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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Thessalonians: Chapter 3)

3:1 {When we could no longer forbear} (\mēketi stegontes\).
\Stegō\ is old verb to cover from \stegē\, roof (Mr 2:4), to
cover with silence, to conceal, to keep off, to endure as here
and 1Co 9:12; 13:7. In the papyri in this sense (Moulton and
Milligan's _Vocabulary_)
. \Mēketi\ usual negative with participle
in the _Koinē_ rather than \ouketi\. {We thought it good}
(\ēudokēsamen\). Either literary plural as in 2:18 or Paul and
Silas as more likely. If so, both Timothy and Silas came to
Athens (Ac 17:15f.), but Timothy was sent ({we sent},
\epempsamen\, verse 2)
right back to Thessalonica and later
Paul sent Silas on to Beroea or Thessalonica (verse 5, {I
, \epempsa\)
. Then both Silas and Timothy came from
Macedonia to Corinth (Ac 18:5). {Alone} (\monoi\). Including
Silas. {God's minister} (\diakonon tou theou\). See on ¯Mt 22:13
for this interesting word, here in general sense not technical
sense of deacon. Some MSS. have {fellow-worker} (\sunergon\).
Already {apostle} in 2:7 and now {brother, minister} (and
possibly {fellow-worker})

3:3 {That no man be moved} (\to mēdena sainesthai\). Epexegetical
articular infinitive in accusative case of general reference.
\Sainō\ is old word to wag the tail, to flatter, beguile and this
sense suits here (only N.T. example). The sense of "moved" or
troubled or disheartened is from \siainesthai\ the reading of F G
and found in the papyri. {We are appointed} (\keimetha\). Present
middle, used here as passive of \tithēmi\. We Christians are set
{hereunto} (\eis touto\) to be beguiled by tribulations. We must

3:4 {We told you beforehand} (\proelegomen humin\). Imperfect
active, we used to tell you beforehand. Old verb, rare in N.T.
(only in Paul). {That we are to suffer persecution} (\hoti
mellomen thlibesthai\)
. \Mellō\ and present passive infinitive.
Not mere prediction, but God's appointed will as it turned out in

3:5 {That I might know} (\eis to gnōnai\). Paul's common idiom
(verse 2), \eis to\ and the infinitive of purpose (second
aorist ingressive active of \ginōskō\, come to know)
. {Lest by
any means the tempter had tempted you}
(\mē pōs epeirasen humās
ho peirazōn\)
. Findlay takes this as a question with negative
answer, but most likely negative final clause with \mē pōs\ about
a past action with aorist indicative according to the classic
idiom as in Ga 2:2 (\mē pōs--edramon\) and Ga 4:11 after verb
of fearing (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 988). It is a fear that the
thing may turn out to be so about the past. {Should be}
(\genētai\). Here the usual construction appears (aorist
subjunctive with \mē pōs\)
about the future.

3:6 {Even now} (\arti\). Just now, Timothy having come
(\elthontos Timotheou\, genitive absolute). Why Silas is not
named is not clear, unless he had come from Beroea or elsewhere
in Macedonia. {Glad tidings of} (\euaggelisamenou\). First aorist
middle participle of the verb for evangelizing (gospelizing).
{Good remembrance} (\mneian\). Same word used by Paul 1:2.
{Longing to see us} (\epipothountes hēmās idein\). Old and strong
verb, \epi-\, directive, to long after. Mutual longing that
pleased Paul ("we also you").

3:7 {Over you} (\eph' humin\). \Epi\ with the locative, the basis
on which the "comfort" rests. {In} (\epi\). Locative case again
with \epi\. {Distress} (\anagkēi\). {Physical necessity}, common
sense in late Greek, choking (\agchō, angor\), and {crushing}
trouble (\thlipsis, thlibō\).

3:8 {If ye stand fast} (\ean humeis stēkete\). Condition of first
class, \ean\ and present active indicative (correct text, not
\stēkēte\ subj.)
of \stēkō\, late form from perfect \hestēka\ of
\histēmi\, to place.

3:9 {Render again unto God} (\tōi theōi antapodounai\). Second
aorist active infinitive of double compound verb \ant-apodidōmi\,
to give back (\apo\) in return for (\anti\). Old verb rare in
N.T., but again in 2Th 1:6. {For you} (\peri humōn\). Around
(concerning) you, while in verse 2 \huper\ (over is used for
"concerning your faith.")
{For} (\epi\). Basis again as cause or
ground for the joy. {Wherewith we joy} (\hēi chairomen\).
Probably cognate accusative \hēn\ with \chairomen\ attracted to
locative \charāi\ (Mt 2:10).

3:10 {Exceedingly} (\huperekperissou\). Double compound adverb,
only in 1Th 3:10; 5:13 (some MSS. \-ōs\). Like piling Ossa on
Pelion, \perissōs\, abundantly, \ek perissou\, out of bounds,
\huperekperissou\, more than out of bounds (overflowing all
. {And perfect} (\kai katartisai\). First aorist active
articular infinitive of purpose (\eis to idein--kai\) of
\katartizō\, to mend nets (Mt 4:21) or men (Ga 6:1) repair.
Chiefly late. {That which is lacking in} (\ta husterēmata\). The
shortcomings, the lacks or left-overs (Col 1:24). From
\hustereō\ (\husteron\), to be late.

3:11 {Our God and Father himself} (\autos ho theos kai patēr
. Note one article with both substantives for one person.
{And our Lord Jesus} (\kai ho Kurios hēmōn Iēsous\). Separate
article here with \Iēsous\. In Tit 2:13; 2Pe 1:1 only one
article (not two) treating "our God and Saviour Jesus Christ" as
one just like "our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ" in 2Pe 1:11;
2:20; 3:18. {Direct our way} (\kateuthunai tēn hodon hēmōn\).
First aorist optative (acute accent on penult, not circumflex
first aorist active infinitive)
of \kateuthunō\, old verb to make
straight path. Singular verb also, though both God and Christ
mentioned as subject (unity in the Godhead). Apart from \mē
genoito\ ({may it not come to pass}) the optative in a wish of
the third person is found in N.T. only in 1Th 3:11,12; 5:23; 2Th
2:17; 3:5,16; Ro 15:5,13.

3:12 {The Lord} (\ho Kurios\). The Lord Jesus. Paul prays to
Christ. {Make you to increase} (\humas pleonasai\). First aorist
active optative (wish for future) of \pleonazō\, late verb from
\pleon\ (more), {to superabound}. {And abound} (\perisseusai\).
First aorist active optative (wish for future) of \perisseuō\
from \perissos\, old verb, to be over (common in N.T.). It is
hard to see much difference between the two verbs.

3:13 {To the end he may stablish} (\eis to stērixai\). Another
example of \eis\ and the articular infinitive of purpose. Same
idiom in 3:2. From \stērizō\, from \stērigx\, a support.
{Unblameable} (\amemptous\). Old compound adjective (\a\
privative and verbal of \memphomai\, to blame)
. Rare in N.T.
Predicate position here. Second coming of Christ again.

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Thessalonians: Chapter 3)