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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Corinthians: Chapter 5)

5:1 {Actually} (\holōs\). Literally, wholly, altogether, like
Latin _omnino_ and Greek \pantōs\ (1Co 9:22). So papyri have it
for "really" and also for "generally" or "everywhere" as is
possible here. See also 6:7. With a negative it has the sense
of "not at all" as in 15:29; Mt 5:34 the only N.T. examples,
though a common word. {It is reported} (\akouetai\). Present
passive indicative of \akouō\, to hear; so literally, it is
heard. "Fornication is heard of among you." Probably the
household of Chloe (1:11) brought this sad news (Ellicott).
{And such} (\kai toiautē\). Climactic qualitative pronoun showing
the revolting character of this particular case of illicit sexual
intercourse. \Porneia\ is sometimes used (Ac 15:20,29) of such
sin in general and not merely of the unmarried whereas \moicheia\
is technically adultery on the part of the married (Mr 7:21).
{As is not even among the Gentiles} (\hētis oude en tois
. Height of scorn. The Corinthian Christians were
actually trying to win pagans to Christ and living more loosely
than the Corinthian heathen among whom the very word
"Corinthianize" meant to live in sexual wantonness and license.
See Cicero _pro Cluentio_, v. 14. {That one of you hath his
father's wife}
(\hōste gunaika tina tou patros echein\). "So as
(usual force of \hōste\) for one to go on having (\echein\,
present infinitive)
a wife of the (his) father." It was probably
a permanent union (concubine or mistress) of some kind without
formal marriage like Joh 4:8. The woman probably was not the
offender's mother (step-mother) and the father may have been dead
or divorced. The Jewish law prescribed stoning for this crime
(Le 18:8; 22:11; De 22:30). But the rabbis (Rabbi Akibah)
invented a subterfuge in the case of a proselyte to permit such a
relation. Perhaps the Corinthians had also learned how to split
hairs over moral matters in such an evil atmosphere and so to
condone this crime in one of their own members. Expulsion Paul
had urged in 2Th 3:6 for such offenders.

5:2 {And ye are puffed up} (\kai humeis pephusiōmenoi este\).
Emphatic position of \humeis\ (you). It may be understood as a
question. Perfect passive periphrastic indicative of the same
verb \phusioō\ used already of the partisans in Corinth
(4:6,19,20). Those of the same faction with this scoundrel
justified his rascality. {Did not rather mourn} (\kai ouchi
mallon epenthēsate\)
. Possibly question also and note strong
negative form \ouchi\, which favours it. The very least that they
could have done (\mallon\ rather than be puffed up) was to mourn
for shame (\pentheō\, old verb for lamentation) as if for one
dead. {That he might be taken away} (\hina arthēi\). The
sub-final use of \hina\ of desired result (1:15) so common in
the _Koinē_. First aorist passive subjunctive of \airō\, to lift
up, to carry off. Decent self-respect should have compelled the
instant expulsion of the man instead of pride in his rascality.

5:3 {For I verily} (\egō men gar\). Emphatic statement of Paul's
own attitude of indignation, \egō\ in contrast with \humeis\. He
justifies his demand for the expulsion of the man. {Being absent}
(\apōn\) Although absent (concessive participle) and so of
\parōn\ though present. Each with locative case (\tōi sōmati, tōi
. {Have already judged} (\ēdē kekrika\). Perfect active
indicative of \krinō\. I have already decided or judged, as
though present (\hōs parōn\). Paul felt compelled to reach a
conclusion about the case and in a sentence of much difficulty
seems to conceive an imaginary church court where the culprit has
been tried and condemned. There are various ways of punctuating
the clauses in this sentence in verses 3-5. It is not merely
Paul's individual judgment. The genitive absolute clause in verse
4, {ye being gathered together} (\sunachthentōn humōn\, first
aorist passive participle of \sunagō\, in regular assembly)
my spirit}
(\kai tou emou pneumatos\) with the assembly (he
{and meeting in the name of our Lord Jesus} (\en tōi
onomati tou Kuriou [hēmōn] Iēsou\)
with the power of the Lord
Jesus (\sun tēi dunamei tou Kuriou hēmōn Iēsou\), though this
clause can be taken with the infinitive to deliver
(\paradounai\). It makes good syntax and sense taken either way.
The chief difference is that, if taken with "gathered together"
(\sunachthentōn\) Paul assumes less apostolic prerogative to
himself. But he did have such power and used it against Elymas
(Ac 13:8ff.) as Peter did against Ananias and Sapphira (Ac

5:5 {To deliver such an one unto Satan} (\paradounai ton toiouton
tōi Satanāi\)
. We have the same idiom in 1Ti 1:20 used of
Hymenius and Alexander. In 2Co 12:7 Paul speaks of his own
physical suffering as a messenger (\aggelos\) of Satan. Paul
certainly means expulsion from the church (verse 2) and
regarding him as outside of the commonwealth of Israel (Eph
. But we are not to infer that expulsion from the local
church means the damnation of the offender. The wilful offenders
have to be expelled and not regarded as enemies, but admonished
as brothers (2Th 3:14f.). {For the destruction of the flesh}
(\eis olethron tēs sarkos\). Both for physical suffering as in
the case of Job (Job 2:6) and for conquest of the fleshly sins,
remedial punishment. {That the spirit may be saved} (\hina to
pneuma sōthēi\)
. The ultimate purpose of the expulsion as
discipline. Note the use of \to pneuma\ in contrast with \sarx\
as the seat of personality (cf. 3:15). Paul's motive is not
merely vindictive, but the reformation of the offender who is not
named here nor in 2Co 2:5-11 if the same man is meant, which is
very doubtful. The final salvation of the man in the day of
Christ is the goal and this is to be attained not by condoning
his sin.

5:6 {Not good} (\ou kalon\). Not beautiful, not seemly, in view
of this plague spot, this cancer on the church. They needed a
surgical operation at once instead of boasting and pride (puffed
. \Kauchēma\ is the thing gloried in. {A little leaven
leaveneth the whole lump}
(\mikra zumē holon to phurama zumoi\).
This proverb occurs _verbatim_ in Ga 5:9. \Zumē\ (leaven) is a
late word from \zeō\, to boil, as is \zumoō\, to leaven. The
contraction is regular (\-oei=oi\) for the third person singular
present indicative. See the parables of Jesus for the pervasive
power of leaven (Mt 13:33). Some of the members may have argued
that one such case did not affect the church as a whole, a
specious excuse for negligence that Paul here answers. The
emphasis is on the "little" (\mikra\, note position). Lump
(\phurama\ from \phuraō\, to mix, late word, in the papyri mixing
a medical prescription)
is a substance mixed with water and
kneaded like dough. Compare the pervasive power of germs of
disease in the body as they spread through the body.

5:7 {Purge out} (\ekkatharate\). First aorist (effective) active
imperative of \ekkathairō\, old verb to cleanse out (\ek\), to
clean completely. Aorist tense of urgency, do it now and do it
effectively before the whole church is contaminated. This turn to
the metaphor is from the command to purge out the old (\palaian\,
now old and decayed)
leaven before the passover feast (Ex
12:15f.; 13:7; Zep 1:12)
. Cf. modern methods of disinfection
after a contagious disease. {A new lump} (\neon phurama\). Make a
fresh start as a new community with the contamination removed.
\Neos\ is the root for \neaniskos\, a young man, not yet old
(\gēraios\). So new wine (\oinon neon\ Mt 9:17). \Kainos\ is
fresh as compared with the ancient (\palaios\). See the
distinction in Col 3:10; Eph 4:22ff.; 2Co 5:17. {Unleavened}
(\azumoi\). Without (\a\ privative) leaven, the normal and ideal
state of Christians. Rare word among the ancients (once in
. They are a new creation (\kainē ktisis\), "exemplifying
Kant's maxim that you should treat a man as if he were what you
would wish him to be" (Robertson and Plummer). {For our passover
also hath been sacrificed, even Christ}
(\kai gar to pascha hēmōn
etuthē Christos\)
. First aorist passive indicative of \thuō\, old
verb to sacrifice. Euphony of consonants, \th\ to \t\ because of
\-thē\. Reference to the death of Christ on the Cross as the
Paschal Lamb (common use of \pascha\ as Mr 14:12; Lu 22:7), the
figure used long before by the Baptist of Jesus (Joh 1:29).
Paul means that the Lamb was already slain on Calvary and yet you
have not gotten rid of the leaven.

5:8 {Wherefore let us keep the feast} (\hōste heortazōmen\).
Present active subjunctive (volitive). Let us keep on keeping the
feast, a perpetual feast (Lightfoot), and keep the leaven out. It
is quite possible that Paul was writing about the time of the
Jewish passover, since it was before pentecost (1Co 16:8). But,
if so, that is merely incidental, and his language here is not a
plea for the observance of Easter by Christians. {With the leaven
of malice and wickedness}
(\en zumēi kakias kai ponērias\).
Vicious disposition and evil deed. {With the unleavened bread of
sincerity and truth}
(\en azumois eilikrinias kai alētheias\). No
word for "bread." The plural of \azumois\ may suggest "elements"
or "loaves." \Eilikrinia\ (sincerity) does not occur in the
ancient Greek and is rare in the later Greek. In the papyri it
means probity in one example. The etymology is uncertain. Boisacq
inclines to the notion of \heilē\ or \helē\, sunlight, and
\krinō\, to judge by the light of the sun, holding up to the
light. \Alētheia\ (truth) is a common word from \alēthēs\ (true)
and this from \a\ privative and \lēthō\ (\lathein, lanthanō\, to
conceal or hide)
and so unconcealed, not hidden. The Greek idea
of truth is out in the open. Note Ro 1:18 where Paul pictures
those who are holding down the truth in unrighteousness.

5:9 {I wrote unto you in my epistle} (\egrapsa humin en tēi
. Not the epistolary aorist, but a reference to an
epistle to the Corinthians earlier than this one (our First
, one not preserved to us. What a "find" it would be
if a bundle of papyri in Egypt should give it back to us? {To
have no company with fornicators}
(\mē sunanamignusthai
. Present middle infinitive with \mē\ in an indirect
command of a late double compound verb used in the papyri to mix
up with (\sun-ana-mignusthai\, a \mi\ verb). It is in the N.T.
only here and verse 11; 2Th 3:14 which see. It is used here
with the associative instrumental case (\pornois\, from \peraō,
pernēmi\, to sell, men and women who sell their bodies for lust)
It is a pertinent question today how far modern views try to put
a veneer over the vice in men and women.

5:10 {Not altogether} (\ou pantōs\). Not absolutely, not in all
circumstances. Paul thus puts a limitation on his prohibition and
confines it to members of the church. He has no jurisdiction over
the outsiders (this world, \tou kosmou toutou\). {The covetous}
(\tois pleonektais\). Old word for the over-reachers, those
avaricious for more and more (\pleon, echō\, to have more). In
N.T. only here, 6:10; Eph 5:5. It always comes in bad company
(the licentious and the idolaters) like the modern gangsters who
form a combination of liquor, lewdness, lawlessness for money and
power. {Extortioners} (\harpaxin\). An old adjective with only
one gender, rapacious (Mt 7:15; Lu 18:11), and as a substantive
robber or extortioner (here and 6:10). Bandits, hijackers,
grafters they would be called today. {Idolaters}
(\eidōlolatrais\). Late word for hirelings (\latris\) of the
idols (\eidōlon\), so our very word idolater. See 6:9; 10:7; Eph
5:5; Re 21:8; 22:15. Nageli regards this word as a Christian
formation. {For then must ye needs} (\epei ōpheilete oun\). This
neat Greek idiom of \epei\ with the imperfect indicative
(\ōpheilete\, from \opheilō\, to be under obligation) is really
the conclusion of a second-class condition with the condition
unexpressed (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 965). Sometimes \an\ is
used also as in Heb 10:2, but with verbs of obligation or
necessity \an\ is usually absent as here (cf. Heb 9:20). The
unexpressed condition here would be, "if that were true"
(including fornicators, the covetous, extortioners, idolaters of
the outside world)
. \Ara\ means in that case.

5:11 {But now I write unto you} (\nun de egrapsa humin\). This is
the epistolary aorist referring to this same epistle and not to a
previous one as in verse 9. As it is (when you read it) I did
write unto you. {If any man that is named a brother be} (\ean tis
adelphos onomazomenos ēi\)
. Condition of the third class, a
supposable case. {Or a reviler or a drunkard} (\ē loidoros ē
. \Loidoros\ occurs in Euripides as an adjective and in
later writings. In N.T. only here and 6:10. For the verb see
1Co 4:12. \Methusos\ is an old Greek word for women and even
men (cf. \paroinos\, of men, 1Ti 3:3). In N.T. only here and
6:10. Cf. Ro 13:13. Deissmann (_Light from the Ancient East_,
p. 316)
gives a list of virtues and vices on counters for Roman
games that correspond remarkably with Paul's list of vices here
and in 6:10. Chrysostom noted that people in his day complained
of the bad company given by Paul for revilers and drunkards as
being men with more "respectable" vices! {With such a one, no,
not to eat}
(\tōi toioutōi mēde sunesthiein\). Associative
instrumental case of \toioutōi\ after \sunesthiein\, "not even to
eat with such a one." Social contacts with such "a brother" are

5:12 {For what have I to do?} (\ti gar moi;\). "For what is it to
me (dative) to judge those without (\tous exo\)?" They are
outside the church and not within Paul's jurisdiction. God passes
judgment on them.

5:13 {Put away the wicked man} (\exarate ton ponēron\). By this
quotation from De 17:7 Paul clinches the case for the expulsion
of the offender (5:2). Note \ex\ twice and effective aorist

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Word Pictures in the New Testament
(1 Corinthians: Chapter 5)