Note 040
From Chapter 49 of the Decline & Fall

Yet Leo was undoubtedly comprised in the

si quis .... imaginum sacrarum .... destructor .... extiterit, sit extorris a cor pore D. N. Jesu Christi vel totius ecclesiae unitate.

The canonists may decide whether the guilt or the name constitutes the excommunication; and the decision is of the last importance to their safety, since, according to the oracle (Gratian, Caus. xxiii. q. 5, 47, apud Spanheim, Hist. Imag. p. 112)

homicidas non esse qui excommunicatos trucidant.
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