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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Timothy: Chapter 1)

1:1 {According to the commandment} (\kat' epitagēn\). A late
_Koinē_ word (Polybius, Diodorus), but a Pauline word also in
N.T. This very idiom ("by way of command") in 1Co 7:6; 2Co 8:8;
Ro 16:26; 1Ti 1:1; Tit 1:3. Paul means to say that he is an
apostle under orders. {Of God our Saviour} (\theou sōtēros
. Genitive case with \epitagēn\. In the LXX \sōtēr\ (old
word from \sōzō\ for agent in saving, applied to deities,
princes, kings, etc.)
occurs 20 times, all but two to God. The
Romans called the emperor "Saviour God." In the N.T. the
designation of God as Saviour is peculiar to Lu 1:47; Jude 1:25;
1Ti 1:3; 2:3; 4:10; Tit 1:3; 2:10; 3:4. In the other Epistles
Paul uses it of Christ (Php 3:20; Eph 5:23) as in 2Ti 1:10.
In 2Pe 1:1 we have "our God and Saviour Jesus Christ" as in
Tit 2:13. {Our hope} (\tēs elpidos hēmōn\). Like Col 1:27.
More than the author and object of hope, "its very substance and
foundation" (Ellicott).

1:2 {True} (\gnēsiōi\). Legitimate, not spurious. Old word from
\ginomai\, but Pauline only in N.T. (Php 4:3; 2Co 8:8; Tit
. In Php 2:20 the adverb \gnēsiōs\ occurs and of Timothy
again. {Christ Jesus} (\Christou Iēsou\). So twice already in
verse 1 and as usual in the later Epistles (Col 1:1; Eph

1:3 {As I exhorted} (\kathōs parekalesa\). There is an ellipse of
the principal clause in verse 4 ({so do I now} not being in the
. {To tarry} (\prosmeinai\). First aorist active infinitive
of \prosmenō\, old verb, attributed by Luke to Paul in Ac
13:43. {That thou mightest charge} (\hina paraggeilēis\).
Subfinal clause with \hina\ and the first aorist active
subjunctive of \paraggellō\, old verb, to transmit a message
along (\para\) from one to another. See 2Th 3:4,6,10. Lock
considers this idiom here an elliptical imperative like Eph
4:29; 5:33. {Certain men} (\tisin\). Dative case. Expressly
vague (no names as in 1:20), though Paul doubtless has certain
persons in Ephesus in mind. {Not to teach a different doctrine}
(\mē heterodidaskalein\). Earliest known use of this compound
like \kakodidaskalein\ of Clement of Rome. Only other N.T.
example in 6:3. Eusebius has \heterodidaskalos\. Same idea in
Ga 1:6; 2Co 11:4; Ro 16:17. Perhaps coined by Paul.

1:4 {To give heed} (\prosechein\). With \noun\ understood. Old
and common idiom in N.T. especially in Luke and Acts (Ac
. Not in Paul's earlier Epistles. 1Ti 3:8; 4:1,13; Tit
1:14. {To fables} (\muthois\). Dative case of old word for
speech, narrative, story, fiction, falsehood. In N.T. only 2Pe
1:16; 1Ti 1:4; 4:7; Tit 1:14; 2Ti 4:4. {Genealogies}
(\genealogiais\). Dative of old word, in LXX, in N.T. only here
and Tit 3:9. {Endless} (\aperantois\). Old verbal compound
(from \a\ privative and \perainō\, to go through), in LXX, only
here in N.T. Excellent examples there for old words used only in
the Pastorals because of the subject matter, describing the
Gnostic emphasis on aeons. {Questionings} (\ekzētēseis\).
"Seekings out." Late and rare compound from \ekzēteō\ (itself
_Koinē_ word, Ro 3:11 from LXX and in papyri)
. Here only in
N.T. Simplex \zētēsis\ in Ac 15:2; 1Ti 6:4; Tit 3:9; 2Ti 2:23.
{A dispensation} (\oikonomian\). Pauline word (1Co 9:17; Col
1:25; Eph 1:9; 3:9; 1Ti 1:4)
, Lu 16:2-4 only other N.T.
examples. {In faith} (\en pistei\). Pauline use of \pistis\.

1:5 {The end} (\to telos\). See Ro 6:21; 10:4 for \telos\ (the
good aimed at, reached, result, end)
. {Love} (\agapē\). Not
"questionings." Ro 13:9. "Three conditions for the growth of
love" (Parry): "Out of a pure heart" (\ek katharas kardias\, O.T.
, "and a good conscience" (\kai suneidēseōs agathēs\,
for which see Ro 2:25)
, "and faith unfeigned" (\kai pisteōs
anupokritou\, late compound verbal in 2Co 6:6; Ro 12:9)

1:6 {Having swerved} (\astochēsantes\). First aorist active
participle of \astocheō\, compound _Koinē_ verb (Polybius,
from \astochos\ (\a\ privative and \stochos\, a mark),
"having missed the mark." In N.T. only here, 6:21; 2Ti 2:18.
With the ablative case \hōn\ (which). {Have turned aside}
(\exetrapēsan\). Second aorist passive indicative of \ektrepō\,
old and common verb, to turn or twist out or aside. In medical
sense in Heb 12:13. As metaphor in 1Ti 1:6; 6:20; 2Ti 4:4.
{Vain talking} (\mataiologian\). Late word from \mataiologos\,
only here in N.T., in the literary _Koinē_.

1:7 {Teachers of the law} (\nomodidaskaloi\). Compound only in
N.T. (here, Lu 5:17; Ac 5:34) and ecclesiastical writers.
{Though they understand} (\noountes\). Concessive participle of
\noeō\, old verb (Eph 3:4,20). {Neither what} (\mēte ha\).
Relative \ha\ (which things). {Nor whereof} (\mēte peri tinōn\).
Here the interrogative \tinōn\ used in sense of relative \hōn\.
It may be regarded as the use of an indirect question for variety
(Parry). {They confidently affirm} (\diabebaiountai\). Present
middle indicative of the common _Koinē_ compound, in N.T. only
here and Tit 3:8.

1:8 {If a man use it lawfully} (\ean tis autōi chrētai\).
Condition of third class with \ean\ and present middle
subjunctive of \chraomai\ with instrumental case.

1:9 {Is not made for} (\ou keitai\). The use of \keitai\ for
\tetheitai\ (perfect passive of \tithēmi\) is a common enough
idiom. See the same point about law in Ga 18-23; Ro 13:13. For
"knowing this" (\eidōs touto\) see Eph 5:5. {Unruly}
(\anupotaktois\). Dative (like all these words) of the late
verbal (\a\ privative and \hupotassō\). In N.T. only here, Tit
1:6,10; Heb 2:8. {Ungodly} (\asebesi\). See Ro 4:5; 5:6.
{Sinners} (\hamartōlois\). See Ro 3:7. {Unholy} (\anosiois\).
Common word (\a\ privative and \hosios\. In N.T. only here and
2Ti 3:2)
. {Profane} (\bebēlois\). Old word from \bainō\, to go,
and \bēlos\, threshold. See Heb 12:16. {Murderers of fathers}
(\patrolōiais\). Late form for common Attic \patralōiais\ (from
\patēr\, father, and \aloiaō\, to smite)
only here in N.T.
{Murderers of mothers} (\mētrolōiais\). Late form Attic
\mētralōiais\. Only here in N.T. {Manslayers} (\andraphonois\).
Old compound (\anēr\, man, \phonos\, murder). Only here in N.T.

1:10 {For abusers of themselves with men} (\arsenokoitais\). Late
compound for sodomites. In N.T. only here and 1Co 6:9.
{Men-stealers} (\andrapodistais\). Old word from \andrapodizō\
(from \anēr\, man, \pous\, foot, to catch by the foot), to
enslave. So enslavers, whether kidnappers (men-stealers) of free
men or stealers of the slaves of other men. So slave-dealers. By
the use of this word Paul deals a blow at the slave-trade (cf.
. {Liars} (\pseustais\). Old word, see Ro 3:4. {False
(\epiorkois\). Old word (\epi, orkos\, oath).
Perjurers. Only here in N.T. For similar lists, see 1Co 5:11;
6:9f.; Ga 5:19f.; Ro 1:28f.; 13:13; Col 3:5; Eph 5:5; 2Ti 3:2f.
{The sound doctrine} (\tēi hugiainousēi didaskaliāi\). Dative
case after \antikeitai\, for which verb see Ga 5:17 for the
conflict between the Spirit and the flesh. "The healthful
(\hugiainō\, old word for being well, as Lu 5:31; 3Jo 1:2, in
figurative sense in N.T. only in the Pastorals)
teaching." See
Tit 1:9; 2Ti 4:3.

1:11 {Of the blessed God} (\tou makariou theou\). Applied to God
only here and 6:15, but in Tit 2:13 \makarios\ occurs with
\elpis\ (hope) of the "epiphany of our great God and Saviour
Jesus Christ." {Which was committed to my trust} (\ho episteuthēn
. "with which (\ho\ accusative retained with first aorist
passive verb \episteuthēn\)
I was entrusted."

1:12 {I thank} (\charin echō\). "I have gratitude to." Common
phrase (Lu 17:9), not elsewhere in Paul. {That enabled me}
(\tōi endunamōsanti me\). First aorist active articular
participle of \endunamoō\. Late verb, but regular Pauline idiom
(Ro 4:20; Php 4:13; Eph 6:10; 1Ti 1:12; 2Ti 4:17). {Appointing
me to his service}
(\themenos eis diakonian\). Second aorist
middle participle. Pauline phrase and atmosphere (Ac 20:24; 1Co
3:5; 12:18,28; 2Co 3:6; 4:1; Col 1:23; Eph. 3:7; 1Ti 4:6; 2Ti

1:13 {Before} (\to proteron\). Accusative of general reference of
the articular comparative, "as to the former-time," formerly, as
in Ga 4:13. {Though I was} (\onta\). Concessive participle
agreeing with \me\. {Blasphemer} (\blasphēmon\). Old word either
from \blax\ (stupid) and \phēmē\, speech, or from \blaptō\, to
injure. Rare in N.T. but Paul uses \blasphēmeō\, to blaspheme in
Ro 2:24. {Persecutor} (\diōktēs\). So far found only here.
Probably made by Paul from \diōkō\, which he knew well enough
(Ac 22:4,7; 26:14f.; Ga 1:13,23; Php 3:6; 2Ti 3:12).
{Injurious} (\hubristēn\). Substantive, not adjective, "an
insolent man." Old word from \hubrizō\, in N.T. only here and Ro
1:30. {I obtained mercy} (\eleēthēn\). First aorist passive
indicative of \eleeō\, old verb. See 2Co 4:1; Ro 11:30f.
{Ignorantly} (\agnoōn\). Present active participle of \agnoeō\,
"not knowing." Old verb (Ro 2:4). In a blindness of heart. {In
(\en apistiāi\). See Ro 11:20,25.

1:14 {Abounded exceedingly} (\huperepleonasen\). Aorist active
indicative of the late and rare (So 5:19 and in Herond.)
compound \huperpleonazō\ (here alone in N.T.), in later
ecclesiastical writers. The simplex \pleonazō\ Paul used in Ro
5:20; 6:1 and the kindred \hupereperisseusen\ used also with \hē
charis\. Paul is fond of compounds with \huper\. For "faith in
Christ Jesus" see Ga 3:26, for "faith and love in Christ Jesus"
as here, see 2Ti 1:13.

1:15 {Faithful is the saying} (\pistos ho logos\). Five times in
the Pastorals (1Ti 1:15; 3:1; 4:9; Tit 3:8; 2Ti 2:11). It will
pay to note carefully \pistis, pisteuō, pistos\. Same use of
\pistos\ (trustworthy) applied to \logos\ in Tit 1:9; Re 21:5;
22:6. Here and probably in 2Ti 2:11 a definite saying seems to
be referred to, possibly a quotation (\hoti\) of a current saying
quite like the Johannine type of teaching. This very phrase
(Christ coming into the world) occurs in Joh 9:37; 11:27; 16:28;
18:37. Paul, of course, had no access to the Johannine writings,
but such "sayings" were current among the disciples. There is no
formal quotation, but "the whole phrase implies a knowledge of
Synoptic and Johannine language" (Lock) as in Lu 5:32; Joh
12:47. {Acceptation} (\apodochēs\). Genitive case with \axios\
(worthy of). Late word (Polybius, Diod., Jos.) in N.T. only here
and 4:9. {Chief} (\prōtos\). Not \ēn\ (I was), but \eimi\ (I
. "It is not easy to think of any one but St. Paul as penning
these words" (White). In 1Co 15:9 he had called himself "the
least of the apostles" (\elachistos tōn apostolōn\). In Eph 3:8
he refers to himself as "the less than the least of all saints"
(\tōi elachistoterōi pantōn hagiōn\). On occasion Paul would
defend himself as on a par with the twelve apostles (Ga 2:6-10)
and superior to the Judaizers (2Co 11:5f.; 12:11). It is not
mock humility here, but sincere appreciation of the sins of his
life (cf. Ro 7:24) as a persecutor of the church of God (Ga
, of men and even women (Ac 22:4f.; 26:11). He had sad
memories of those days.

1:16 {In me as chief} (\en emoi prōtōi\). Probably starts with
the same sense of \prōtos\ as in verse 15 (rank), but turns to
order (first in line). Paul becomes the "specimen" sinner as an
encouragement to all who come after him. {Might shew forth}
(\endeixētai\). First aorist middle subjunctive (purpose with
of \endeiknumi\, to point out, for which see Eph 2:7
(same form with \hina\). {Longsuffering} (\makrothumian\). Common
Pauline word (2Co 6:6). {For an ensample} (\pros hupotupōsin\).
Late and rare word (in Galen, Sext. Emp., Diog. Laert., here only
in N.T.)
from late verb \hupotupoō\ (in papyri) to outline. So
substantive here is a sketch, rough outline. Paul is a sample of
the kind of sinners that Jesus came to save. See \hupodeigma\ in
2Pe 2:6.

1:17 This noble doxology is a burst of gratitude for God's grace
to Paul. For other doxologies see Ga 1:5; Ro 11:36; 16:27; Php
4:20; Eph 3:21; 1Ti 6:16. White suggests that Paul may have
often used this doxology in his prayers. Lock suggests "a Jewish
liturgical formula" (a needless suggestion in view of Paul's
wealth of doxologies seen above)
. For God's creative activity
(King of the ages) see 1Co 10:11; Eph 2:7; 3:9,11.
{Incorruptible} (\aphthartōi\). As an epithet of God also in Ro
1:23. {Invisible} (\aoratōi\). Epithet of God in Col 1:15.
{The only God} (\monōi theōi\). So Ro 16:27; Joh 5:44; 17:3.
{For ever and ever} (\eis tous aiōnas tōn aiōnōn\). "Unto the
ages of ages." Cf. Eph 3:21 "of the age of the ages."

1:18 {I commit} (\paratithemai\). Present middle indicative of
old and common verb, to place beside (\para\) as food on table,
in the middle to entrust (Lu 12:48) and used by Jesus as he was
dying (Lu 23:46). Here it is a banking figure and repeated in
2Ti 2:2. {According to the prophecies which went before on
(\kata tas proagousas epi se prophēteias\). Intransitive
use of \proagō\, to go before. When Timothy first comes before us
(Ac 16:2) "he was testified to" (\emartureito\) by the
brethren. He began his ministry rich in hopes, prayers,
predictions. {That by them thou mayest war the good warfare}
(\hina strateuēi en autais tēn kalēn strateian\). Cognate
accusative (\strateian\, old word from \strateuō\, in N.T. only
here and 2Co 4:4)
with \strateuēi\ (second person singular
middle present subjunctive of \strateuō\, old verb chiefly in
Paul in N.T., 1Co 9:7; 2Co 10:3)
. As if in defensive armour.

1:19 {Holding faith and a good conscience} (\echōn pistin kai
agathēn suneidēsin\)
. Possibly as a shield (Eph 6:16) or at any
rate possessing (Ro 2:20) faith as trust and a good conscience.
A leader expects them of his followers and must show them
himself. {Having thrust from them} (\apōsamenoi\). First aorist
indirect middle participle of \apōtheō\, to push away from one.
Old verb (see Ro 11:1f.). {Made shipwreck} (\enauagēsan\).
First aorist active indicative of \nauageō\, old verb from
\nauagos\ (shipwrecked, \naus\, ship, \agnumi\, to break), to
break a ship to pieces. In N.T. only here and 2Co 11:25.
{Concerning the faith} (\peri tēn pistin\). Rather, "concerning
their faith" (the article here used as a possessive pronoun, a
common Greek idiom)

1:20 {Hymenaeus} (\Humenaios\). The same heretic reappears in
2Ti 2:17. He and Alexander are the chief "wreckers" of faith in
Ephesus. {Alexander} (\Alexandros\). Probably the same as the one
in 2Ti 4:14, but not the Jew of that name in Ac 19:33, unless
he had become a Christian since then. {I delivered unto Satan}
(\paredōka tōi Satanāi\). See this very idiom (\paradounai tōi
in 1Co 5:5. It is a severe discipline of apostolic
authority, apparently exclusion and more than mere abandonment
(1Th 2:18; 1Co 5:11; 2Co 2:11), though it is an obscure matter.
{That they might be taught not to blaspheme} (\hina paideuthōsin
mē blasphēmein\)
. Purpose clause with \hina\ and first aorist
passive subjunctive of \paideuō\. For this use of this common
late verb, see 1Co 11:32; 2Co 6:9.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Timothy: Chapter 1)