Ho 1:1
1:1 The word of the LORD that came unto Hosea, the son of Beeri,
    in the days {a} of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, [and] Hezekiah, {b}
    kings of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of
    Joash, king of Israel.

  The Argument - After the ten tribes had fallen away from God
    by the wicked and subtle counsel of Jeroboam, the son of
    Neba, and instead of his true service commanded by his word,
    worshipped him according to their own imaginings and
    traditions of men, giving themselves to most vile idolatry
    and superstition, the Lord from time to time sent them
    Prophets to call them to repentance.  But they grew even
    worse and worse, and still abused God's benefits.  Therefore
    now when their prosperity was at the highest under
    Jeroboam, the son of Joash, God sent Hosea and Amos to the
    Israelites (as he did at the same time send Isaiah and Micah
    to those of Judah) to condemn them for their ingratitude.
    And whereas they thought themselves to be greatly in the
    favour of God, and to be his people, the Prophet calls them
    bastards and children born in adultery: and therefore shows
    them that God would take away their kingdom, and give them
    to the Assyrians to be led away captives.  Thus Hosea
    faithfully executed his office for the space of seventy
    years, though they remained still in their vices and
    wickedness and derided the Prophets, and condemned God's
    judgments.  And because they would neither be discouraged
    with threatening only, nor should they flatter themselves by
    the sweetness of God's promises, he sets before them the two
    principal parts of the Law, which are the promise of
    salvation, and the doctrine of life.  For the first part he
    directs the faithful to the Messiah, by whom alone they
    would have true deliverance: and for the second, he uses
    threatenings and menaces to bring them from their wicked
    manners and vices: and this is the chief scope of all the
    Prophets, either by God's promises to allure them to be
    godly, or else by threatenings of his judgments to scare
    them from vice.  And even though the whole Law contains
    these two points, yet the Prophets moreover note distinctly
    both the time of God's judgments and the manner.
    (a) Also called Azariah, who being a leper was disposed from
        his kingdom.
    (b) So that it may be gathered by the reign of these four
        kings that he preached about eighty years.

Ho 1:2
1:2 The beginning of the word of the LORD by Hosea. And the LORD
    said to Hosea, Go, take unto thee a wife {c} of whoredoms
    and children of whoredoms: for the land hath committed great
    whoredom, [departing] from the LORD.

    (c) That is, one that has been a harlot for a long time: not
        that the Prophet did this thing in effect, but he saw
        this in a vision, or else was commanded by God to set
        forth under this parable or figure the idolatry of the
        Synagogue, and of the people her children.

Ho 1:3
1:3 So he went and took {d} Gomer the daughter of Diblaim; which
    conceived, and bare him a son.

    (d) Gomer signifies a consumption or corruption, and rotten
        clusters of figs, declaring that they were all corrupt
        like rotten figs.

Ho 1:4
1:4 And the LORD said unto him, Call his name {e} Jezreel; for
    yet a little [while], and I will avenge the blood of Jezreel
    upon the house of {f} Jehu, and will cause to cease the
    kingdom of the house of Israel.

    (e) Meaning that they would no longer be called Israelites,
        which name they boasted because Israel did prevail with
        God: but that they were as bastards, and therefore
        should be called Jezreelites, that is, scattered people,
        alluding to Jezreel, which was the chief city of the ten
        tribes under Ahab, where Jehu shed so much blood; 1Ki 18:45.
    (f) I will be avenged upon Jehu for the blood that he shed
        in Jezreel: for even though God stirred him up to
        execute his judgments, yet he did them for his own
        ambition, and not for the glory of God as the intended
        goal: for he built up that idolatry which he had

Ho 1:5
1:5 And it shall come to pass at that {g} day, that I will break
    the bow of Israel in the valley of Jezreel.

    (g) When the measure of their iniquity is full, and I will
        take vengeance and destroy all their administration and

Ho 1:6
1:6 And she conceived again, and bare a daughter. And [God] said
    unto him, Call her name {h} Loruhamah: for I will no more
    have mercy upon the house of Israel; but I will utterly {i}
    take them away.

    (h) That is, not obtaining mercy: by which he signifies that
        God's favour had departed from them.
    (i) For the Israelites never returned after they were taken
        captives by the Assyrians.

Ho 1:7
1:7 But I will have mercy upon the house of Judah, and will {k}
    save them by the LORD their God, and will not save them by
    bow, nor by sword, nor by battle, by horses, nor by

    (k) For after their captivity he restored them miraculously
        by the means of Cyrus; Ezr 1:1.

Ho 1:9
1:9 Then said [God], Call his name {l} Loammi: for ye [are] not
    my people, and I will not be your [God].

    (l) That is, not my people.

Ho 1:10
1:10 Yet the number of the {m} children of Israel shall be as
     the sand of the sea, which cannot be measured nor numbered;
     and it shall come to pass, [that] in the place where it was
     said unto them, Ye [are] not my people, [there] it shall be
     said unto them, [Ye are] the sons of the living God.

     (m) Because they thought that God could not have been true
         in his promise unless he had preserved them, he
         declares that though they were destroyed, yet the true
         Israelites who are the sons of the promise, would be
         without number, who consist both of the Jews and the
         Gentiles; Ro 9:26.

Ho 1:11
1:11 Then shall the children of Judah and the children of Israel
     be {n} gathered together, and appoint themselves one head,
     and they shall come up out of the land: for great [shall
     be] the day of Jezreel.

     (n) That is, after the captivity of Babylon, when the Jews
         were restored: but chiefly this refers to the time of
         Christ, who would be the head both of the Jews and
     (o) The calamity and destruction of Israel will be so
         great, that to restore them will be a miracle.