1Co 10:1
10:1 Moreover, {1} brethren, I would not that ye should be
     ignorant, how that all our {a} fathers were under the
     cloud, and all passed through the sea;

 (1) He sets out that which he said, laying before them an
     example of the horrible judgment of God against those who
     had in effect the very same pledges of the same adoption
     and salvation that we have.  And yet nonetheless when they
     gave themselves to idol's feasts, they perished in the
     wilderness, being horribly and manifoldly punished.  Now,
     moreover and besides that these things are fitly spoken
     against those who frequented idol's feasts, the same also
     seems to be alleged to this end and purpose, because many
     men think that those things are not of such great weight
     that God will be angry with them if they use them.  And so
     they frequent Christian assemblies and are baptized, and
     receive the communion, and confess Christ.
     (a) Paul says this in respect of the covenant, and not in
         respect of the persons, except generally.

1Co 10:2
10:2 {2} And were all {b} baptized unto {c} Moses in the cloud
     and in the sea;

 (2) In effect the ordinances of the old fathers were all one
     with ours, for they respected Christ alone, who offered
     himself to them in different forms.
     (b) All of them were baptized with the outward sign, but
         not indeed, because of which God cannot be blamed, but
         they themselves.
     (c) Moses being their guide.

1Co 10:3
10:3 And did all eat the {d} same spiritual {e} meat;

     (d) The same that we do.
     (e) Manna, which was a spiritual meat to the believers,
         who in faith lay hold upon Christ, who is the true meat.

1Co 10:4
10:4 And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank
     of that spiritual Rock that {f} followed them: and that
     Rock was {g} Christ.

     (f) Of the River and running Rock, who followed the people.
     (g) Did signify Christ as an ordinance, so that together
         with the sign, there was the thing signified, and the
         truth itself.  For God does not offer a bare sign, but
         the thing signified by the sign together with it, which
         is to be received with faith.

1Co 10:6
10:6 {3} Now these things were our {h} examples, to the intent
     we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted.

 (3) An amplifying of the example against those who are carried
     away with their lusts beyond the bounds which God has
     measured out.  For this is the beginning of all evil, as of
     idolatry (which has gluttony as a companion), fornication,
     rebelling against Christ, murmuring, and such like.  And
     these things God punished most sharply in that old people,
     to the end that we who succeed them, and have a more full
     declaration of the will of God, might by that means take
     better heed.
     (h) Some read "figures": which signified our ordinances.
         For circumcision was to the Jews a seal of righteousness,
         to us a symbol of baptism, and so in the other ordinances.

1Co 10:9
10:9 Neither let us tempt {i} Christ, as some of them also
     tempted, and were destroyed of serpents.

     (i) To tempt Christ is to provoke him to a combat as it
         were, which those men do who abuse the knowledge that
         he has given them, and make it to serve for a cloak for
         their lusts and wickedness.

1Co 10:11
10:11 Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and
      they are written for our admonition, upon whom the {k}
      ends of the world are come.

      (k) This our age is called the end, for it is the
          culmination of all the ages.

1Co 10:12
10:12 {4} Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth take heed
      lest he fall.

 (4) In conclusion he descends to the Corinthians themselves,
     warning them that they do not please themselves, but rather
     that they prevent the wiles of Satan.  Yet he uses an
     declaration and comforts them, that he may not seem to make
     them altogether similar to those wicked idolaters and
     condemners of Christ, who perished in the wilderness.

1Co 10:13
10:13 There hath no temptation taken you but such as is common
      to {l} man: but God [is] faithful, who will not suffer you
      to be tempted above that ye are able; but will with the
      temptation also {m} make a way to escape, that ye may be
      able to bear [it].

      (l) Which comes from weakness.
      (m) He that would have you tempted for your profit's sake,
          will make a way for you to escape out of the

1Co 10:15
10:15 {5} I speak as to wise men; judge ye what I say.

 (5) Now returning to those idol's feasts, that he may not seem
     to delay at all: first he promises that he will use no
     other reasons, than such as they knew very well themselves.
     He gives the following line of reasoning.  The holy
     banquets of the Christians are pledges, first of all, of
     the community that they have with Christ, and next, one
     with another.  The Israelites also do ratify in the
     sacrifices, their mutual union in the very same religion.
     Therefore so do the idolaters also join themselves with
     their idols, or demons rather (for idols are nothing) in
     those solemn banquets, whereupon it follows, that that
     table is a table of demons, and therefore you must avoid
     it.  For you cannot be partakers of the Lord and of idols
     together, much less may such banquets be considered as
     indifferent things.  Will you then strive with God?  And if
     you do, do you think that you will get the upper hand?

1Co 10:16
10:16 The cup of {n} blessing which we bless, is it not the {o}
      communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we
      break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?

      (n) Of thanksgiving: whereupon, that holy banquet was
          called "eucharist", which is Greek for thanksgiving.
      (o) A most effectual pledge and note of your joining
          together with Christ, and ingrafting to him.

1Co 10:18
10:18 Behold Israel after the {p} flesh: are not they which eat
      of the sacrifices {q} partakers of the altar?

      (p) That is, those who yet observe their ceremonies.
      (q) Are consenting and guilty, both of that worship and

1Co 10:20
10:20 But I [say], that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice,
      they sacrifice to devils, and not to God: and I would not
      that ye should have {r} fellowship with devils.

      (r) Have anything to do with the demons, or enter into
          that society which is begun in the demon's name.

1Co 10:21
10:21 Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the {s} cup of
      devils: ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's table, and of
      the table of devils.

      (s) The heathen and profane people were accustomed to
          finish up and make an end of their feasts which they
          kept to the honour of their gods, in offering meat
          offerings and drink offerings to them, with banquets
          and feastings.

1Co 10:23
10:23 {6} {t} All things are lawful for me, but all things are
      not expedient: all things are lawful for me, but all
      things edify not.

 (6) Coming to another type of things offered to idols, he
     repeats that general rule, that in the use of indifferent
     things we ought to have consideration not of ourselves
     only, but of our neighbours.  And therefore there are many
     things which of themselves are lawful, which may be evil
     when done by us, because of offence to our neighbour.
     (t) See before in 1Co 6:13.

1Co 10:25
10:25 {7} Whatsoever is sold in the {u} shambles, [that] eat,
      asking no question for conscience sake:

 (7) An applying of the rule to the present matter: whatever is
     sold in the market, you may indifferently buy it as if it
     were from the Lord's hand, and eat it either at home with
     the faithful, or being called home to the unfaithful, that
     is, in a private banquet.  But yet with this exception,
     unless any man is present who is weak, whose conscience may
     be offended by setting meats offered to idols before them:
     for then you ought to have a consideration of their
     (u) The flesh that was sacrificed used to be sold in the
         markets, and the price returned to the priests.

1Co 10:26
10:26 For the earth [is] the Lord's, and the {x} fulness

      (x) All those things of which it is full.

1Co 10:29
10:29 Conscience, I say, not thine own, but of the other: {8}
      for why is my liberty judged of another [man's]

 (8) A reason: for we must take heed that our liberty is not
     spoken of as evil, and that the benefit of God which we
     ought to use with thanksgiving is not changed into impiety.
     And this is through our fault, if we choose rather to
     offend the conscience of the weak, than to yield a little
     of our liberty in a matter of no importance, and so give
     occasion to the weak to judge in such sort of us, and of
     Christian liberty.  And the apostle takes these things upon
     his own person, that the Corinthians may have so much the
     less occasion to oppose anything against him.

1Co 10:30
10:30 For if I by {y} grace be a partaker, why am I evil spoken
      of for that for which I give thanks?

      (y) If I may through God's grace eat this meat or that
          meat, why should I through my fault cause that benefit
          of God to turn to my blame?

1Co 10:31
10:31 {9} Whether therefore ye eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye
      do, do all to the glory of God.

 (9) The conclusion: we must order ourselves in such a way that
     we seek not ourselves, but God's glory, and so the
     salvation of as many as we may.  In which the apostle does
     not thrust himself to the Corinthians (even his own flock)
     as an example, except so that he calls them back to Christ,
     to whom he himself has regard.