Jas 4:1
4:1 From {1} whence [come] wars and fightings among you? [come
    they] not hence, [even] of your lusts that war in your

 (1) He advances the same argument, condemning certain other
     causes of wars and contentions, that is, unbridled
     pleasures and uncontrolled lusts, by their effects, for
     so much as the Lord does worthily make them come to no
     effect, so that they bring nothing to them in whom they
     reside, but incurable torments.

Jas 4:2
4:2 Ye lust, and have not: ye kill, and desire to have, and
    cannot obtain: ye fight and war, yet ye have not, {2}
    because ye ask not.

 (2) He reprehends them by name, who are not ashamed to make God
     the minister and helper of their lusts and pleasures, in
     asking things which are either in themselves unlawful or
     being lawful, ask for them out of wicked motives and uses.

Jas 4:4
4:4 {3} Ye adulterers and adulteresses, know ye not that the
    friendship of the world is enmity with God? whosoever
    therefore will be a friend of the world is the enemy of God.

 (3) Another reason why such unbridled lusts and pleasures are
     utterly to be condemned, that is, because he who gives
     himself to the world divorces himself from God, and breaks
     the band of that holy and spiritual marriage.

Jas 4:5
4:5 {4} Do ye think that the scripture saith in vain, The spirit
    that dwelleth in us lusteth to envy?

 (4) The taking away of an objection: in deed our minds run
     headlong into these vices, but we ought so much the more
     diligently take heed of them: whose care and study shall
     not be in vain, seeing that God resists the stubborn and
     gives the grace to the modest and humble that surmounts all
     those vices.

Jas 4:7
4:7 {5} Submit yourselves therefore to God. Resist the devil,
    and he will flee from you.

 (5) The conclusion: We must set the positive virtues against
     those vices, and therefore whereas we obeyed the
     suggestions of the devil, we must submit our minds to God
     and resist the devil with a certain and assured hope of
     victory. In short, we must endeavour to come near to God by
     purity and sincerity of life.

Jas 4:9
4:9 {6} Be afflicted, and mourn, and weep: let your laughter be
    turned to mourning, and [your] joy to {a} heaviness.

 (6) He goes on in the same comparison of opposites, and
     contrasts those profane joys with an earnest sorrow of
     mind, and pride and arrogancy with holy modesty.
    (a) By this word the Greeks mean a heaviness joined with
        shamefacedness, which is to be seen in a cast down
        countenance, and settled as it were upon the ground.

Jas 4:11
4:11 {7} Speak not evil one of another, brethren. He that
     speaketh evil of [his] brother, and judgeth his brother,
     speaketh evil of the law, and judgeth the law: but if thou
     judge the law, thou art not a doer of the law, but a judge.

 (7) He reprehends most sharply another double mischief of
     pride. The one is, in that the proud and arrogant will have
     other men to live according to their will and pleasure.
     Therefore they do most arrogantly condemn whatever does not
     please them: which cannot be done without great injury to
     our only lawmaker. For through this his laws are found
     fault with, as not carefully enough written, and men
     challenge that to themselves which properly belongs to God
     alone, in that they lay a law upon men's consciences.

Jas 4:13
4:13 {8} Go to now, ye that say, To day or to morrow we will go
     into such a city, and continue there a year, and buy and
     sell, and get gain:

 (8) The other fault is this: That men do so confidently
     determine on these and those matters and businesses, as
     though every moment of their life did not depend on God.

Jas 4:17
4:17 {9} Therefore to him that knoweth to do good, and doeth
     [it] not, to him it is sin.

 (9) The conclusion of all the former treatise.  The knowledge
     of the will of God does not only not at all profit, unless
     the life be answerable unto it, but also makes the sins far
     more grievous.