11:24 {Five times received I forty stripes save one} (\pentakis
tesserakonta para mian elabon\)
. The Acts and the Epistles are
silent about these Jewish floggings (Mt 27:36). See on ¯Lu
12:47 for omission of \plēgas\ (stripes). Thirty-nine lashes was
the rule for fear of a miscount (De 25:1-3). Cf. Josephus
(_Ant_. IV. 8, 1, 21).

11:25 {Thrice was I beaten with rods} (\tris errabdisthēn\).
Roman (Gentile) punishment. It was forbidden to Roman citizens by
the _Lex Porcia_, but Paul endured it in Philippi (Ac
, the only one of the three named in Acts. First aorist
passive of \rabdizō\, from \rabdos\, rod, _Koinē_ word, in N.T.
only here and Ac 16:22 which see. {Once was I stoned} (\hapax
. Once for all \hapax\ means. At Lystra (Ac
. On \lithazō\ _Koinē_ verb from \lithos\, see on ¯Ac
5:26. {Thrice I suffered shipwreck} (\tris enauagēsa\). First
aorist active of \nauageō\, from \nauagos\, shipwrecked (\naus\,
ship, \agnumi\, to break)
. Old and common verb, in N.T. only here
and 1Ti 1:19. We know nothing of these. The one told in Ac 27
was much later. What a pity that we have no data for all these
varied experiences of Paul. {Night and day} (\nuchthēmeron\) Rare
word. Papyri give \nuktēmar\ with the same idea (night-day).
{Have I been in the deep} (\en tōi buthōi pepoiēka\). Vivid
dramatic perfect active indicative of \poieō\, "I have done a
night and day in the deep." The memory of it survives like a
nightmare. \Buthos\ is old word (only here in N.T.) for bottom,
depth of the sea, then the sea itself. Paul does not mean that he
was a night and day under the water, not a Jonah experience, only
that he was far out at sea and shipwrecked. This was one of the
three shipwrecks-already named.

11:26 {In journeyings} (\hodoiporiais\). Locative case of old
word, only here in N.T. and Joh 4:6, from \hodoiporos\,
wayfarer. {In perils} (\kindunois\). Locative case of \kindunos\,
old word for danger or peril. In N.T. only this verse and Ro
8:35. The repetition here is very effective without the
preposition \en\ (in) and without conjunctions (asyndeton). They
are in contrasted pairs. The rivers of Asia Minor are still
subject to sudden swellings from floods in the mountains. Cicero
and Pompey won fame fighting the Cilician pirates and robbers
(note \lēistōn\, not \kleptōn\, thieves, brigands or bandits on
which see ¯Mt 26:55)
. The Jewish perils (\ek genous\, from my
can be illustrated in Ac 9:23,29; 13:50; 14:5; 17:5,13;
18:12; 23:12; 24:27, and they were all perils in the city also.
Perils from the Gentiles (\ex ethnōn\) we know in Philippi (Ac
and in Ephesus (Ac 19:23f.). Travel in the mountains
and in the wilderness was perilous in spite of the great Roman
highways. {Among false brethren} (\en pseudadelphois\). Chapters
2Co 10; 11 throw a lurid light on this aspect of the subject.

11:27 {In labour and travail} (\kopōi kai mochthōi\). Both old
words for severe work, combined here as in 1Th 2:9; 2Th 3:8,
"by toil and moil" (Plummer). The rest of the list is like the
items in 2Co 6:4ff. {In cold} (\en psuchei\). Old word from
\psuchō\, to cool by blowing. See Ac 28:2. See the picture of
the aged Paul later in the Roman dungeon (2Ti 4:9-18).

11:28 {Besides those things that are without} (\chōris tōn
. Probably, "apart from those things beside these just
mentioned." Surely no man ever found glory in such a peck of
troubles as Paul has here recounted. His list should shame us all
today who are disposed to find fault with our lot. {That which
presseth upon me daily}
(\hē epistasis moi hē kath' hēmeran\).
For this vivid word \epistasis\ see Ac 24:12, the only other
place in the N.T. where it occurs. It is like the rush of a mob
upon Paul. {Anxiety for all the churches} (\hē merimna pasōn tōn
. Objective genitive after \merimna\ (distractions in
different directions, from \merizō\)
for which word see on ¯Mt
13:22. Paul had the shepherd heart. As apostle to the Gentiles
he had founded most of these churches.

11:29 {I burn} (\puroumai\). Present passive indicative of
\puroō\, old verb to inflame (from \pur\, fire). When a brother
stumbles, Paul is set on fire with grief.

11:30 {The things that concern my weakness} (\ta tēs astheneias
. Like the list above.

11:31 {I am not lying} (\ou pseudomai\). The list seems so absurd
and foolish that Paul takes solemn oath about it (cf. 1:23).
For the doxology see Ro 1:25; 9:5.

11:32 {The governor under Aretas} (\ho ethnarchēs Hareta\). How
it came to pass that Damascus, ruled by the Romans after B.C. 65,
came at this time to be under the rule of Aretas, fourth of the
name, King of the Nabatheans (II Macc. 5:8), we do not know.
There is an absence of Roman coins in Damascus from A.D. 34 to
62. It is suggested (Plummer) that Caligula, to mark his dislike
for Antipas, gave Damascus to Aretas (enemy of Antipas).
{Guarded} (\ephrourei\). Imperfect active of \phroureō\, old verb
(from \phrouros\, a guard) to guard by posting sentries. In Ac
9:24 we read that the Jews kept watch to seize Paul, but there
is no conflict as they cooperated with the guard set by Aretas at
their request. {To seize} (\piasai\). Doric first aorist active
infinitive of \piezō\ (Lu 6:38) for which see on ¯Ac 3:7.

11:33 {Through a window} (\dia thuridos\). For this late word see
on ¯Ac 20:9, the only N.T. example. {Was I let down}
(\echalasthēn\). First aorist passive of \chalaō\, the very word
used by Luke in Ac 9:25. {In a basket} (\en sarganēi\). Old
word for rope basket whereas Luke (Ac 9:25) has \en sphuridi\
(the word for the feeding of the 4,000 while \kophinos\ is the
one for the 5,000)
. This was a humiliating experience for Paul in
this oldest city of the world whither he had started as a
conqueror over the despised Christians.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(2 Corinthians: Chapter 11)