Ro 8:1
8:1 [There is] {1} therefore now no condemnation to them which
    are in Christ Jesus, who {2} walk not after the {a} flesh,
    but after the Spirit.

 (1) A conclusion of all the former discussion, from Ro 1:16
     to this verse: seeing that we, being justified by faith
     in Christ, obtain remission of sins and imputation of
     righteousness, and are also sanctified, it follows from
     this that those who are grafted into Christ by faith, need
     have no fear of condemnation.
 (2) The fruits of the Spirit, or effects of sanctification,
     which are begun in us, do not ingraft us into Christ, but
     declare that we are grafted into him.
     (a) Do not follow the flesh as their guide: for he is not
         said to live after the flesh that has the Holy Spirit
         for his guide, even though he sometimes takes a step
         off of the path.

Ro 8:2
8:2 {3} For the {b} law of the Spirit of {c} life in {d} Christ
    Jesus hath {e} made me free from the law of sin and death.

 (3) A preventing of an objection: seeing that the power of the
     Spirit is in us is so weakly, how may we gather by this
     that there is no condemnation for those that have that
     power?  Because, he says, that power of the life-giving
     Spirit which is so weak in us, is most perfect and most
     mighty in Christ, and being imputed to us who believe,
     causes us to be thought of as though there were no relics
     of corruption and death in us.  Therefore until now Paul
     reasons of remission of sins, and imputation of fulfilling
     the Law, and also of sanctification which is begun in us:
     but now he speaks of the perfect imputation of Christ's
     manhood, which part was necessarily required for the full
     appeasing of our consciences: for our sins are destroyed by
     the blood of Christ, and the guiltiness of our corruption
     is covered with the imputation of Christ's obedience, and
     the corruption itself (which the apostle calls sinful sin)
     is healed in us little by little, by the gift of
     sanctification: but yet it is not complete, in that it
     still lacks another remedy, that is, the perfect
     sanctification of Christ's own flesh, which is also imputed
     to us.
     (b) The power and authority of the Spirit, against which is
         set the tyranny of sin.
     (c) Which kills the old man, and brings the new man to
     (d) That is, absolutely and perfectly.
     (e) For Christ's sanctification being imputed to us
         perfects our sanctification which is begun in us.

Ro 8:3
8:3 {4} For what the law {f} could not do, in that it was weak
    through the {g} flesh, God sending his own Son in the
    likeness of {h} sinful flesh, and for {i} sin, {k} condemned
    sin in the flesh:

 (4) He does not use an argument here, but expounds the mystery
     of sanctification, which is imputed to us: because, he
     says, the power of the law was not such (and that by reason
     of the corruption of our nature) that it could make man
     pure and perfect, and because it rather kindled the flame
     of sin than put it out and extinguish it, therefore God
     clothed his Son with flesh just like our sinful flesh, in
     which he utterly abolished our corruption, that being
     accounted thoroughly pure and without fault in him,
     apprehended and laid hold of by faith, we might be found to
     fully have the singular perfection which the law requires,
     and therefore that there might be no condemnation in us.
     (f) Which is not the fault of the law, but is due to our
     (g) In man when he is not born again, whose disease the
         law could point out, but it could not heal it.
     (h) Of man's nature which is corrupt through sin, until
         Christ sanctified it.
     (i) To abolish sin in our flesh.
     (k) Showed that sin has no right to be in us.

Ro 8:4
8:4 That the {l} righteousness of the law might be fulfilled {5}
    in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.

    (l) The very substance of the law of God might be fulfilled,
        or that same which the law requires, that we may be
        found just before God: for if with our justification
        there is joined that sanctification which is imputed to
        us, we are just, according to the perfect form which the
        Lord requires.
 (5) He returns to that which he said, that the sanctification
     which is begun in us is a sure testimony of our ingrafting
     into Christ, which is a most plentiful fruit of a godly and
     honest life.

Ro 8:5
8:5 {6} For they that are after the {m} flesh do mind the things
    of the flesh; but they that are after the Spirit the things
    of the Spirit.

 (6) A reason why walking after the flesh does not agree to
     those who are grafted into Christ, but to walk after the
     Spirit agrees and is proper for them: because, he says,
     those who are after the flesh savour the things of the
     flesh, but those who are after the Spirit, the things of
     the Spirit.
     (m) They that live as the flesh leads them.

Ro 8:6
8:6 {7} For to be carnally minded [is] death; but to be
    spiritually minded [is] life and peace.

 (7) He demonstrates what follows from his argument: because
     whatever the flesh savours, that brings about death: and
     whatever the Spirit savours, that is conducive to joy and
     everlasting life.

Ro 8:7
8:7 {8} Because the carnal mind [is] enmity against God: {9} for
    it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.

 (8) A reason and proof why the wisdom of the flesh is death:
     because, he says, it is the enemy of God.
 (9) A reason why the wisdom of the flesh is enmity to God,
     because it neither wants to nor can be subject to him, and
     by flesh he means a man that is not regenerated.

Ro 8:8
8:8 {10} So then they that are in the flesh cannot please God.

 (10) The conclusion.  Therefore they that walk after the flesh
      cannot please God: by which it follows that they are not
      grafted into Christ.

Ro 8:9
8:9 {11} But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so
    be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have
    not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his.

 (11) He addresses the others, that is, those who walk after the
      Spirit, of whom we have to understand contrary things to
      the former: and first of all, he defines what it is to be
      in the Spirit, or to be sanctified: that is, to have the
      Spirit of God dwelling in us.  Then he declares that
      sanctification is so joined and knit to our grafting into
      Christ, that it can by no means be separated.

Ro 8:10
8:10 {12} And if Christ [be] in you, the {n} body [is] dead
     because of sin; but the Spirit [is] life because of

 (12) He confirms the faithful against the relics of flesh and
      sin, granting that these things are yet (as appears by the
      corruption which is in them) having effects on one of
      their parts (which he calls the body, that is to say, a
      lump) which is not yet purged from this earthly filthiness
      in death: but in addition not wanting to doubt at all of
      the happy success of this combat, because even this little
      spark of the Spirit (that is, of the grace of
      regeneration), which is evidently in them as appears by
      the fruits of righteousness, is the seed of life.
      (n) The flesh, or all that which as yet remains fast in
          the grips of sin and death.

Ro 8:11
8:11 {13} But if the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the
     dead dwell in you, he that raised up Christ from the dead
     shall also quicken your mortal bodies by his Spirit that
     {o} dwelleth in you.

 (13) A confirmation of the former sentence.  You have the very
      same Spirit which Christ has: therefore at length he will
      do the same in you, that he did in Christ, that is, when
      all infirmities being utterly laid aside, and death
      overcome, he will clothe you with heavenly glory.
      (o) By the strength and power of him, who showed the same
          might first in our head, and daily works in his

Ro 8:12
8:12 {14} Therefore, brethren, we are debtors, not to the flesh,
     to live after the flesh.

 (14) An exhortation to oppress the flesh daily more and more by
      the power of the Spirit of regeneration, because (he says)
      you are debtors to God, in that you have received so many
      benefits from him.

Ro 8:13
8:13 {15} For if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die: but if
     ye through the Spirit do mortify the deeds of the body, ye
     shall live.

 (15) Another reason for the profit that follows: for those who
      battle and fight valiantly will have everlasting life.

Ro 8:14
8:14 {16} For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are
     the sons of God.

 (16) A confirmation of this reason: for they are the children
      of God who are governed by his Spirit, therefore they will
      have everlasting life.

Ro 8:15
8:15 {17} For ye have not received the {p} spirit of bondage
     again {q} to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of {r}
     adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father.

 (17) He declares and expounds (as an aside) in these two verses
      by what right this name, to be called the children of God,
      is given to the believers: and it is because, he says,
      they have received the grace of the gospel, in which God
      shows himself, not (as before in the proclaiming of the
      law) terrible and fearful, but a most gentle and loving
      Father in Christ, so that with great boldness we call him
      Father, the Holy Spirit sealing this adoption in our
      hearts by faith.
      (p) By the "Spirit" is meant the Holy Spirit whom we are
          said to receive, when he works in our minds.
      (q) Which fear the Spirit stirred up in our minds by the
          preaching of the law.
      (r) Who seals our adoption in our minds, and therefore
          opens our mouths.

Ro 8:17
8:17 {18} And if children, then {s} heirs; heirs of God, and
     joint-heirs with Christ; {19} if so be that we suffer with
     [him], that we may be also glorified together.

 (18) A proof of what follows from the confirmation: because
      he who is the son of God enjoys God with Christ.
      (s) Partakers of our Father's goods, and that freely,
          because we are children by adoption.
 (19) Now Paul teaches by what way the sons of God come to that
      happiness, that is, by the cross, as Christ himself did:
      and in addition declares to them fountains of comfort:
      firstly, that we have Christ a companion and associate of
      our afflictions: secondly, that we will also be his
      companions in everlasting glory.

Ro 8:18
8:18 {20} For I {t} reckon that the sufferings of this present
     time [are] not worthy [to be compared] with the glory which
     shall be revealed in us.

 (20) Thirdly, that this glory which we look for surpasses a
      thousand times the misery of our afflictions.
      (t) All being well considered, I gather.

Ro 8:19
8:19 {21} For the earnest expectation of the {u} creature
     waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God.

 (21) Fourthly, he plainly teaches us that we will certainly be
      renewed from that confusion and horrible deformation of
      the whole world, which cannot be continual, as it was not
      this way at the beginning: but as it had a beginning by
      the sin of man, for whom it was made by the ordinance of
      God, so will it at length be restored with the elect.
      (u) All this world.

Ro 8:20
8:20 For the creature was made subject to {x} vanity, not {y}
     willingly, but by reason {z} of him who hath subjected [the
     same] in {a} hope,

     (x) Is subject to a vanishing and disappearing state.
     (y) Not by their natural inclination.
     (z) That they should obey the Creator's commandment, whom
         it pleased to show by their sickly state, how greatly
         he was displeased with man.
     (a) God would not make the world subject to be cursed
         forever because of the sin of man, but gave it hope
         that it would be restored.

Ro 8:21
8:21 Because the creature itself also shall be delivered from
     the {b} bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of
     the children of God.

     (b) From the corruption which they are now subject to, they
         will be delivered and changed into the blessed state of
         incorruption, which will be revealed when the sons of
         God will be advanced to glory.

Ro 8:22
8:22 For we know that the whole creation groaneth and {c}
     travaileth in pain together until now.

     (c) By this word is meant not only exceeding sorrow, but
         also the fruit that follows from it.

Ro 8:23
8:23 {22} And not only [they], but ourselves also, which have
     the firstfruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan
     within {d} ourselves, waiting for the adoption, [to wit],
     {e} the redemption of our body.

 (22) Fifthly, if the rest of the world looks for a restoring,
      groaning as it were for it and that not in vain, let us
      also sigh, indeed, let us be more certainly persuaded of our
      redemption to come, for we already have the first fruits
      of the Spirit.
      (d) Even from the bottom of our hearts.
      (e) The last restoring, which will be the accomplishment
          of our adoption.

Ro 8:24
8:24 {23} For we are saved by hope: but {f} hope that is seen is
     not hope: for what a man seeth, why doth he yet hope for?

 (23) Sixthly, hope is necessarily joined with faith: seeing
      then that we believe those things which we are not yet in
      possession of, and hope does not refer to the thing that
      is present, we must therefore hope and patiently wait for
      that which we believe will come to pass.
      (f) This is spoken by the figure of speech metonymy, that
          is, "hope", which stands for that which is hoped for.

Ro 8:26
8:26 {24} Likewise the Spirit also {g} helpeth our infirmities:
     for we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but
     the Spirit itself maketh {h} intercession for us with
     groanings which cannot be uttered.

 (24) Seventhly, there is no reason why we should faint under
      the burden of afflictions, seeing that prayers minister to
      us a most sure help: which cannot be frustrated, seeing
      that they proceed from the Spirit of God who dwells in us.
      (g) Bears our burden, as it were, so that we do not faint
          under it.
      (h) Incites us to pray, and tells us as it were within,
          what we will say, and how we will speak.

Ro 8:27
8:27 And he that searcheth the hearts knoweth what [is] the {i}
     mind of the Spirit, because he maketh intercession for the
     saints {k} according to [the will of] God.

     (i) What sighs and sobs proceed from the impulse of his
     (k) Because he teaches the godly to pray according to God's

Ro 8:28
8:28 {25} And we know that {l} all things work together for good
     to them that love God, to them who are the called according
     to [his] {m} purpose.

 (25) Eighthly, we are not afflicted, either by chance or to our
      harm, but by God's providence for our great profit: who as
      he chose us from the beginning, so has he predestined us
      to be made similar to the image of his Son: and therefore
      will bring us in his time, being called and justified, to
      glory, by the cross.
      (l) Not only afflictions, but whatever else.
      (m) He calls that "purpose" which God has from everlasting
          appointed with himself, according to his good will and

Ro 8:30
8:30 Moreover whom he did {n} predestinate, them he also called:
     and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he
     justified, them he also glorified.

     (n) He uses the past tense for the present time, as the
         Hebrews use, who sometimes describe something that is
         to come by using the past tense, to signify the
         certainty of it: and he also is referring to God's
         continual working.

Ro 8:31
8:31 {26} What shall we then say to these things? If God [be]
     for us, who [can be] against us?

 (26) Ninethly, we have no reason to fear that the Lord will not
      give us whatever is profitable for us, seeing that he has
      not spared his own Son to save us.

Ro 8:32
8:32 He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us
     all, how shall he not with him also freely {o} give us all

     (o) Give us freely.

Ro 8:33
8:33 {27} Who shall lay any thing to the charge of God's elect?
     [It is] {p} God that justifieth.

 (27) A most glorious and comfortable conclusion of the whole
      second part of this epistle, that is of the treatise of
      justification.  There are no accusers that we have need to
      be afraid of before God, seeing that God himself absolves
      us as just: and therefore much less need we to fear
      damnation, seeing that we rest upon the death and
      resurrection, the almighty power and defence of Jesus
      Christ.  Therefore what can there be so weighty in this
      life, or of so great force and power, that might cause us
      to fear, as though we might fall from the love of God,
      with which he loves us in Christ?  Surely nothing, seeing
      that it is in itself most constant and sure, and also in
      us being confirmed by steadfast faith.
      (p) Who pronounces us not only guiltless, but also
          perfectly just in his Son.

Ro 8:35
8:35 Who shall separate us from the love of {q} Christ? [shall]
     tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or
     nakedness, or peril, or sword?

     (q) With which Christ loves us.

Ro 8:37
8:37 {r} Nay, in all these things we are more than conquerors
     through him that loved us.

     (r) We not only overcome so great and many miseries and
         calamities, but are also more than conquerors in all of