We're making big changes. Please try out the beta site at beta.ccel.org and send us feedback. Thank you!
« Prev X. Next »

X.

¹Σκιὰν γὰρ ἔχων ὁ νόμος τῶν μελλόντων

iii. The Old Sacrifices and the New: the abiding efficacy of Christ's One Sacrifice (c. x. 1—18).

In the preceding section the writer of the Epistle has pointed out the completeness of the one single High-priestly work of Christ in comparison with the crowning service of the Old Covenant on the Day of Atonement. He once for all was offered (c. ix. 28); and in due time, coming forth from the Divine Presence, He will proclaim the consummation of His work. Thus He stands in sharp contrast to the Levitical High-priests. Their work was repeated because it was essentially imperfect. In other words, that which seemed to give it special attractiveness and power, as appealing sensibly to the worshipper year by year by a visible and impressive service, was a sign of its inefficacy and transitoriness to those who looked deeper. Because the Law witnessed to something which it did not include or convoy, its message was given again and again. This thought is now extended from the general representative sacrifice to the Levitical sacrifices generally. The Apostle points out (1) the inherent weakness and the provisional office of these sacrifices (x. 1—4); and, in contrast with these, (2) the true nature of the Sacrifice of Christ (5—10). He then shews (3) the perpetual efficacy of Christ's Sacrifice from His present position of Kingly Majesty (11—14); and (4) the consequent fulfilment in Him of the prophetic description of the New Covenant (15—18).

(1) vv. 1—4. The essential inadequacy of the Legal sacrifices to remove sin.

The sacrifices of the Mosaic system could not bring τελείωσις, for just what they did once they did afresh when the time came round (v. 1); and such repetition could not have been required if they had been spiritually efficacious (v. 2). Viewed in their real character they were designed to declare a need which they did not satisfy (v. 3); and which essentially they could not satisfy (v. 4).

¹For as having a shadow only of the good things to come, not the very image of the objects, the Law can never, by the same sacrifices which they offer year by year, make perfect for ever those who come to worship. ²Since in that case would they not have ceased to be offered because the worshippers would have had no more conscience of sins, when they had been cleansed once for all? ³But in them sins are called to remembrance year by year; ⁴for it is impossible that blood of bulls and goats should take away sins.

(1). σκιάν...τελειῶσαι] The sentence is complicated, and the natural order of the words is modified by the desire of the writer to emphasise the main ideas of his statement. If we adopt the reading δύναται the rendering appears to be fairly clear: For as having a shadow only of the good things to come, not the very image of the objects, the Law can never, by the same sacrifices which they—the appointed ministers of the system—offer year by year, in a continually recurring cycle, make perfect for ever those who come to God on the way which it opens.

In this rendering it is assumed that the two phrases κατ' ἐνιαυτόν and εἰς τὸ διηνεκές are placed (irregularly) at the head of the clauses to which they belong in order to bring out the conceptions of 'yearly repetition' and 'perpetuity' of effect, which respectively characterise the Old and New Covenants.

The same purpose of emphasis explains the fact that εἰς τὸ διηνεκές precedes the verb to which it belongs, while elsewhere it follows it: vv. 12, 14; vii. 3.

The connexion of εἰς τὸ διηνεκές with 304 ἀγαθῶν, οὐκ αὐτὴν τὴν εἰκόνα τῶν πραγμάτων, κατ'

τελειῶσαι is further supported by the parallel in v. 11 where the words καθ΄ ἡμέραν, τὰς αὐτᾶς προσφ. θ, exactly correspond with κατ' ἐνεαυτόν, ταῖς αὐτοῖς θ. ὥς προσφ., and περιελεῖν ἁμαρτίας with εἰς τὸ διην. τελ. It also agrees better with the sense of εἰς τὸ διηνεκές.

If εἰς τὸ διηνεκές is joined with προσφέρειν in the sense of the Vulgate indesinenter, 'without cessation' 'as long as the Law lasts,' it loses the peculiar force which it has elsewhere of marking an act which issues in a permanent result, permanent in continuous duration and not only in successive repetition; and it is specially difficult to suppose that the same combination of words should be used differently in the same chapter.

σκιὰν γὰρ ἔχων...οὐκ αὐτὴν τὴν εἰκ.] For as having a shadow of the good things to come the Law...Vulg. Umbram enim habens...non ipsam imaginem rerum... The emphatic position of the participle (as opposed to ὁ γὰρ νόμος σκιὰν ἔχων) contrasts forcibly the nature of the Law with the nature of Christ's work which has been just set forth. The iteration, the inefficacy, the transitoriness of the services of the Law which culminated in that on the Day of Atonement, followed from the fact that it 'had a shadow only of the good things to come.' It could provide nothing more than symbolic, and therefore recurrent, offerings, which in different ways witnessed to an idea that they were inadequate to fulfil.

The words contain one of the very few illustrations which are taken from art in the N.T. The 'shadow' is the dark outlined figure cast by the object — as in the legend of the origin of the bas-relief— contrasted with the complete representation (εἰκών) produced by the help of colour and solid mass. The εἰκών brings before us under the conditions of space, as we can understand it, that which is spiritual: Rom. viii. 29; Col. i. 19 (with Lightfoot's note); iii. 10.

Compare Cic. De Offic. iii. 17. 69 Nos veri juris germanatque justUiw solidam et expressam effigiem nullani tenemus, umbra et imaginibus utimur. *Pro Clœlio, c. v. 12.

The figure is common in Philo. See de migr. Abr. § 2 (i. 438 M.); de conf. ling. § 37 (i. 434 M.).

See c. viii. 5 note.

Chrysostom explains the language (inadequately) of the outline in contrast with the finished picture. ἕως μὲν γὰρ ἄν ὡς ἐν γραφῇ περιάγῃ τις τὰ χρώματα σκιά τις ἐστίν, ὅταν δὲ τὸ ἄνθος ἐπαλείψῃ τις καὶ ἐπιχρίσῃ τὰ χρώματα, τότε εἰκὼν γίνεται (so Alcuin).

Comp. Euthym. Zig. τῆς σκιᾶς τελείωσις ὁ διὰ τῶν χρωμάτων ἀπαρτισμός, ἠγοῦν ἡ εἰκών.

The difference between the 'shadow' and the 'image' is well illustrated by the difference between a 'type' and a 'sacrament,' in which the characteristic differences of the Old and New Covenants are gathered up. The one witnesses to grace and truth beyond and outside itself: the other is the pledge and the means through which grace and truth are brought home to us.

Hence many saw in 'the good things to come' the sacraments of the Christian Church; and Theophylact, accepting this interpretation, carries our thoughts still further. As the image is better than the shadow, so, he argues, will the archetype be better than the image, the realities of the unseen world than 'the mysteries' which now represent them.

One other point is to be noticed. Things visible and sensible are the shadows: things unseen and spiritual are the substance. The whole world is made for us a shadow of some unimaginable glory.

τῶν μελλ. ἀγ.] of the good things to come, the blessings which belonged to 305 ἐνεαυτὸν ταῖς αὐταῖς θυσίαις ἃς προσφέρουσιν ςἰε τὸ διηνεκὲς οὐδέποτε δύναται τοὺς προσερχομένους

1 αὐτῶν

1 ταῖς αὐταῖς...δύναται. See Additional Note. τελειῶσαι: καθαρίσαι D₂*.

the 'coming age' (c. vi. 5), 'the coming order' (c. ii. 5). These are here spoken of as future from the standpoint of the Law. And, though they were essentially realised by the accomplishment of Christ's work (c. ix. 11 τῶη γενομένων ἀγ.), they still remain in part yet future in regard to man's full enjoyment of them (c. xiii. 14).

τῶν πραγμάτων] 'the real objects.' The word is unusual in this sense. It expresses τὰ μέλλοντα ἀγαθά so far as they were embodied. Comp. c. vi. 18; xi. 1.

κατ' ἐνιαυτόν] The words go with the whole clause. The reference is not exclusively to the services of the Day of Atonement, but to the whole sacrificial system of the Law, completed in a yearly cycle, which started (so to speak) from the 'continual' burnt-offering and was crowned on the Day of Atonement 'once in the year' (c. ix. 7). Year by year, when all had been done only to be repeated, the powerlessness of the legal atonements was vividly set forth. And on the other hand (this thought lies behind) all the Levitical sacrifices, the daily sacrifices habitually offered by the priests (v. 11), and the single yearly sacrifice of the High-priest, found their fulfilment in Christ.

ταῖς αὐταῖς...] The identical repetition was a sign of the powerlessness of the system. It could provide nothing fresh. And yet further, what it had once done it did again. Evidently therefore the effect was as inadequate as it was unalterable.

ὅς προσφέρουσιν] which they, the appointed ministers of the system, offer. For this impersonal use of the plural, compare John xv. 6; xx. 2; Apoc. xii. 6; Matt. vii. 16; Mk. x. 13; Lk. xvii. 23. It is far less natural to take the subject from τοὺς προσερχομένους.

εἰς τὸ διην....τοὺς προσερχ. τελειῶσαι] make perfect for ever—so that the effect once obtained lasts onwards without break—those worshippers who come to God through the High-priest or priests. The whole congregation is included in the title, which cannot be limited either to the priests or to special offerers. The daily sacrifices and the sacrifices on the Day of Atonement were for all.

τελειῶσαι] See Additional Note on ii. 10.

εἰς τὸ διηνεκές] Vulg. indesinenter, O. L. in frequentiam. The phrase is found in the Ν. T. only in this Epistle: vv. 12, 14 (Vulg. in sempiternum); vii. 3 (Vulg. in perpetuum) note. As distinguished from εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα it expresses the thought of a continuously abiding result. The former phrase looks to the implied absence of limit while εἰς τὶ διηνεκές affirms uninterrupted duration in regard to some ruling thought.

οὐδέποτε] v. 11. The use of this temporal negative in place of the simple negative emphasises the thought of the many occasions, of the long experience, by which the inefficacy of the sacrifices was shewn.

The word οὐδέποτε is rare in N.T. (in Epp. only here and 1 Cor. xiii. 8 οὐδέποτε πίπτει). The use in Matt. xxi. 16, 42 (οὐδέποτε ἀνέγνωτε) is instructive.

τοὺς προσερχομένους] See c. vii. 25 note.

(2). The inefficacy of the sacrifices is proved by their repetition. If it be said that the repeated sacrifice dealt only with the later sins; the answer is that we have to deal with sin and not with sins only: to be assured that 306 τελειῶσαι. ²ἐπεὶ οὐκ ἄν ἐπαύσαντο προσφερόμεναι, διὰ τὸ μηδεμίαν ἔχειν ἔτι συνείδησιν ἁμαρτιῶν τοὺς λατρεύοντας ἃπαξ κεκαθαρισμένους; ³ἀλλ' ἐν αὐταῖς ἀνάμνησις

2 om. οὐκ Η* syr vg (lat). om. ἕτι D₂*. τούς: + δέ D₂*.

our true relation with God has been re-established. A sacrifice which effects this for humanity, and we need no less, cannot be repeated.

ἐπεὶ οὐκ ἅν...] Vulg. alioquin cessassent...O.L. nam nec cessassent... The words are a question which is followed up by ἀλλά v. 3. 'Since in that case (Else), would they not...? but in fact...'

For ἐπεί see c. ix. 26 note.

ἐπαύσ. προσφερόμεναι] So frequently with an active participle: Acts v. 42; vi. 13 &c.

συνείδησιν ἁμ.] Vulg. conscientiam peccati. Compare 1 Pet. ii. 19 (συνείδησις θεοῦ), (in 1 Cor. viii. 7 συνηθείᾳ τοῦ εἰδώλου not συνειδήσει τοῦ εἰδ.).

For συνείδησις see c. ix. 9 Additional Note.

τοὺς λατρεύοντας] Vulg. cultores. The worship would still continue though the necessity for atoning sacrifices had ceased to exist. Comp. Apoc. xxii. 3 f.; c. ix. 9.

Λατρύειν is used absolutely for divine worship c. ix. 9; Lk. ii. 37; Acts xxvi. 7; Phil. iii. 3 (οἱ πν. θεοῦ λατρ.).

ἅπαξ κεκαθαρισμένους] when they had once for all been cleansed. The effect of the cleansing is regarded in its continuance, and not in its actual accomplishment (Eph. v. 26 καθαρίσας). Compare v. 10 ἡγιασμένοι. Such permanent cleansing would have involved τελείωσις (v. 1). The application of the virtue of the one effectual sacrifice would have met the wants of every true worshipper. The case of a single body of worshippers is taken, but the principle holds true of ail.

For καθαρίζειν see c. ix. 14, 23; Tit. ii. 14; and for ἅπαξ c. vi. 4 note, ἐφάπαξ vii. 27.

(3), (4). The Levitical sacrifices had however an important function to fulfil in the discipline of men. The repetition, which showed their inefficacy, kept alive the sense of sin. They were, in the words of Primasius: Accusatio infirmitatis, non virtutis ostensio. In eo enim quod offerebatur, redargutio peccatorum; in eo quod semper offerebatur, redargutio infirmitatis ejusdem sacrificii.

Comp. Euth. Zig. τὸ μὲν θύειν ἔλεγχος ἁμαρτημάτων, τὸ δὲ ἀεὶ ἀπόδειξις ἀσθενείας.

(3). ἀλλ' ἐν αὐτ.] But in them sins are called to remembrance...That is: 'so far from the sacrifices being discontinued because they have fulfilled their work, they serve in fact to keep alive the recollection of sin as a present burden.' This seems to be on the whole the simplest and most natural explanation of αλλά. It is however possible to take ἐπεί...κεκαθαρισμένους as parenthetical, and to take αλλά as introducing a direct continuation of v. 1, οὐδέποτε δύναται...ἀλλά...

ἀνάμνησις ἁμ.] not simply 'a remembrance' or 'a record made' of sins (Vulg. commemoratio peccatorum), but a calling to mind of sins, whereby men are put in remembrance of them by a divine institution. This is more than a public acknowledgment and confession of sins, such as at present (and by immemorial usage) forms an important part of the synagogue service for the Day of Atonement.

So Philo speaks of sacrifices as a ὑπόμνησις of sins (De plant. Noe, § 25; De vit. Mos. iii. § 10), but when they are rightly offered he assigns to them real efficacy (de vict. § 7). Compare Num. v. 15 (lxx.) θυσία μνημοσύνου ἀναμιμνήσκουσα ἁμαρτίαν, of which the opposite is expressed in v. 17 (τῶν 307 ἁμαρτιῶν κατ' ἐνιαυτόν, ⁴ἀδύνατον γὰρ αἷμα ταύρων καὶ

4 τράγων καὶ ταύρων

3 κατ' ἐν.: +¨γίνεται D₂* vg. 4 ταύρ. καὶ τρ. ΑCD₂ vg syrr me: τρ. καὶ ταύρ. א æg.

ἁμαρτιῶν...οὐ μὴ μνησθήσομαι .ετι).

Under the new Covenant God Himself does not remember the sins of His people, still less does He bring them solemnly to their remembrance.

The use of the word ἀνάμνησις suggests a contrast between the Jewish sacrifices and the Christian Eucharist In them there was ἀνάμνησις ἁμαρτιῶν. They were instituted to keep fresh the thought of responsibility: that was instituted, in Christ's words, εἰς τῆν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν (Luke xxii. 19; 1 Cor. xi. 24 f.), to bring to men's minds the recollection of the redemption which He has accomplished. The word is not found elsewhere in the N.T. Ἁναμιμνήσκειν (act.) occurs 1 Cor. iv. 17; 2 Tim. i. 6.

In the lxx. ἀνάμνησις is found Lev. xxiv. 7 (comp. ii. 2); Num. x. 10; Wisd. xvi. 6. Comp. [Sym.] Ps. vi. 6; cxxxiv. 13.

κατ' ἐνιαυτόν] The words are repeated from v. 1. The thought of sin is brought homo in various aspects by the whole system of sacrifice year by year.

(4). ἀδύνατον...ἀφαιρεῖν] Vulg. possibile est...sanguine...auferri V.; O.L. difficile...est...

The spiritual inefficacy of the Levitical sacrifices, which was indicated by their repetition, is patent also from their very nature. The physical suffering and death of an irrational creature—unwilling and unconscious—can make no atonement for man's sin. Man can have no true fellowship with such beings. Such a sacrifice cannot be more than a symbol, a sign.

ταύρων καὶ τράγων] c. ix. 12 f.; 19. The sacrifices of the Day of Atonement still suggest the general language. Comp. Ps. l. 13.

ἀφαιρεῖν ἁμ.] Is. i. 16 ἀφέλετε πονηρίας ἀπὸ τῶν ψυχῶν (HebrewPfJ). Ex. xxxiv. 7, 9 ἀφελεῖς σὺ τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν (HebrewΠ^9). Lev. x. 17 ἵνα ἀφέλητε τὴν ἁμαρτίαν. Num. xiv. 18 ἀφαιρῶν ἀνομίας καὶ ἀδικίας καὶ ἁμαρτίας. Εcclus. xlvii. 11 κύρ. ἀφεῖλε τὰς ἁμ. ἀυτοῦ.

The phrase does not occur elsewhere in the Ν. T. except in a quotation: Rom. xi. 27 ὅταν ἀφέλωμαι ἁμαρτίας (Is. xxvii. 9 lxx.). It is not unfrequent in the lxx. The image appears to be that of the removal of a load bound upon the sinner. Compare Jer. xi. 15; Zech. iii. 4.

Contrast v. 11 περιελεῖν, both in form and tense.

The limited yet real power of the Levitical sacrifices has been recognised in c. ix. 13.

(2) 5—10. The one valid sacrifice of the perfect fulfilment of the Will of God offered by Christ.

In the last paragraph the inefficacy of the Levitical sacrifices has been brought out. In this paragraph Christ's efficacious sacrifice of Himself is placed in contrast with them.

The argument is expressed in the language of a Davidic Psalm.

The Christ coming into the world gives utterance to the conviction of man that the only sacrifice which he can offer to God is perfect obedience (vv. 5—7). In doing this He contrasts the fulfilment of the will of God with the Levitical sacrifices so as to abolish the latter by the former (vv. 8, 9). He obeys perfectly; and of the fruits of His obedience men are made partakers (v. 10).

Psalm xl. is regarded with probability as an expression of David's feeling 308 towards the close of his persecution by Saul, when the promised kingdom was now in near view. The present text of the Psalm consists of two parts which differ widely in general tone. The second part (vv. 13—18) cannot be applied to the Messiah (v. 13); and most of it (vv. 14—18) occurs again in the Psalter, with slight variations, as Ps. lxx.

The first part (vv. 1—12) stands out from the writings of the Old Testament as giving not only a view of the essential inadequacy of external sacrifices but also a clear indication of that which they represent and of that which fulfils the idea to which they bear witness. In the contemplation of God's mercies, and in the declaration of God's righteousness, the Psalmist feels that no offering of that which is without the worshipper can rightly convey the return of gratitude or make atonement (sin-offering). Nothing but perfect self-devotion answers to the claims of God and man's desire.

Such a confession, which embodies the aspiration of man, and rises above his power of fulfilment, describes what Christ has done as the Son of man, through whom man's ideal has been realised (c. ii. 6 ff.; Ps. viii.). Thus the words are rightly applied to Him. His power to do the will of God corresponded with His purpose to do it. That will being once accomplished for humanity by its perfect representative, the use of sacrifices was done away.

The words in their original context gain fresh force from a comparison with 1 Sam. xv. 22. David, the true divine type of a king, spontaneously embodied the principle which Saul, the human type of a king, violated to his own overthrow.

The writer of the Epistle follows the rendering of the lxx. with some slight differences, ὁλοκαυτώματα (lxx., Hebr. ὁλοκαύτωμα): εὐδόκησας (lxx., Hebr. ᾖτησας, compressing also the last verse (τοῦ ποιῆσαι, ὁ θεός, τὸ θέλημά σου: lxx. τοῦ ποιῆσαι τὸ θέλημά σου, ὁ θεός μου, ἡβουλήθην...). The lxx., as is well known, differs from the Hebrew in one remarkable clause: for Hebrew<ί ρηφ ΕΉ}$ ears hast thou opened (dug) for me, it gives σῶμα δὲ κατηρτίσω μοι. There can be no question that this is the true reading of the Greek. The conjecture that σωμα is an early blunder for ωτια (the reading of the other Greek versions) cannot be maintained in the face of the evidence. The rendering must therefore be considered to be a free interpretation of the original text. In this respect it extends and emphasises the fundamental idea. The 'body' is the instrument for fulfilling the divine command, just as the 'ear' is the instrument for receiving it. God originally fashioned for man in his frame the organ for hearing His voice, and by this He plainly shewed that he was made to obey it.

Wherefore when He entereth into the world, He saith

Sacrifice and offering Thou wouldest not,

But a body didst Thou prepare for me;

In whole burnt-offerings and sacrifices for sin Thou hadst no pleasure:

Then said I, Lo, I am come (in the roll of the book it is written of me) to do, Ο God, Thy will.

Saying above, Sacrifices and offerings and whole burnt-offerings and offerings for sin Thou wouldest not (the which are offered according to the Law), ⁹then hath He said, Lo, I am come to do Thy will. He removeth the first that He may establish the second. ¹⁰In which will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. 309 τράγων ἀφαιρεῖν ἁμαρτίας. ⁵Διὸ εἰσερχόμενος εἰς τὸν κόσμον λέγει θυσίαη καὶ προσφορὰη οὐκ ἠθέλησας, σῶμα δὲ κατηρτίσω μοι.

. ἀφαιρεῖν: ἀφελεῖν (ἀφερεῖν) א*.

5 σῶμα: ears syr hl mg.

(5). διὸ εἰσερχ. εἰς τὸν κόσμον] Wherefore....Because the Levitical sacrifices were essentially ineffective the Christ speaking through the Psalmist or, to express the same idea otherwise, the Psalmist giving utterance to the highest thought of man which Christ alone can realise, recognised the fact, and offered the reality of rational self-surrender which they represented.

The words when He entereth into the world (Vulg. ingrediens mundum; O. L. incedens in orbem) are not to be confined to the moment of the Incarnation though they found their complete fulfilment then. They apply to each manifestation of Christ in the realm of human life (John i. 9; comp. vi. 14; xi. 27). The entrance of the divinely chosen King upon His earthly Kingdom corresponds with the entrance of the Son of man upon the inheritance of the world.

The words, it will bo observed, assume the preexistence of the Christ. It is worthy of notice that Phllo especially affirms of the Logos that 'he came not in visible form': de prof. § 19 (i. 561 M.); comp. Quis rer. div. hær. § 9 (i. 479 M.).

On the thought of Christ 'entering into the world' Primasius says: Quando, qui ubique præsens erat sed tamen invisibilis, factus postea homo visibilis mundo apparuit, quodammode ubi orat illuc ingressus.

λέγει] The words of the Psalmist are ideally the words of the Christ; and they are not past only but present Compare c. i. 6 f.; iii. 7; v. 6; viii. 8. No person is named. The thought of the true speaker is present to the mind of every reader.

Θυσ. καὶ προσφ....ὁλοκ. καὶ περὶ ἁμ.] The two pairs of words give a complete view of the Jewish sacrifices. The first pair describe them according to their material, the animal-offering (HebrewΠ3|) and the meal-offering (HebrewHty?). The second pair give in the burnt-offering (ΗebrewnfiV) and the sin-offering (HebrewΠ$φ&), representative types of the two great classes of offerings, eucharistic offerings, which belonged to the life of the Covenant, and expiatory offerings, which were provided for the restoration of the life of the Covenant.

In themselves, this is laid down generally, the sacrifices gave no pleasure to God. Their value was in what they represented. Under this aspect that which corresponds to the first pair is distinctly stated (σώμα κατηρτίσω μοι). The aspirations and wants expressed by the second pair find their complete satisfaction in the fulfilment of the will of God by the Son of man through suffering and death (v. 7).

Several passages in the O. T. recognise the powerlessness of sacrifices in themselves: 1 Sam. xv. 22; Ps. l. 8 ff.; li. 16 ff.; Hos. vi. 6; Is. i. 10 ff.; Jer. vii. 21 f. But these words of Ps. xl. go further: they point to a perfect service, and perhaps to the sacrifice (death) of one who has served perfectly.

σῶμα κατηρτίσω μοι] a body didst thou prepare for me, Vulg. corpus aptasti mihi. The King, the representative of men, recognises in the manifold organs of His personal power—His body—the one fitting means for rendering service to God. Through this, in its fulness, He can do God's will. Not by anything outside

310

¹⁶όλοκαυτώματα καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας οὐκ εὐδόκησας. ⁷τότε εἶπον Ἰδοὺ ἥκω, ἐν κεφαλίδι βιβλίου γέγραπται περὶ ἐμοῦ,

6 ὁλοκαυτώματα: -τωμα D₂*. 7 Ἰδού: + ἐγώ D₂*. syr vg. om. ἥκω א*. γέγρ.: + γάρ D₂*.

Himself, not by animals in sacrifices, not by the fruits of the earth in offerings, but by the use of His own endowments as He is enabled to use them, He will accomplish that which God designed for Him to do.

It will be seen that the idea in this clause is that of a perfect life irrespective of any thought of sin. Man as created had for his end this perfect exercise and perfect development of every human faculty that so he might bring all to God, fulfilling in this way the conception of sacrifice. And sin has not altered the obligation: Rom. xii. 1 f.

Some ancient thinkers regarded the humanity of Christ as the final cause of all created things (comp. Epp. of St John, pp. 291 f). The thought throws light upon the gradual progress of the world throughout the ages, the humanity of Christ holding out the promise of the unity of men and of Creation in man.

The tense of κατηρτίσω does not mark any point in time. The divine act is supratemporal (comp. c. i. 2 ἔθηκεν). The words are the confession of the Christ at each moment of His entrance on a fresh stage of His historic work.

The verb καταρτίζειν suggests the thought of the 'many members' fitly framed together for varied and harmonious service. The body of man, like 'the world' itself (c. xi. 3 κατηρτίσθαι τοὺς αἰῶνας), consists of parts which fulfil different functions and contribute in their measure to the effect of the whole. These require to be brought into due relation in the individual by discipline and help (1 Thess. iii. 10; Gal. vi. 1; c. xiii. 21; 1 Pet. v. 10); even as the individuals have to be duly brought together in the Christian society (1 Cor. i. 10; 2 Cor. xiii. 9, 11), through the work of the appointed ministry (Eph. iv. 12).

(6). ὁλοκαυτώματα...οὐκ εὐδόκ.] For the construction with acc. compare Matt. xii. 18 ὅν (not εἰς ὅν) εὐδ. (from lxx.); and so not unfrequently in lxx.

In Ν. T. εὐδοκεῖν is commonly found with ἐν: v. 38 (lxx.); Lk. iii. 22; 2 Cor. xii. 10: and it is also found with inf.: Lk. xii. 32.

Ὁλοκαύτωμα, which occurs again in Mk. xii. 33, is the habitual rendering in lxx. of Hebrewrtyi$, 'that which ascends,' i.e. in the flame to heaven, rather than to the altar.

The phrase περὶ ἁμαρτίας is used as a compound indeclinable noun: e.g. Lev. vii. 27 οὕτος ὁ νόμος τῶν ὁλοκ....καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας....

(7). τότε εἶπον...] then said I...at the time when the Divine Will was made clear: when it was seen that no eucharistic offerings could satisfy the divine claim to grateful service; and no expiatory offerings do away with sin.

ἥκω] I am come, not 'I will come' or 'I come.' Obedience is immediate and complete. This sense of the will of God was, as it were, the Master's call in the heart, and the servant's answer was in the new connexion: 'Here am I' (Is. vi. 8).

For ἥκω compare John viii. 42; 1 John v. 20; v. 37.

ἐν κεφ. β. γ.] Vulg. in capite (O. L volumine) libri. The interpretation of the original Hebrewfyf 31Π$ Ί^ζΓΠ^Ι ἐν εἰλήματι β. Aqu.) is uncertain. 311 τοῦ ποηῖσαι, ὁ θεός, τὸ θέλημά σου. ⁸ἀνώτερον λέγων ὅτι θυσiας καὶ προσφορὰς καὶ ὁλοκαυτώματα

8 θυσίας καὶ προσφοράς א* ACD₂* vg syr vg me the: -ἰαν καὶ -άν Sא* syr hl.

Perhaps the simplest rendering is: in the book-roll (the roll of the Law) a law is written for me, which lays down perfectly my duty. The King acknowledges a definite standard of the will of God, before He undertakes to aim at fulfilling it. The περὶ ἐμοῦ of the lxx. is not inconsistent with this sense. The Law which foreshadowed the duties of a King of Israel (περὶ ἐμοῦ) was the rule of the King's life. Here the reference appears to be quite general: John v. 39.

The word κεφαλίς is of difficult interpretation. It is generally supposed that the word, which was used for the capital of a shaft, was applied to the little knobs (cornua) at the ends of the stick round which the roll was wound, and then to the roll itself. But it does not appear that any example of this sense of the word is found. Others think that the sense of 'roll' was derived from the Rabbinic usage of HebrewDp 'to roll,' 'to fold' Buxtorf, Lex. Rabb. p. 2090); but no instance of the application of the word to a manuscript roll is quoted. The general meaning of 'roll,' however derived, is found elsewhere in lxx.: Ezek. ii. 9; iii. 1 f.; Esdr. vi. 2; and in Aquila Is. viii. 1 where the lxx. has τόμος. Comp. Euth. Zig.: oἱ Ἐβραῖοι βιβλία μὲν καλοῦσι τὰ συγγράμματα, κεφάλίδας δὲ τὰ εἰλητάρια (volumina)...εἰληταρίοις γὰρ ἐνέγραφον καὶ οὐ τεύχεσι τετραγώνοις ὡς ἡμεῖς.

The Latin fathers, taking the translation in capite, were inclined to explain it of some special passage of Scripture, as Gen. i. 1; or Ps. i.; or of Lev. i. 3, as interpreted of Christ. Quidain intelligunt hic initium Genesis, ubi scriptum est In principio, id est in Filio, fecit Deus cælum et terram. Quidam primum Psalmum ...Sed quia in his nihil de morte Christi præfiguratur...melius videtur intelligi de initio libri Levitici dictum... (Primas.).

τοῦ ποιῆσαι...] The shortening of the verse brings the purpose of the speaker into closer connexion with His coming. At the same time the Greek of the lxx. places that which God willed (τὸ θέλημα) in sharp contrast with that which did not represent Ηis will (οὐκ ἡθέλησας). The words in the original are different (Hebrewlkfjdkj, dkjfaj).

τὸ θέλημά σου] The will of God answers to the fulfilment of man's true destiny; and this, as things actually are, in spite of the Fall. Christ, as Son of man, made this will His own and accomplished it. The utterance of the King of Israel expressed man's true aim, which was beyond human reach, and so rightly belongs to the Messiah who attained it. Compare John iv. 34; viii. 29.

It is of interest to notice how constantly 'the will of God' is connected with the redemption and consummation of man: John iv. 34 ; v. 50; vi. 38 ff.; Eph. i. 5, 9, 11; 1 Tim. ii. 4; and in one special aspect: 1 Thess. iv. 3. Compare Apoc. iv. 11.

On the construction τοῦ ποιῆσαι see Additional Note.

(8), (9). ἀνώτερον λέγων...τότε εἴρηκεν] saying above...then hath he said...; Vulg. superius dicens...tunc dixit.... The continuous expression of the divine will is contrasted with the one abiding declaration of its fulfilment by Christ.

(8). θυσίας καὶ προσφοράς] The plurals seem to be accommodated to ὁλοκαυτώματα, which itself generalises the singular (HebrewH^ty) of the original. 312 καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας οὐκ ἠθέλησας οὐδὲ εὐδόκησας, αἵτινες κατὰ νόμον προσφέρονται, ⁹τότε εἴρηκεν Ἰδοὺ ἥκω τοῦ ποιῆσαι τὸ θέλημά σου. ἀναιρεῖ τὸ πρῶτον ἵνα τὸ δεύτερον στήσῃ. ¹⁰ἐν ᾦ θελήματι ἡγιασμένοι ἐσμὲν διὰ τῆς προοφορᾶς τοῦ

ἁμαρτίας: -ιῶν D₂. oὐδὲ εὐδ.: om. syr vg. κατὰ ν. אΑC: κατὰ τὸν ν. SD₂.

9 ποιῆσαι א* ACD₂ syr hl txt ægg: + ὁ θεός S א* vg syr vg. 10 ἐσμὲν οἱ S (i.e. μενοιεσμενοι).

αἴτινες...] such as are offered..., compare v. 11; c. ii. 3 note.

κατὰ νόμον] The absence of the article directs attention to the general character of the sacrifices as legal, and not to their specific character as Mosaic. Compare viii. 4; and contrast vii. 5; ix. 19, 22.

(9). εἴρηκεν] Compare c. i. 13; iv. 3 f., 7; xiii. 5; (Luke iv. 12); John xv. 15; Acts xiii. 34; 2 Cor. xii. 9; Apoc. vii. 14; xix. 3.

ἀναιρεῖ] He (i.e. the Christ) removeth, doeth away with (Vulg. aufert). This is the only occurrence of the word in the Epistles except the doubtful reading in 2 Thess. ii. 8. In the sense of 'kill' it is frequent in the Acts. It is not found elsewhere in the Ν. T. or in the lxx. in the sense of 'removing.' In Classical Greek it is used of laws (to abrogate: Æsch. in Ctes. §§ 16, 39), of wills (to revoke: Is. de Cleon. hær. § 14), of propositions (to deny: Sext. Pyrrh. Hyp. i. 20 § 192; iii. 16 § 119 oἰ μὲν ἔθεσαν, οἱ δὲ ἀνεῖλον, οἱ δὲ ἐπέσχον περὶ αὐτοὺ), of appetites (to extinguish: Epict Enchir. ii. 2; comp. Diss. i. 8, 15; ii. 20, 6).

τὸ πρῶτον...τὸ δεύτερον (Vulg. sequens)] the first—the offering outward sacrifices: the second—the fulfilment of the divine will by rational self-devotion.

στἠηση] Vulg. statuat. Compare Rom. iii. 31 (νόμον ἱστάνομεν); x. 3; xiv. 4; Gen. vi. 18, &c.

(10). ἐν ᾦ θελ. ἡγιασμ. ἐσμέν] In which will, Vulg. in qua voluntate...perfectly accomplished by Christ for all time, according to His abiding declaration (εἴρηκεν), we have been sanctified, as included in its scope. The will of God fulfilled by Christ is regarded not as that through (διά) which, nor as that according to which (κατά) men are sanctified. They are included in it, even in that purpose of love which Christ has realised (Eph. i. 7). Compare v. 19; 29; xiii. 20.

The thought of Christians as included in the Father's will, which Christ fulfilled, corresponds with St Paul's thought of Christians being 'in Christ,' an expression which is not found in the Epistle.

For the resolved form ἠγιασμ. ἐσμέν see c. vii. 20 note; and for the use of the perfect John xvii. 19; Acts xx. 32; xxvi. 18; 1 Cor. i. 2; vii. 14; (Rom. xv. 16).

For the connexion of the redemption of men with the will of God see v. 7 note.

διὰ τῆς προσφ. τοῦ σώματος] through the offering of the body divinely prepared, which offering, slowly matured through life, was consummated on the cross. The clause contains an answer to the question which naturally arises 'How are we sanctified in the will of God?' That will was realised in the perfect life of the Son of man, in which each man as a member of humanity finds the realisation of his own destiny.

Tho use of προσφορά (used of Christ's offering only in this chapter and Eph. v. 2) connects the self-sacrifice of Christ with the typical 313 σώματος Ίησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐφάπαξ. ¹¹Καὶ πᾶς μὲν ἱερεὺς

11 ἀρχιερεὺς

σώματος: αἵματος D₂*. Ἰησοῦ: + τοῦ' Ἰ. S. 11 ἱερεύς אD₂ vg syr hl txt me: ἀρχιερεύς AC syr vg æg.

sacrifices (comp. c. v. 1 note). And the compound name Jesus Christ (c. xiii. 8, 21 only) characterises the completeness of the sacrifice under the divine and human aspects of the Lord's Person. At the same time the specific reference to 'the body,' the appointed organ for doing God's will under particular conditions, emphasises the reference to the totality of Christ's earthly work. Elsewhere in the Epistle He is said to 'offer Himself' (vii. 27; ix. 14, 25 f.). The Western reading αἵματος sanguinis, expresses only one side of the whole thought.

Compare Additional Note.

ἐφάπαξ] The word (c. vii. 27; ix. 12) goes with the whole sentence. The sanctification of all believers is completed on the divine side. Comp. v. 14.

(3) 11—14. The efficacy of Christ's sacrifice shewn by His present Majesty.

A view of the efficacy of Christ's present work follows on the general description of His historic sacrifice in Life and Death. This is given by presenting the contrast between the continuous service of the Levitical priests and Christ's position of Royal assurance (11—13); and then shewing the ground of Christ's preeminence in the abiding sufficiency of His one offering for the needs of every member of His Church (14).

¹¹And while every priest {high priest) standeth day by day ministering and offering oftentimes the same sacrifices which can never take away sins, ¹²He, when He had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God, ¹³henceforward waiting till His enemies be made the footstool of His feet. ¹⁴For by one offering He hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified.

11—13. The eleventh verse takes up the three thoughts of v. 1. The Levitical service consists of repeated acts (καθ' ἡμέραν, κατ' ἐνιαυτόν), and these the same (αἱ αὐταὶ θυσίαι), and essentially ineffective (οὐδέποτε δ. περιελ. ἁμ., οὐδέποτε δ. τ. προσερχ. τελ.). On the other hand Christ having offered one sacrifice efficacious for ever took His place on the divine throne in certain expectation of final victory (12, 13).

(11). καὶ πᾶς μὲν ἱερεύς] Αnd further, there is another characteristic of Christ's priestly work which marks its infinite superiority, while every Levitical priest standeth...He...sat down....Christ's sacrifice is not only pleasing to God, but it has an absolute power: it issues in perfect sovereignty for the Son of man, the representative of men (ii. 9).

For the opposition of the clauses (πᾶς μέν-οὗτος δέ) compare i. 7; iii. 5; vii. 8; ix. 23; xii. 10.

The general term 'priest' (ἱερεύς, Latt. sacerdos) suits the argument better than the specific term 'high-priest' The work of Christ is considered in relation to the whole hierarchical and sacrificial system of Judaism. The Jewish priests 'stand' in their service (Deut. x. 8; xviii. 7).

ἔστηκεν] standeth, Latt. præsto est. The idea of 'standing' is that of a work still to be done, of service still to be rendered, of homage still to be paid. So the angels stand before God: Is. vi. 5; Lev. i. 19; Apoc. vii. 11. Comp. i. 3 note.

The attitude of the Lord in Acts vii. 56 is explained in the Apostolical 314 ἔστηκεν καθ' ἡμέραν λειτουργῶν καὶ τὰς αὐτὰς πολλάκις προσφέρων θυσίας, αἴτινες οὐδέποτε δύνανται περιελεῖν ἁμαρτίας. ¹²οὗτος δὲ μίαν ὑπὲρ ἁμαρτιῶν προσενέγκας θυσίαν εἰς τὸ διηνεκὲς ἐκάθισεν ἐν δεξιᾷ τοῦ θεοῦ, ¹³τὸ λοιπὸν

λειτ. καθ' ἡμ. א*. καὶ τὰς αὐ.: om. καί D₂*. 12 οὕτος: αὐτός S. ἐν (ἐκ א) *δεξιᾷ) CD₂: *ἐκ δεξιῶν A.

Constitutions on the supposition that He appears ὡς ἀρχιερεὺς πάντων τῶν λογικῶν ταγμάτων (vi. 30, 5).

See also John iii. 29. 'They also serve who only stand and wait'

καθ΄ ἡμέραν...θυσίας] The divine service and the sacrifices of the Tabernacle and Temple are repeated day by day. This could be said even of the duties of the High-priest: see c. vii. 27 note. The verb λειτουργεῖν is found in the Ν. T. elsewhere only Acts xiii. 2; Rom. xv. 27. For the meaning see c. viii. 2 Addit. Note. The order of the original, by which the thoughts of the identity and frequency of the Levitical sacrifices are brought together (τὰς αὐτὰς πολ. προσφ. θυσ.), is expressive.

αἴτινες] 'which are such that...'. Comp. c. ii. 3 note.

περιελεῖν ἁμαρτίας] Latt. auferre peccata. Contrast περίκειται, c. ν. 2. Man is, so to speak, wrapped in sins. He weaves, as it were, in action (ἁμαρτίαι not ἁμαρτία) a terrible robe for himself (comp. Ps. xxxv. 26; cix. 18 notes). This enveloping shroud, no part of his true self, has to be stripped off (2 Cor. iii. 16; Judith x. 3).

For περιελεῖν compare Zeph. iii. 11 περιελῶ τὰ φαυλίσματα, 15 περιεῖλε κύριος τὰ ἀδικήμ. (Hebrewφιp). The image is found also in Classical writers.

(12). οὕτος δὲ μίαν...εἰς τὸ διηνεκές, ἐκάθισεν...] He, when He had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down...;O.L. una oblata hostia in sempiterno sedit;; Vulg. hic autem unam offerens hostiam in sempiternum....The sacrifice was efficacious for ever, through all time, being appropriated by each believer (v. 14). The connexion of εἰς τὸ διηνεκές with the following ἐκάθισεν (for ever sat down) is contrary to the usage of the Epistle; it obscures the idea of the perpetual efficacy of Christ's one sacrifice; it weakens the contrast with ἔστηκεν; and it imports a foreign idea into the image of the assumption (ἐκάθισεν) of royal dignity by Christ.

For oὕτος see iii. 3; vii. 4; and for ἐκάθισεν, c. i. 3 note. The word ἐκάθισεν is in sharp opposition to ἔστηκεν λειτουργῶν (v 11). Throughout the Epistle (except i. 13 καθοῦ from the lxx.) the reference is uniformly to the act of taking the royal seat (καθίζειν as contrasted with καθῆσθαι: i. 3; viii. 1; xii. 2). Compare Eph. i. 20: Apoc. iii. 21; and contrast the phrase of the Apocalypse ὁ καθήμενος ἐπὶ τ. θρόνου (iv. 9 ff.). On the general thought Chrysostom says tersely: τὸ ἑστάναι τοῦ λειτουργεῖν ἐστὶ σημεῖον, οὐκοῦν τὸ καθῆσθαι τοῦ λειτουργείσθαι.

(13). τὸ λοιπὸν ἐκδεχ.] henceforward waiting. Christ Himself in His royal majesty 'waits' as the husbandman for the processes of nature (James v. 7) and the patriarchs for the divine promise (c. xi. 10). There is an aspect in which the time of the triumphant Return of Christ is known only to the Father (Matt. xxiv. 36; Mark xiii. 32; Acts i. 7), and is in some sense contingent on the action of men (Acts iii. 19 ὅπως ἄν...ἀποστείλῃ...; 2 Pet. iii. 12).

Elsewhere in the Ν. T. the word (ἐκδέχεσθαι) is used only of one man waiting for another (Acts xvii. 16; 1 Cor. xi. 33; xvi. 11: not John v. 3; 1 Pet. iii. 20).

τὸ λοιπὸν] Vulg. de cetero, O. L. 315 ἐκδεχόμενος ἔως τεθῶσιν oἱ ἐχθροὶ αὐτοῦ ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν αὐτοῦ, ¹⁴μιᾷ γὰρ προσφορᾷ τετλείωκεν εἰς τὸ διηνεκὲς

postea. 2 Thess. iii. 1; Phil, iii. 1; iv. 8; 1 Cor. vii. 29. (Mk. xiv. 41.) Eph. vi. 10 (τοῦ λοιποῦ).

ἔως τεθῶσιν] The Return of Christ appears to be placed after the conquest of His enemies. Compare 1 Cor. xv. 22 ff.

The reference to Ps. cx. carries back the thoughts of the reader to the portraiture of the majesty of the Son in c. i. 13. His victory is won (John xvi. 33 νενίκηκα): only the fruits of it remain to be gathered.

(14). μιᾷ γὰρ προσφορᾷ] For by one offering..., so that no fresh duty can interrupt the continuance of His royal Majesty.

The word προσφορά goes back to v. 10 (note). It extends more widely than Θυσία (v. 12; ix. 16). St Paul combines both words in Eph. v. 2 which, as was noticed, is the only passage besides this chapter (vv. 5, 8, 10, 18) in which the word is used in connexion with Christ's work; nor indeed does it occur elsewhere in the Epistles at all except Rom. xv. 16.

The 'offering' of Christ, His perfect life crowned by a willing death, in which He fulfilled the destiny of man and bore the punishment of human sin, is that by and in which every human life finds its consummation.

It is significant that Christ Himself is said to perfect 'by the offering': it is not said that 'the offering' perfects. His action is personal in the application of His own work. The importance of this form of expression appears from the language used of the Law: vii. 19 οὐδὲν ἐτελείωσεν ὁ νόμος. Comp. ix. 9; x. 1. In the case of the Levitical institutions the action of the appointed ministers fell into the background.

τετελ. εἰς τὸ διην.] He hath perfected for ever... Latt. consummavit in sempiternum. For the perfect see xi. 17 note; vii. 6 note, 28; ix. 6, 8, 18; and contrast ἐτελείωσεν c. vii. 19.

For εἰς τὸ διην. see c. vii. 3; x. 1 notes. The virtue of Christ's work remains ever available as long as the need of man exists.

τοὺς ἁγιαζομένους] Vulg. sanctificatos; O. L. nos sanctificans: all who from time to time realise progressively in fact that which has been potentially obtained for them. Compare c. ii. 11; and contrast v. 10 ἡγιασμένος.

The endeavour of the Old Latin to express the continuous form of the present is interesting (see for the converse i. 3).

There is a similar contrast between οἱ σωζόμενοι (comp. 1 Cor. xv. 2); Luke xiii. 23; Acts ii. 47; 1 Cor. i. 18; 2 Cor. ii. 15; and σεσωσμένοι Eph. ii. 5, 8. Compare ἔσωσεν 2 Tim. i. 9; Tit. iii. 5.

(4) 15—18. The fulfilment in Christ of the prophetic description of the New Covenant.

The Apostle goes back in conclusion to the testimony of the prophet from which he commenced his exposition of the high-priestly and sacrificial service of the new Covenant. A characteristic of that Covenant, which has been established by Christ, was the forgiveness of sins. Under it, therefore, offerings for sin were necessarily done away; and the Temple services could no longer have any value for the Christian.

¹⁵And the Holy Spirit also beareth witness to us; for after that He hath said,

¹⁶This is the covenant that I will covenant with them

After those days, saith the Lord,

Even putting my laws upon their heart,

And upon their mind will I write them;

then saith He 316 τοὺς ἁγιαζομένους. ¹⁵Μαρτυρεῖ δὲ ἡμῖν καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον, μετὰ γὰρ τὸ ειρηκέναι ¹⁶Αὐτη ἡ διαθήκη ἥν διαθήκομαι πρὸς αὐτούς μετὰ τὰς ἡμέρας ἐκείνας, λέγει Κύριος, διδοὺς νόμους μου ἐπὶ καρδίας αὐτῶν, καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτῶν ἐπιγράψω αὐτούς, — ¹⁷Καὶ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν αὐτῶν καὶ τῶν ἀνομιῶν αὐτῶν οὐ μὴ μνησθήσομαι

15 μετὰ δέ D₂*. εἰρηκέναι : προειρ. S. 16 αὐτη δέ D₂* vg. τὴν διάν. אACD₂* (vg): τῶν διαν. S (vg) syrr me æg. 17 τῶν ἁμ. αὐ.: om. αὐτῶν D₂* vg. μνησθήσομαι: μνησθῶ S א*.

¹⁷And their sins and their iniquities will I remember no more.

¹⁸Now where there is remission of these, there is no more offering for sin.

(15). μαρτυρεῖ δὲ ἡμῖν καὶ π. τὸ ἅ.] Vulg. contestatur nos (O. L. nobis). And the Holy Spirit also beareth witness to us Christians and confirms our common faith. Ἡμῖν can also be taken as a dat. comm. 'for us,' 'in our favour,' in which case μαρτυρεῖ is used absolutely. The general sense is the same in both cases. The witness of the Holy Spirit in the promise of the New Covenant is added to the witness of Christ contained in the Psalm. The emphatic position of μαρτυρεῖ seems to mark the anxiety of the writer to convince his readers of the perfect validity of Christ's claim. The words of the Christ in the Psalm are supported by an independent divine testimony.

15—17. μετὰ τὸ εἰρηκέναι...καὶ τῶν...] It is difficult to determine the construction of the whole passage. Some have supposed that the writer uses λέγει Κὺριος as part of his own statement: 'For after that he hath said...' the Lord saith Ί will give...and their sins...will I remember no more.' But the point of the apodosis lies in the declaration of the forgiveness of sins, and the force of this declaration is weakened by the addition of the two preceding lines, which describe the human conditions of the covenant that have been fulfilled by Christ. It is better therefore to suppose that the construction is broken, and that the apodosis begins with v. 17. 'For after that He hath said...write them; then saith He, Their sins...' So Primasius: In sequentibus verbis defectus est sententiæ satis necessarius, quapropter dicatur ita: Postquam enim dixit Omnipotens Deus per prophetam...statim subintulit: Et peccatum eorum non memorabor amplius....

(16). Comp. c. viii. 8 ff. note. (Jer. xxxi. (xxxviii.) 31 ff.)

For the special phrase τῷ οἴκῳ Ἰσραήλ here the writer substitutes πρὸς αὐτούς; and καρδία and διάνοια are transposed, and the clause καὶ τῶν ἀνομιῶν αὐτῶν is added.

(17). οὐ μὴ μνησθήσομαι] Contrast v. 3 ἀνάμνησις ἁμαρτιῶν.

(18). ὅπου δὲ ἄφεσις τούτων] Now where there is remission of these sins. For ἄφεσις see c. ix. 22 note. The consequences of sin are threefold: debt which requires forgiveness, bondage which requires redemption, alienation which requires reconciliation. See note on 1 John i. 9. The words ἄφεσις, ἀφιέναι express the first idea: comp. Matt. xviii. 27, 32, 35.

These words are rare in the Epistles, more frequent in the Synoptic Gospels and (ἄφεσις ἁμ.) Acts. The 'remission' of sins is essentially a creative act: compare Matt. ix. 2 ff. and parallels. 317 ἔτι. ¹⁸ὅπου δὲ ἄφεσις τούτων, οὐκέτι προσφορὰ περὶ ἁμαρτίας.

18 ἄφεσις: άφεις א*. om. τούτων א*.

Comp. c. ix. 22.

The only other places where ἄφεσις occurs in the Epistles are Eph. i. 7 ἐν ῷ ἔχομεν τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν διὰ τοῦ αἵματος αὐτοῦ, τὴν ἄφεσιν τῶν παραπτωμάτων. Col. i. 14 ἐν ῷ ἔχομεν τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν, τὴν ἄφεσιν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν.

Contrast πάρεσις Rom. iii. 25.

The prophetic words show that under the New Covenant no place is left for the Levitical sacrifices. The Christian can therefore dispense with them without any loss. To be forced to give up their shadowy consolation is to be led to realise more practically the work of Christ.

This is the last-the decisive—word of the argument.

V. @Τhe Appropriation and vital Application of the Truths laid down@ (x. 19—xiii. 25).

Having established his theoretical view of the relation of Christianity to Judaism, as its complete fulfilment, the substance answering to the shadow, the writer of the Epistle at once goes on to enforce the practical consequences of his conclusions. The privileges must be used: the duties must be discharged. The faith is not for speculation but for life. All the consolations of the Levitical system can be surrendered without loss; and they must be surrendered at once if they come in any way into competition with Christian obligation.

This main line of thought is developed under four sections. The writer first makes a direct application of his teaching to his readers, defining sharply their privileges and perils and encouragements (x. 19—39). Having thus insisted on the necessity of faith as an element in that patient endurance which God requires in the discipline of His Providence, he next shews that it was by faith the spiritual heroes of earlier times wrought their victories (c. xi). Such examples had an immediate application to the circumstances of the crisis in which the Hebrews were placed; and they were sufficient to enable them to realise the grandeur of the responsibilities and hopes which were given to them (c. xii.). The last chapter (c. xiii.) is a kind of appendix to the Epistle in which detailed instructions and personal notices find a place.

Thus we have:

i. The privileges, perils, encouragements of the Hebrews (x. 19—39).

ii. The past triumphs of Faith (xi. 1—40).

iii. The general application of the lessons of the past to the present season of trial (xii. 1—29).

iv. Last words (xiii. 1—25).

i. The privileges, perils, encouragements of the Hebrews (x. 19—39).

The application of the lessons to be drawn from the view which the Apostle has given of the absolute supremacy of the Christian Faith over the preparatory system of Judaism begins with a vivid picture of the position of the Hebrews, (1) of their privileges and duties (19—25), (2) of their perils (26—31), and (3) of their encouragements (32—39). Each section has traits taken directly from scenes of persecution, from the isolation of proud or timid believers (v. 25), the abjuration of apostates (v. 29), the triumph of confessors (v. 34).

(1) vv. 19—25. The privileges and duties of Christians.

The section deals first with the personal privileges (19—22), and then with the social duties of believers (23-25).

The privilege of direct access to

318

¹⁹Ἔχοντες οὖν, ἀδελφοί, παρρησίαν εἰς τὴν εἴσοδον τῶν ἁγίων ἐν τῷ αἵματι Ίησοῦ, ²⁰ἥν ἐνεκαίνισεν ἡμῖν ὁδὸν

God is confirmed by general and personal considerations. We have a way of approach and an effective Mediator (19—21). And on our part certain conditions have to be fulfilled personally. These are both subjective (with a true heart, in fulness of faith), and objective (sprinkled in our hearts, washed in our body) (22).

¹⁹Having therefore, brethren, boldness to use the entrance into the Holy place in the blood of Jesus, the entrance which He inaugurated for us, ²⁰even a fresh and living way through the veil, that is to say a way of His flesh, ²¹and a great priest over the house of God, ²²let us come to God with a true heart in fulness of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our body bathed with pure water, ²³Let us hold fast the confession of our hope that it waver not, for He is faithful that promised. ²⁴And let us consider one another to provoke unto love and good works, ²⁵not forsaking the gathering of ourselves together, as the custom of some is, but exhorting one another; and so much the more as ye see the day drawing nigh.

19—21. The writer sums up briefly the blessings which he has shewn to belong to Christians. They have an entrance to the Divine Presence in virtue of Christ's Blood, a way made by the Incarnation, and an availing personal Advocate, a Priest over the house of God.

(19). ἔχοντες οὖν, ἀδελφοί...] Having therefore, brethren... That which was under the Law a privilege of one only, once a year, is now the privilege of all Christians at all times. The form of the sentence is closely parallel to c. iv. 13 ff.

The title ἀδελφοί (compare c. iii. 1 note) is an impressive recognition of the new fellowship established in Christ. By using it the writer appeals to his readers to consider what they have received as Christians.

παρρησίαν] boldness in spite of the frankest recognition of our sins. Comp. iii. 6 note; iv. 16.

Παρρησίαν πότεν; ἀπὸ τῆς ἀφέσεως...οὐ μόνον δὲ τοῦτο, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὸ συγκληρονόμους γενέσθαι καὶ τοσαύτης ἀπολαῦσαι ἀγάπης (Chrys.).

εἰς τὴν εἴσ. τ. ἁ.] to use the entrance into the Holy place, Vulg. in introitu (-um) sanctorum. Each Christian in virtue of his fellowship with Christ is now a high-priest, and is able to come to the very presence of God. The 'entrance' expresses primarily the way itself, and thou also the use of the way. Elsewhere in the Ν. T. εἴσοδος is used generally of 'the act of entering': 1 Thess. i. 9; ii. 1; Acts xiii. 24; but in 2 Pet. i. 11 it has rather the sense of 'the means of entering,' and the parallel with ὁδός (v. 20) seems to fix this as the dominant sense here.

The use of the phrase 'boldness for (to use) the entrance' instead of the simpler 'boldness to enter' (παρρησίαν τοῦ εἰσιέναι) calls up distinctly both the characteristic act of the High priest, and the provision made by Christ For the gen. τῶν ἁγίων see c. ix. 8.

For εἰς, describing the end, compare v. 24; Acts ii. 38; Rom. viii. 15; 2 Cor. vii. 9; 2 Pet. ii. 12; and for παρρησία εἰς c. xi. ii; Rom. i. 16 (δύναμις εἰς); 2 Cor. vii. 10; Phil. i. 23.

ἐν τῷ αἵματι] Vulg. in sanguine. The entrance of Christians into the divine presence is 'in the blood of Jesus'— even as the Levitical High-priest entered into the Holy of holies 'in blood,' though it was the blood of 'bulls and goats': c. ix. 25 ἐν αἵματι λοτρίῳ—in the power, that is, of the human life of the Lord offered up and made available for them: His life is 319 πρόσφατον καὶ ζῶσαν διὰ τοῦ καταπετάσματος, τοῦτ᾿.

20 om. καί D₂*.

their way ('vita Tua via nostra'). The human name of the Lord in every place where it occurs in the Epistle emphasises His true humanity and rests the point of the argument upon that. Compare ii. 9 note. For ἐν αἵματι compare c. ix. 25 note.

ἥν ἐνεκαίνισεν] the entrance which He inaugurated for us, even a fresh and living way... Vulg. quam (O. L. in qua) initiavit (Vigil. dedicavit) viam... Christ has made available for others the road by which He Himself travelled. He not only made the way, but He also used it (ἐνεκαίνισεν...ἥν κατεκεύσσε, φησί, καὶ δι' ἧς αὐτὸς ἐβάδισεν, Chrys.). Compare c. vi. 20 (πρόδρομος); ix. 12 (διὰ τοῦ ἰδίου αἵματος εἰσῆλθεν). The word ἐγκαινίζειν (c. ix. 18 note) is used in the lxx. of the inauguration (dedication) of the altar, the temple, the kingdom (1 Sam. xi. 14), a house (Deut. xx. 5)11   The clause παρρησίαν...σαρκός is transferred to the Prayer of the Veil in the Greek Liturgy of St James, where the printed texts give ἐνεκαίνισας, but the reading of the Mss. is ἐνεκαίνισας (Swainson, *Greek Liturgies, pp. 262, 3). The argument which has been built on the difference of the verb to establish the originality of the clause in the Liturgy is therefore wholly unfounded..

The ἥν is the direct object of ἐνεκαίνισεν. Comp. Rom. ix. 24. It has been taken (less naturally) predicatively: 'for to be this—as which—He inaugurated a fresh and living way...'

Thus ὁδὸν πρ. καὶ ζῶσαν are in apposition with εἴσοδον and descriptive of it. The way, however the words which follow may be interpreted, must finally be Christ Himself (John xiv. 6; x. 7); and it is therefore 'fresh' not only in the sense that it is a way which was before unknown, but also as one that retains its freshness and cannot grow old (c. viii. 13); and it is 'living' as a way which consists in fellowship with a Person (οὐκ εἶπε ζωῆς, ἀλλὰ ζῶσαν αὐτὴν ἐκάλεσε, τὴν μένουσαν οὕτω δηλῶν Chrys.).

The word πρόσφατος is found here only in the Ν. Τ. (προσφάτως Acts xviii. 2). It occurs in the lxx. (e.g. Ps. lxxx. (lxxxi.) 10; Eccles. i. 9) and in Classical writers from Homer downwards. The current derivations from σφάω (σφάζω), φάω (φἐνω), φάω (φημί), are all unsatisfactory.

The language of the Apostle finds a remarkable parallel in the words with which Florus (i. 9, 14) describes the self-devotion of Decius Mus, who 'quasi monitu deorum capite velato primam ante aciom Die Manibus se [devovit], ut in confertissima so hostium tela jaculatus novum ad victoriam iter sanguinis sui limite aperiret.'

διὰ τοῦ καταπετάσματος]...There can be no doubt that the 'veil' is here regarded as excluding from the Divine Presence and not (as some Fathers took it) as the door by which the Divine Presence was approached. Comp. c. vi. 8; ix. 8.

The way into the holiest place can now be traversed. The veil is not indeed removed so long as we live on earth, but we can pass through it in Christ. Comp. Matt. xxvii. 51 and parallels.

How then are we to understand the words which follow, τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ?

These words are by common consent taken either as dependent on τοῦ καταμετάσματος, 'the veil, that is the veil of His flesh' (i.e. consisting in His flesh), or as in apposition with it, 'the veil, that is, His flesh.' In both cases 'the flesh' of Christ is presented as that through which He passed, a veil which for a time shut off access to God.

Such a thought is strange and difficult; but it becomes in some degree 320 intelligible if 'the flesh' of Christ is used in a strictly limited sense to describe His humanity under the limitations of earthly existence, of temptation and suffering, as in St Paul's phrase γινώσκειν κατὰ σάρκα Xριστόν (2 Cor. v. 16). In favour of such a sense the words in c. v. 7 may be quoted ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ and (with less point) ii. 14 κεκοινώνηκε αἵματος καὶ σαρκός. The Word ('flesh') being thus understood, it can be said that Christ passed through 'the flesh' which He assumed, which did actually to common eyes hide God from men, into the presence of God; but the greatest care must be taken to guard against the error of supposing that in 'passing through,' and thus leaving behind, His 'flesh,' Christ parted with anything which belongs to the full perfection of His humanity.

It must also be observed that, if this interpretation be adopted, it seems to be necessary to connect διὰ τοῦ καταπ...τ. σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ closely with ἐνεκαίνισεν, and to confine the expression to the action of Christ. For it is most unlikely that the Apostle would describe Christ's 'flesh' as a veil hiding God from men, through which they too must pass, though it is true that His humanity did, during His historic Presence, veil His Godhead, and that, in one sense, 'the flesh profiteth nothing.'

Still even with these restrictions this interpretation is hardly satisfactory. It remains surprising that 'the flesh' of Christ should be treated in any way as a veil, an obstacle, to the vision of God in a place where stress is laid on His humanity (ἐν τῷ αἵματι Ἰησοῦ). And we should certainly expect to find a complete parallelism between the description of the approach of Christ to God and the approach of the believer to God.

These difficulties point to a different view of the construction by which the clause τοῦτ ἔστιν τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ is connected with ὁδόν (and not with τοῦ καταπετάσματος), 'a way through the veil, that is, a way consisting in His flesh, His true human nature.' The whole clause ὁδὸν...καταπετάσματος will thus become a compound noun, 'a fresh and living way through the veil.'

This construction appears to be followed by our Early English translations: 'by the new and living way which He hath prepared for us through the veil, that is to say (Gen. om. to say) by His flesh' (Tynd., Cov., G.B., Gen.). The 'by' is omitted in the Bishops' Bible. Perhaps Vigilius Tapsensis (c. Varim. i. c. 27; Migne P. L. lxii. 371) gives the same construction: qui dedicavit nobis viam recentem et viam per velamen, id est, carnem suam, offerens seipsum pro nobis.

The Greek certainly admits this construction: τουτέστιν does not necessarily refer to the words which immediately precede: c. vii. 5. And the sense agrees perfectly with the argument.

At first sight indeed the connexion of τῆς σαρκὸς with ὁδόν seems to be less natural than the connexion with τοῦ καταπετάσματος only; but the thought which is thus expressed of 'a way consisting in Christ's flesh' falls in perfectly with the scope of the passage. It was by the 'way of His flesh,' by a way which lay in His humanity, that Christ entered through the veil after the offering of Himself as a High-priest able to sympathise with men. And it is by the 'way of His flesh,' as sharing in the virtue of His humanity, and sprinkled with His blood, that Christians come before God. Comp. John vi. 53 ff.; xiv. 19; Col. i. 22 ἀποκατήλλαξεν (v. ἀποκατηλλάγητε) ἐν τῷ σώματι τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ διὰ τοῦ θανάτου.

Chrysostom says with singular want of clearness: ἡ σὰρξ αὔτη ἕτεμε πρώτη τὴν ὁδὸν αὐτῷ ἐκείνην, ἥν καὶ ἐγκαινίσαι λέγει, τῷ καὶ αὐτὸς ἀξιῶσαι διὰ ταύτης βαδίσαι. καταπέτασμα δὲ εἰκότως ἐκάλεσε τὴν σάρκα, ὅτε γὰρ ἥρθη εἰς ὕψος τότε ἐφάνη τὰ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς. 321 ἔστιν τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ, ²¹καὶ ἱερέα μέγαν ἐπὶ τὸν οἶκον

+διὰ' τῆς σ. D₂*.

Theophylact repeats the last idea: τοῦτο γὰρ ἴδιον τοῦ καταπετάσματος τὸ ὅταν ἄρθῃ ἀνακαλύπτειν τὰ ἔνδον.

Theodoret regards the veil as the appointed means of approach, and not as the obstacle which hindered access: καταπέτασμα τὴν δεσποτικὴν ὠνόμασε σάρκα. διὰ ταύτης γὰρ ἀπολαύομεν τὴς εἰς τὰ ἅγια τῶν ἁωίων εἰσόδου. ὥσπερ γὰρ ὁ κατὰ νόμον ἀρχιερεὺς διὰ τοῦ καταπετάσματος εἰς τὰ ἅγια τῶν ἁγίων εἰσῇει, ἑτἐρως δὲ αὐτὸν εἰσελθεῖν ἀδύνατον ἥν, οὕτως οἱ εἰς τὸν Κύριον πεπιστευκότες διὰ τῆς τοῦ παναγίου σώματος μεταλήψεως τῆς ἐν οὐρανοῖς ἀπολαύσουσι πολιτείας. But this view, though it has found wider acceptance (e.g. Primasius: Sicut per velamen perveniebatur ad interiora, ita per humanitatem pervenitur ad divinitatis cognitionom), is wholly at variance with the imagery of the Epistle, and with the symbolism of the Old Testament. On the other hand it witnesses to the truth that Christ's 'flesh' is 'the way.'

(21). καὶ ἱερέα μέγαν] Christians have open access to the Divine Presence; and in the court of the Divine Majesty they have an effectual Intercessor.

The epithet great describes the sovereign power of our Priest (a great High-priest c. iv. 14), and does not simply serve in combination with ἱερεύς as an equivalent for ἀρχιερεύς (Lev. xxi. 10 ὁ ἱερεὺς ὁ μέγας).

ἐπὶ τὸν οἶκον τ. θ.] Vulg. super domum (Ο. L. in domo) Dei. The House of God includes the whole Christian economy both in its earthly and in its heavenly elements; in its organisation and in its members. The Church on earth, so far as it has a true existence, lives by its embodiment of the heavenly idea. Under other aspects this 'house' is spoken of as 'the order to come' (ἡ οἰκουμένη ἡ μέλλουσα c. ii. 5) and 'the city to come' ([ἡ πόλις] ἡ μέλλουσα c. xiii. 14).

See c. iii. 4; 6 (ἐπί); and compare c. xii. 22; Phil. iii. 20; Zech. vi. 11 ff.

Philo speaks of the righteous soul, and again, by a remarkable image, of the Word itself, as 'the house of God': τίς γὰρ οἴκος παρὰ γενέσει (in things created) δύναιτ' ἄν ἀξιοπρεπέστερος εὑρεθῆναι θεῷ πλὴν ψυχῆς τελείας κεκαθαρμένης...; (de sobr. § 13; i. 402 M.); σπούδασον οὔν, ὧ ψυχή, θεοῦ οἴκος γενέσθαι, ἱερὸν ἅγιον...(de somn. i. § 23; i. 643 M.);...τὸν τῶν ὅλων νοῦν, τὸν θεόν, οἶκον ἔχειν φησὶ τὸν ἑαυτοῦ λόγον (de migr. Abr. § i.; i. 437 Μ.).

(22). These privileges of Christians are to be used. They must personally exercise their right of access to God. And this they must do in sincerity and faith, even as they have received the fulness of divine blessing in preparation for the fulfilment of their priestly work.

The connexion of the clauses in vv. 22—24 is uncertain. It is possible to begin each main sentence with the verb: προσερχώμεθα. ..κατέχωμεν...καὶ κατανοῶμεν; or to regard the καί as giving the new beginning: προσερχώμεθα...καὶλελουσμένοι...κατέχωμεν...καὶ κατανοῶμεν...; or to make the break after πίστεως. The last arrangement may be dismissed at once. In favour of the second, it may be urged that it gives a natural succession of conditions; internal and external, both personal and social: and further that the separation of Baptism (λελ. τὸ σῶμα) from the confession naturally included in it is harsh; while the accumulation of fresh thoughts by καί is in the style of the writer (let us come to God...; and having our body bathed...let us hold fast...; and let us consider...).

But on the other hand it seems most likely that the writer would complete the description of the conditions of personal approach, corresponding with the priestly preparations in the Levitical code, and then pass 322 τοῦ θεοῦ, ²²προσερχώμεθα μετὰ ἀληθινῆς καρδίας ἐv πληροφορίᾳ πίστεως, ῥεραντισμένοι τὰς καρδίας ἀπὸ συνειδήσεως πονηρᾶς καὶ λελουσμένοι τὸ σῶμα ὕδατι

22 προσερχόμεθα D₂.

on to the social obligations of Christians. So that on the whole it seems best to make the break at the end of v. 22 (let us come to God...bathed with pure water. Let us hold fast....And let us consider...).

The fourfold characterisation of worshippers in v. 22 ((1) μετὰ ἀληθινῆς καρδίας, (2) ἐν πληροφορίᾳ πίστεως, (3) ῥεραντισμένοι, (4) λελουσμένοι) deals with what they are and with what they have received, with their disposition and with their divine endowment. In themselves there is required sincerity and faith; in regard to the gift of God, the participation in the spiritual reality and in the outward sacramental sign of cleansing.

προσερχώμετα] The word in this sense of the approach of the worshipper to God is found in the Ν. T. only in this Epistle and in 1 Pet. ii. 4. The usage is not unfrequent in the lxx. Comp. iv. 16 note.

This approach is characterised by two personal qualities, real devotion and ripe faith.

μετὰ ἀληθινῆς καρδίας] with a true heart— Vulg. cum vero (O. L. certo v. puro) corde- a heart which fulfils the ideal office of the heart, the seat of the individual character, towards God—a heart which espressos completely the devotion of the whole person to God. There is no divided allegiance: no reserve of feeling.

The phrase ἀληθινὴ καρδία is found in Is. xxxviii. 3 (lxx.) ἐπορεύθην ἐνώπιόν σου μετὰ ἀληθείας ἐν ἀληθινῇ καρδίᾳ (HebrewtkV ^h, a whole heart). Test. xii Patr. Dan § 5 ἀγαπᾶτε...ἀλλήλους ἐν ἀληθινῇ καρδία.

For ἀληθινός see c. viii. 2; ix. 24. (Deut. xxv. 15; Is. lxv. 2 @a@.). Comp. c. viii. 2 note. For καρδία see Additional Note on c. iv.

ἐν πληροφ. πίστ.] in fulness of faith, Vulg. in plenitudine (O. L. confirmatione al. satisfactione) fidei, in faith which has reached its mature vigour. Compare c. vi. 11 πρὸς τὴν πληροφορίαν τῆς ἐλπίδος. The sense of perfect self-surrender must be completed by sure reliance on One Who is ready to help.

The three members of the Christian triad of earthly discipline are forcibly recognised in the familiar order of St Paul (1 Cor. xiii. 13) ἐν πληροφορίᾳ πίστεως, κατέχωμεν τῆν ὁμολογίαν ἐλπίδος (v. 23), εἰς παροξυσμὸν ἀγάπης (v. 24).

For the possible origin of the Christian triad in a saying of the Lord (Ἐπιμελεῖσθε πίστεως καὶ ἐλπίδος δι' ὧν γεννᾶται ἡ φιλόθεος καὶ φιλάνθρωπος ἀγάπη, ἡ τὴν αἰώνιον ζωὴν παρέχουσα Macar. Alex. Hom. xxxvii.; Migne, P. G. xxxiv. p. 749), compare Resch, l.c. 179 ff.

ῥεραντισμένοι...λελουσμένοι] There are also Divine blessings corresponding to human character. The heart is touched with the cleansing power of the Divine life: faith rests on the pledge of a historic fact. In each case there is a reference to Levitical ceremonies. So it is said that we have our hearts—the seat of personal character—and not our outward persons and garments (Ex. xxix. 21; Lev. viii. 30 Chrys. ἐκεῖνοι τὸ σῶμα ἐρραντίζοντο, ἡμεῖς δὲ τὴν συνείδησιν)—sprinkled, that is with Christ's Blood and not with any water of purification, and so cleansed from an evil conscience; and our body is bathed with pure water. In the latter clause there is a reference both to the consecration of priests (Ex. xxix. 4), and to the bathing of the High-priest 323 καθαρῷ. ²³κατέχωμεν τὴν ὁμολογίαν τῆς ἐλπίδος ἀκλινῆ,

23 τῆς ἐλπ. τὴν ὁμολ. D₂ vg. τῆς ἐλπ. ἡμῶν א*.

on the day of Atonement (Lev. xvi. 4). With these symbolic bathings the sacramental 'bathing' of Christians is contrasted.

For ῥαντίζειν see c. ix. 13 note; Lev. xiv. 5 ff.; Num. xix. 9 ff. Twice only is the sprinkling of men with blood noticed in the Levitical ritual, and in each case the symbolism is most expressive: Ex. xxiv. 8 (c. ix. 19); xxix. 21. For the construction ῥαντίζειν ἀπί compare 2 Cor. xi. 3; Rom. ix. 3; Luke xviii. 3.

συνειδ. πονηρ.] The conscience takes its character from the actions of the man: c. xiii. 18 (καλὴν συν.); Acts xxiii. 1 (συν. ἀγαθή, and often); 1 Tim. iii. 9; 2 Tim. i. 3 (καθαρὰ συν.). See also Acts xxiv. 16 (ἀπρόσκοπος συν.): and c. ix. 9 Additional Note p. 293.

For the phrase and thought compare Barn. Ep. xix. 12 oὐ προσήξεις ἑπὶ προσευχὴν ἐv συνειδήσει πονηρᾷ. Did. § xiv.

λελουσμ. τὸ σῶμα ὕ. κ.] having our body bathed with pure water (Vulg. abluti corpus...). For λούεσθαι see Eph. v. 26; Tit. iii. 5; and especially John xiii. 10. For ὕδωρ καθαρόν see Num. v. 17 (HebrewD^hp Οφ); Ezek. xxxvi. 25.

The two phrases appear to contain allusions to the Christian sacraments. That to the Eucharist is veiled: that to Baptism is unquestionable. In the one case the reference is primarily to the spiritual efficacy of the divine working, of which the Holy Eucharist is the appointed but not the sole means: in the other to the outward act, the decisive, sensible, rite in which the believer recognised the foundation of his assurance outside himself. The change in number from τὰς καρδίας to τὸ σῶμα is not to be overlooked.

23—25. The exhortation to the use of the personal privilege of approach to God is followed by the charge to fulfil the social duties of believers. Christians are required to maintain the open confession of their hope (v. 23); to regard one another with a view to bringing the influence of example to bear upon the development of life (v. 24); and to use occasions of meeting together in the prospect of a near crisis (v. 25).

The reference to Baptism in the last clause furnishes a direct transition. The confession then publicly and gladly made must be firmly held:

(23). κατέχωμεν τῆν ὁμολ.] Let us hold fast the confession of our hope that it waver not. Compare c. iv. 14 κρατῶμεν τῆς ὁμολογίας.

For κατέχειν see c. iii. 6, 14.

For ὁμολογία see c. iii. 1; iv. 14. The word was used specially of the confession at Baptism: ἔθος γέγονεν ἐκ τούτου [the Lord's questions to St Peter] τρεῖς ὁμολογίας ἀπαιτεῖσθαι τοὺς μέλλοντας βαπρισθῆναι (Ammon. Cat. in Joh. xxi.). ὡμολογήσαμεν ὅτε τὰς συνθήκας τῆς πίστεως ἐποιούμεθα εἰς ἀνάστασιν νεκρῶν πιστεύειν καὶ εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον (Theophlct.). The illustrations given by Suicer (Thes. s. v. ἀποτάσσομαι) are worthy of study.

The phrase 'confession of hope' is remarkable. The Apostle substitutes for the more general word 'faith,' that word which gives distinctness to special objects of faith to be realised in the future. Hope gives a definite shape to the absolute confidence of Faith. Faith reposes completely in the love of God: Hope vividly anticipates that God will fulfil His promises in a particular way.

The conception of Hope naturally occupies a prominent place in an Epistle directed to meet despondency.

iii. 6 οὖ οἶκός ἐσμεν ἡμεῖς ἐὰν τὴν 324 πιστὸς γὰρ ὁ ἐπαγγειλάμενος. ²⁴καὶ κατανοῶμεν ἀλλήλους εis παροξυσμὸν ἀγάπης καὶ καλῶν ἔργων, ²⁵μὴ

παρρησίαν καὶ τὸ καύχημα τῆς ἐλπίδος μέχρι τέλους βεβαίαν κατάσχωμεν.

vi. 11 ἐπιθυμοῦμεν......ἐνδείκνυσθαι σπουδὴν πρὸς τὴν πληροφορίαν τῆς ἐλπίδος ἄχρι τέλους.

vi. 18, 19 οἱ καταφυγόντες κρατῆσαι τῆς προκειμένης ἐλπίδος ἥν...ἔχομεν...ἀσφαλῆ τε καὶ βεβαίαν, καὶ εἰσερχομένην εἰς τὸ ἐσώτερον τοῦ καταπετάσματος.

vii. 19 κρείττονος ἐλπίδος, δι' ἧς ἐγγίζομεν τῷ θεῷ.

The hope in each case appears to be fixed upon the realisation of a complete divine fellowship under new conditions, as it was laid down by the schoolmen: proprium ac principale spei objectum est ipsa æterna beatitude (Th. Aq. Sum. Th. ii. 2 qu. 17, art. 2). To this the Christian looks forward with a vivid anticipation. In it he sees the assurance of the transfiguration of the conditions of earthly being (1 John iii. 2, 3). The resurrection of Christ is the pledge of its fulfilment (1 Pet. i. 3, 21). Hence 'Christ Jesus' Himself is 'our hope' (1 Tim. i. 1; Col. i. 27).

In the presence of such a hope the visible glories of the Temple fade away. Those who can realise it will feel no loss when they are withdrawn.

Comp. Acts ii. 26 (lxx.); xxiii. 6; xxiv. 15; 2 Cor. iii. 12; Rom. v. 2; viii. 20 ff.; Col. i. 5.

Ἐλπίς is not found in the Gospels.

The translation 'faith' in A. V. is an innovation : 'hope' is found in the earlier versions (Tynd. Cov. GB. Gen. Bps. Rh.).

ἀκλινῆ] Vulg. indeclinabilem, O.L. inprævaricabilem, so that it waver not: or, according to the image, so that it remain erect and firm. The word is not found elsewhere in Ν. T. Comp. Luc. Dem. Enc. § 32 (p. 514) Δημοσθένην ὑπερηγάμην...ἀκλινῆ τὴν ψυχὴν ἐπ' ὀρθὴς ἐν ἁπάσαις φυλάττοντα τρικυμίαις τῆς τύχης καὶ πρὸς μηδὲν τῆν δεινῶν ἐνδιδόντα.

For the form of the sentence see c. v. 14; vii. 24.

πιστὸς γὰρ ὁ ἐπαγγ.] The fidelity of God is not only the sure ground of our confidence but (as men speak) it challenges our fidelity. Compare 1 Cor. i. 9; x. 13; 1 Thess. v. 24.

Sicut eniin fidelis et verus remunerator est Christus in promissionibus suis, ita fidelos uos esse vult in promissis nostris quæ vovimus tempore baptismatis, diabolo videlicet contradicere Christoque servire (Primas.).

(24). καὶ κατανοῶμεν ἀλλήλους] And let us consider one another, Vulg. et consideremus (O. L. aspiciamus) invicem. It is our duty to declare what we are and what we look for: it is our duty also to consider what others are. The well-being of each believer is bound up with the well-being of the whole body. He is therefore constrained to give careful heed to others in the hope that he may rouse them to nobler action; and again that he may himself draw encouragement and inspiration from noble examples. Comp. c. xii. 15. Consideremus nos invicem, scilicet perfecti minores eos hortando, et minores perfectos imitando eos ( Ambr. ap. Pet. Lomb.).

For κατανοεῖν see c. iii. 1 note.

παροξ. ἀγάπης] Vulg. in provocationem caritatis (O. L. amoris). The combination has a startling sound. Christians are to be roused, provoked, but to love. Compare 1 Thess. iv. 11 φιλοτιμεῖσθαι ἡσυχάζειν. Xen. Mem. iii. 3, 13 ἥπερ [φιλοτιμία] μάλιστα παροξύνει πρὸς τὰ καλὰ καὰ ἔντιμα.

[Isocr.] ad Demon. § 46 (p. 12 Β) μάλιστα δ' ἄν παροξυνθείης ὁρέγεσθαι τῶν καλῶν ἔργων.

Euthym. Zig. λίθος μὲν πρὸς λίθον τριβόμενος πῦρ ἀφίησιν, ἄνθρωπος δὲ 325 ἐγκαταλείποντες τὴν ἐπισυναγωγὴν ἑαυτῶν, καρὼς ἔθος

25 ἐγκαταλείποντες A -λιπόντες א: καταλιπόντες D₂*. τὴν ἐπισ. αὐτῶν (αὐ.) א*. ἔθος + ἐστίν D₂*.

πρὸς ἄνθρωπον ἁμιλλώμενος θερμότερος γέγνεται.

The noun occurs in a different sense Acts xv. 39; and the verb Acts xvii. 16; 1 Cor. xiii. 5.

καλῶν ἔργων] good deeds, or rather, noble works, works which by their generous and attractive character win the natural admiration of men. For καλός see c. v. 14; vi. 5.

It is a misfortune that we cannot distinguish καλὰ ἔργα and ἁγαθὰ ἔργα in translation: we are constrained to render both phrases by 'good works.' Yet the ideas suggested by the two phrases are distinct. In ἁγαθὰ ἔργα we mark only the intrinsic character of the works: they are ssentially good. In καλὰ ἔργα we emphasise the notion of their effect upon others, of their nobility which attracts. The same work may be regarded both as ἀγαθόν and as καλόν, but so far as it is καλόν it is looked at under the aspect of moral beauty.

Compare Matt. v. 16 ὅπως ἴδωσιν ὑμῶν τὰ καλὰ ἔργα; xxvi. 10 ἔργον καλόν ἠργάσατο (you fail to see its beauty); || Mk. xiv. 6; John x. 32 πολλὰ ἔργα ἔδειξα ὑμῖν καλά; 1 Tim. iii. 1 καλοῦ ἔργου ἐπιθυμεῖ; v. 10 ἐv ἔργοις κ. μαρτυρουμένη; v. 25; vi. 18; Tit. ii. 7 τύπον καλῶν ἔργων; 14; iii. 8, 14; 1 Pet. ii. 12 ἐκ τῶν καλῶν ἔργων. See also Rom. xii. 17; 2 Cor. viii. 21.

On the other hand, for ἔργα ἀγαθά, ἀγαθὸν ἔργον see Rom. ii. 7; xiii. 3; 2 Cor. ix. 8; Eph. ii. 10; Col. i. 10; 2 Thess. ii. 17; 1 Tim. ii. 10; v. 10; 2 Tim. ii. 21; iii. 17; Tit. i. 16; iii. 1; Hebr. xiii. 21.

(25). μὴ ἐγκαταλ. τὴν ἐπισ. ἑ.] not forsaking the gathering of our own selves together for fellowship in divine worship. Vulg. non deserentes collectionem nostram. The fulfilment of this social duty is presented under a twofold aspect, negatively and positively: Christians are not to abandon the opportunities of meeting; and they are to use the power of mutual influence.

The word ἐγκαταλείποντες conveys the notion not simply of leaving, as no longer taking part in the assembly, but of abandoning, leaving the assembly exposed to peril in the conflict. Compare c. xiii. 5 note; 2 Tim. iv. 10, 16 (Δ. με ἐγκατέλιπεν); 2 Cor. iv. 9 (διωκόμενοι ἀλλ' οὐκ ἐγκαταλειπόμενοι); Matt. xxvii. 46 ἵνα τί με ἐγκατέλιπες;

Ἐπισυναγωγή, which expresses the assembly formed and not only the act of assembling (compare σύναξις Suicer, Thes. s. v.), occurs again in a different connexion in 2 Thess. ii. 1, where the force of the ἐπί is seen, as marking a definite centre to which the gathering is directed, that is, Christ. Comp. Matt. xviii. 20 συνηγμένοι εἰς τὸ ἐμὸν ὄνομα. The verb is found in significant passages: Matt. xxiii. 37; xxiv. 31; Luke xvii. 37; compare 2 Macc. ii. 7.

The use Of ἑαυτῶν (i.e. ἡμῶν αὐτῶν) for the simple ἡμῶν fixes attention on the meeting as characteristically Christian. For the use of ἑαυτῶν see c. iii. 13 note.

Wetstein quotes from Augustine (Conf. viii. 2, 4) the striking account of the conversion of the rhetorician Victorinus: dicebat Simpliciano [his Christian friend] non palam sed secretius et familiarius: Noveris me jam esse Christianum. Et respondebat ille: Non credam, nec deputabe te inter Cbristianos, nisi in ecclesia Christi te ridero. Ille autem irridebat dicens: Ergo parietes faciunt Christianos? Et hoc sæpe dicebat jam se esse Christianum; et Simplicianus illud sæpe respondebat, et sæpe ab illo parietum irrisio repetebatur. 326 τισίν, ἀλλὰ παρακαλοῦντες, καὶ τοσούτῳ μᾶλλον ὅσῳ βλέπετε ἐγγίζουσαν τῆν ἡμέραν. ²⁶Ἑκουσίως

The account of his public profession (§ 5) illustrates the ὁμολογία.

Chrysostom notices the twofold blessing of the Christian gatherings: οἶδεν ἀπὸ τῆς συνουσίας καὶ τῆς ἐπισυναγωγῆς πολλὴν οὖσαν τῆν ἰσχύν (Matt. xviii. 2θ)...οὐ διὰ τοῦτο δὲ μόνον, ἀλλ' ἐπειδὴ καὶ τὰ τῆς ἀγάπης αὐξάνεται διὰ τῆς ἐπισυναγωγῆς.

καθὼς ἔθος τισίν] Vulg. sicut est consuetudinis (—ni V. L.) quibusdam. Such conduct on the side of Christians would arise partly from fear lest they should provoke the active hostility of the Jewish authorities; partly from self-confidence, as though they no longer needed the assistance of ordinary common worship where the general average of spiritual life might be counted too low to aid more mature believers. And yet more than this, the Christian assemblies must have appeared insignificant when compared with those to which the Hebrews were accustomed. Other traces of the practice are found: Jude 19 oἱ ἀποδιορίζοντες (perhaps, though ἑαυτοὺς must be omitted). Barn. Ep. iv. 10 μὴ καθ' ἑαυτοὺς ἐνδύνοντες μονάζετε ὡς ἥδη δεδικαιωμένοι. Herm. Sim. ix. 26 μονάζοντες ἀπολλύασι τὰς ἑαυτῶν ψυχάς. Comp. Ign. ad Ephes. 5, 13; Did. 16.

And Primasius gives the same explanation of the evil habit: deserebant collectionem habitantes soli, ut deo liberius viderentur vacare.

ἀλλὰ παρακαλοῦντες] But on the contrary cheer (Vulg. consolantes) the timid, and stimulate the backward, by your example. Comp. c. iii. 13; xii. 5; xiii. 22 τοῦ λόγου τὴς παρακλήσεως.

Such 'exhortation' would have regard both to dangers from without and to dangers from within. Christians had need of courage and they had need of progress. \Hortatur] consolari simpliciores et suo exemple confortare (Primas). Sublevatio laboris est visio coUaborantis ut in itinere fit (Ambr. ap. Pet Lomb.).

καὶ τος. μᾶλλον ὅσῳ...τὴν ἡμέραν] The actual position of the things, the nearness of the great crisis of the Lord's coming, made the obligation of mutual support among Christians urgently pressing. The danger was great and the time was short. Those who deserted the Christian Faith would be swept away in the ruin soon to follow, without the opportunity of return.

The change to the direct address (βλέπετε in contrast with κατανοῶμεν) adds force to the appeal. The beginning of the Jewish war was already visible to the Hebrews.

This absolute use of 'the day' (τὴν"ἡμέραν) is peculiar. The nearest parallels are 1 Thess. v. 4; Rom. xiii. 12; in both of which passages the contrast with 'night' is brought out. Compare 1 John ii. 8.

'The day' is elsewhere spoken of, according to the phrase of the Ο. T., as 'the day of the Lord' (ἡμέρα Κυτίου, ἡμέρα τοῦ Κυτίου) Acts ii. 20 (lxx.); 1 Thess. v. 2; 2 Thess. ii. 2; 2 Pet. iii. 10; or, more generally, as 'that day' (ἐκείνη ἡ ἡμέρα) Matt. vii. 22; xxiv. 36 || Mk. xiii. 32; Lk. x. 12 (xvii. 31); xxi. 34; 2 Thess. i. 10; 2 Tim. i. 12, 18; iv. 8.

Elsewhere it is called 'the day of God' (2 Pet. iii. 12); 'the day (days) of the Son of man'; Lk. xvii. 26 (30); comp. John viii. 56; 'the day of Christ,' 'of Jesus Christ,' 'of our Lord Jesus' [Christ] Eph. i. 6, 10; ii. 16; 1 Cor. i. 8 (v. 5); 2 Cor. i. 14; Phil. i. 6, 10; ii. 16.

It is also called 'the great day': Jude 6; Apoc. vi. 17; xvi. 14; 'a day of judgment': Matt. x. 15; xi. 22, 24; xii. 36; (Rom. ii. 16); 2 Pet. 327 γὰρ ἁμαρτανόντων ἡμῶν μετὰ τὸ λαβεῖν τὴν ἐπίγνωσιν

26 τῆς ἐπιγνωσίαν א* (sic).

ii. 9; iii. 7; 1 John iv. 17; and, in regard to its contrasted issues, 'a day of redemption': Eph. iv. 30; 'a day of wrath': Rom. ii. 5. Comp. 'the last day' in St John (vi. 59 note).

In working out these various thoughts it will be seen that each day of Christ's coming is at once a fulfilment and a prophecy: a judgment and a promise. Such was the final overthrow of the Jewish system at the fall of Jerusalem.

Tho expectation of the Lord's speedy coming, which then had accomplishment, is found expressed in each group of writings of the Ν. T., and under the same term παρουσία.

'The day' is spoken of as 'drawing nigh' (ἐγγίζουσαν), as in other apostolic writings: Rom. xiii. 12 (ἡ ἡμ. ἤγγικεν); Phil. iv. 5 (ὁ Κύτιος ἐγγύς); James v. 8 (ἡ παρουσία τοῦ Κυρίου ἤγγικεν); 1 Pet. iv. 7 (πάντων τὸ τέλος ἤγγικεν). Compare c. viii. 13 (ἐγγὺς ἀφαωισμοῦ); and John xxi. 21 ff.

(2) vv. 26—31. The perils of apostasy.

The charge which has been given in the last section to fulfil the personal and social claims of the Faith is enforced by a consideration of the perils of apostasy. There is, the writer shows, no sacrifice available for apostates from Christ (26, 27).

Death was the punishment of the corresponding offence under the Old Covenant (28); and the same principle must find application to Christians (29); who serve the same God (30, 31).

It must be observed that the argument assumes that the sacrifice of Christ is finally rejected, and sin persisted in (ἁμαρτανόντων). The writer does not set limits to the efficacy of Christ's work for the penitent.

The whole section must be compared with c. vi. 4—8.

The Fathers commonly interpret the passage as laying down that there can be no repetition of Baptism: so, for example, Chrysostom: [oὐ] μετάνοιαν ἀναιρεῖ ἥ τὸν διὰ μετανοίας ἐξιλασμόν, οὐδὲ ὠθεὶ καὶ καταβάλλει διὰ τῆς ἀπογνώσεως τὸν ἐπταικότα...ἀλλὰ τί; τὸ δεύτερον ἀναιρεὶ βἀπτισμα. οὐ γὰρ εἶπεν, Οὐκέτι ἐστὶ μετάνοια, οὐδέ, Oὐκέτι ἐστὶν ἄφεσις, ἀλλὰ θυσία οὐκέτε ἐστί, τουτέστι σταῦρος δεύτερος οὐκέτε ἐστί: and, following him, Primasius: [non dicit] non est ultra pænitentia, neque peccatorum remissio, sed hostia, inquit, ultra non est, hoc est crux ultra non est secunda, ut iterum Christus crucifigatur, iterumque nos baptisemur.

²⁶For if we willfully sin after that we have received the knowledge of the truth, there is no longer left a sacrifice for sins, ²⁷but a certain fearful expectation of judgment, and a jealousy of fire ready to devour the adversaries. ²⁸One that setteth at naught Moses' law dieth without compassion on the word of two or three witnesses; ²⁹of how much sorer punishment, think ye, shall he be judged worthy who trampleth underfoot the Son of God, and counteth the blood of the covenant a common thing, the blood wherein he was sanctified, and doth outrage to the Spirit of grace? ³⁰For we know Him that said Vengeance is mine, I will recompense; and again The Lord will judge His people. ³¹It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of a living God.

(26), (27). The mention of 'the day' in v. 25 calls out the sad severity of the warning which follows. We must use the help which God has provided and in His way; for if we set this at naught nothing remains for our relief.

(26). ἐκουσίως ἁμαρτανόντων ἡμῶν] Vulg. voluntarie (Ο. L. ultro) peccantibus nobis. The phrase includes two 328 τῆς ἀληθείας, οὐκέτι περὶ ἁμαρτιῶν ἀπολείπεται θυσία, ²⁷φοβερά δέ τις ἐκδοχὴ κρίσεως καὶ πυρὸς ζῆλος ἐσθίειν

περὶ...θυσία: περιλείπεται θυσίαν περὶ ἁμαρτίας προσενενκῖν D₂*.

distinct elements, the voluntariness, that is the realised consciousness, of the sin, and the habitual indulgence in the sin. Such sin involves apostasy from Christ (v. 29 καταπατήσας).

The adverb ἑκουσίως stands first with emphasis: ix. 25. For ἑκουσίως Compare 1 Pet. v. 2 μὴ ἀναγκαστῶς ἀλλὰ ἑκουσίως, and Philem. 14 μὴ κατὰ ἀνάγκην...ἀλλὰ κατὰ ἑκούσιον. Philo de post. Cain. § 3 (i. 228 M.) τὸ ἑκούσιον, ἅτε βουλῇ καὶ προμηθείᾳ γενόμενον, ἀνιάτους εἰς ἀεὶ κῆρας ἐνδέξεται. Contrast Philo, quod Deus. immut. § 28 (i. 292 M.).

For the οpposite ἀκουσίως ἁμαρτάνειν (Hebrew n f#') see Lev. iv. 2; v. 15; Num. xv. 25ff. Comp. Philo de vit. Mos. i. § 49 (ii. 123) Balaam sought forgiveness of the angel συγγνῶναι δεόμενος ὑπ' ἀγνοίας ἀλλ' οὐ καθ' ἑκούσιον γνώμην ἁμαρτόντι. de Prof. § 14.

On ἁμαρτανόντων Theophylact says justly: ὅpa δὲ πῶς οὐκ εἶπεν ἁμαρτόντων ἀλλ' ἀμαρτανόντων, τουτέστιν ἐμμενόν ἁμαρτίᾳ ἀμετανοήτως.

Compare 1 John iii. 6, 9; ν. ι8; and contrast c. iii. 17 (τοῖς ἁμαρτήσασιν).

By the addition of ἡμῶν the writer softens the severity of his words with a touch of deep sympathy. No one of us, he implies, can set aside the warning as needless. If he dwells on the danger of others he does not forgot his own. Comp. 1 John ii. 1 note.

μετὰ τὸ λαβεῖν τὴν ἐπίγν. τῆς ἀλ.] Vulg. post acceptam notitiam veritatis. Compare 1 Tim. iv. 3 ἐπεγνωκόσιν τὴν ἀλήθειαν. The use of the compound phrase (λαβεῖν τὴν ἐπίγν.) for the simple verb (Col. i. 6; 1 Pet. ii. 21) brings out the double aspect of the knowledge as God's gift and man's acquisition (λαβεῖν). In gaining it man is active and yet it is not from him. For similar uses of λαβεῖν see c. ii. 3; xi. 29; 2 Pet. i. 9 (λήτην λαβ.); 2 Tim. i. 5 (ὑπόμνησιν λαβ.).

The knowledge thus received is treated as complete (τὴν ἐπίγ. τῆς ἀλ.: contrast Tit. i. 1; 1 Tim. ii. 4 ἐπίγ. ἀλ.); and the use of the emphatic ἐπίγνωσις in place of the simple γνῶσις marks the greatness of the fall which is contemplated. Those whose case is taken into account have vigorously applied themselves to pursue the study of Christian truth. Ἐπίγνωσις is a characteristic word of St Paul's later Epistles (from Romans onwards). It occurs here only in this Epistle. Comp. 2 Pet. ii. 21; Rom. i. 28; x. 2; and Lightfoot on Phil. i. 9; Col. i. 9.

τῆς ἀληθείας] 'The Truth' absolutely is coincident with the revelation of Christ. This use of the term is characteristic of St John (i. 17; iii. 21; xvi. 13, &c.; 1 John ii. 21, &c.); but is found also in each group of the Epistles: James iii. 14; v. 19; 1 Peter i. 22; 2 Thess. ii. 12; Gal. v. 7; Eph. 1 13; 2 Tim. ii. 15.

οὐκέτι...ἀπολείπεται] The sacrifice of Christ has been rejected; and there is no other sacrifice which can be effectual. The order of the words is remarkable. The words περὶ ἁμαρτιῶν and θυσία are separated so that the fact of sin stands out prominently: 'for sins there is left no sacrifice.' So too the writer appeals to individual experience when he says 'for sins' and not generally 'for sin.' Contrast v. 18 προσφορὰ περὶ ἁμαρτίας, ix. 26 εἰς ἀθέτησιν ἁμαρτίας, xii. 4 πρὸς τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἀνταγωνιζόμενοι. xiii. 11.

Νοη reservatur nobis ultra hostia pro peccato quæ pro nobis offeratur, sicut in veteri lege donatum est 329 μέλλοντος τοὺς ὑπεναντίους. ²⁸ἀθετήσας τις νόμον Μωυσέως χωρὶς οἰκτιρμῶν ἐπὶ αὐσὶν ἥ τρισὶν μάρτυσιν ἀποθνήσκει.

28 οἰκτιρμῶν: + καὶ δακρύων D₂* syr hl.

hostias sæpe offerre pro peccatis (Primas.).

(27). φοβερὰ δέ τις...] but there is...there abideth...(comp. John iii. 36). This issue is represented on its two sides, as man's expectation (ἐκ δοχὴ κρ.), and God's provision (πυρὸς ζῆλος).

The rhetorical use of the indefinite τις gives a solemn awe to the statement. The fact that the expectation cannot be exactly defined necessarily makes it more impressive. Comp. Acts viii. 9; v. 36.

ἐκδοχὴ κρίσεως] The noun ἐκδοχή occurs here only in the N.T. Compare v. 13 ἐκδεχόμενος, c. xi. 10.

Such a judgment (c. ix. 27) would be, for those whom the Apostle describes, condemnation. Comp. John v. 24, 29.

πυρὸς ζῆλος] Latt. ignis æmulatio, a jealousy (fierceness) of fire. The words are adapted from Is. xxvi 11 (lxx.) ζήλος λήψεται λαὸν ἀπαίδευτον καὶ vvw πῦρ τοὺς ὑπεναντίους κατέδεται. The word ζῆλος suggests the thought of love which has been wronged, just as πῦρ describes one aspect of the Divine Nature: c. xii. 29 ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν πῦρ καταναλίσκον.

Ὅρα says Theophylact πῶς οἷον ἐψύχωσε τὸ πῦρ. It is the fire which consumes.

The word ὑπεναντίος, which is not unfrequent in the lxx., occurs again Col. ii. 14.

For the thought of vv. 26—7 compare a striking passage of Philo, quod Deus immut. § 37 (i. 299 M.).

(28), (29). The anticipation of fatal punishment for apostasy is confirmed by the consideration of the enactment for a similar offence under the Old Covenant. The same form of argument from the less to the greater occurs c. ii. 2 f.; ix. 13 f.; xii. 25.

The thought finds a striking illustration in Philo de Prof. § 16, i. p. 558 M.: εἰ οἱ τοῦς θνητοὺς κακηγορήσαντες γονεῖς ἀπάγονται τὴν ἐπὶ θαράτῷ (Ex. xxi. 15) τίνος ἀξίους χρὴ νομίζειν τιμωρίας τοὺς [τὸν] τῶν ὅλων πατέρα καὶ ποιητῆν βλασφημεῖν ὑπομένοντας;

(28). ἀθετήσας τις ν. Μ.] One that setteth at naught Moses' law...Vulg. Irritam quis faciens legem...O.L. Cum enim quidam relinqueret legem... The offence like the correlatives (καταπάτήσας, ἡγησάμενος, ἐνυβρίσας) is regarded in its isolated completeness; the culprit 'set the law at naught.' His act was final and decisive; and it is not presented in its present fulfilment (ἀθετῶν τις) or in its abiding permanence (ἀθετηκώς τις).

The verb ἀθετεῖν occurs here only in the Epistle (comp. άΜτησις vii. 18; ix. 26 note). It describes not only the violation of an ordinance or authority in details, but the denial of the validity of the ordinance or the authority altogether. Comp. Gal. iii. 15; 1 Tim. v. 12; Jude 8; John xii. 18.

The unique absence of the article here in νόμον Μωυσέως (elsewhere ὁ νόμ. Μ. Luke ii. 22; xxiv. 44; John vii. 23; Acts xiii. 39; xv. 5; xxviii. 23 (1 Cor. ix. 9)) gives the sense of 'that which was a prescription of Moses.' The reference, as marked by the clause ἐπὶ δυσὶν ἥ τρισὶν μ. ἀποθ. (Deut. xvii. 6), appears to be to the specific warning against idolatry (Deut. xvii. 2 ff.). Not every offence against the Law was visited with death, but specially, among others, this offence to which the apostasy from Christ corresponded. In the case of the Old Covenant the sanction lay in the declaration of the Lawgiver: in the case of the New Covenant the believer 330 ²⁹πόσῳ δοκεῖτε χείρονος ἀξιωθήσεται τιμωρίας ὁ τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ θεοῦ καταπατήσας, καὶ τὸ αἷμα τῆς διαθήκης κοινὸν

29 δοκεῖδε D₂*.

had direct experience of the power of the Divine Presence.

χωρὶς οἰκτιρμῶν] All the people shared in the infliction of the punishment (Deut. xiii. 9; xvii. 7; Acts vii.

The word οἰκτιρμός (compassion) appears to be very rare in classical Gk. (Pind. Pyth. i. 85 [164]) and the plural (lxx. HebrewDHpqi) is peculiar to ecclesiastical writers. The word expresses the feeling which witnesses to fellowship and natural sympathy, while ἔλεος (pity) describes the feeling which is called out by the sight of misery. Comp. Rom. xii. 1; 2 Cor. i. 3; Phil. ii. 1; Col. iii. 12; Luke vi. 36; James v. 11.

ἀποθμήσκει] The Law is valid and effective. For ἐπί see ix. 10.

(29). πόσῳ δοκεῖτε...] Vulg. quanto magis putatis deteriora mereri supplicia (O. L. deteriora deprecabitur vindictæ). The parenthetical δοκεῖτε makes the appeal to the readers more direct and pointed: τὴν κρίσιν αὐτοῖς ἐπιτρέπει. ὅπερ εἰώθαμεν ποιεῖν ἐπὶ τῶν σφόδρα ὁμολογουμένων, τοὺς ἀκροατὰς δικαστὰς ποιοῦντες (Theophl ct

The verb ἀξιωθήσεται, which is commonly used in connexion with words of reward (c. iii. 3; 1 Tim. v. 17), is used also of meet punishment, like ἄξιος Acts xxiii. 29.

τιμωρίας] The noun occurs nowhere else in the Ν. T. (the verb τιμωρεῖν is found Acts xxii. 5; xxvi. 11). It expresses simply the notion of retributive punishment in regard of the offence. It will be seen that in the case of the perfect fulfilment of a perfect law the ends of retribution and correction absolutely coincide.

ὁ...καταπατήσας...ἡγησάμενος...ἐνυβρίσας] There is a triple indictment. The manifestation of the apostasy of the offender is described under three distinct aspects, as an act (καταπατήσας), as an opinion (ἡγησάμενος), as a personal and wilful assault (ἐνυβρίσας). His conduct shews that he has already abandoned his faith, and that too after he had made trial of its blessings. His decision, expressed in deed, is regarded as complete and final.

The language used suggests the open repudiation of the baptismal confession and covenant: 1 Cor. xii. 3. Pliny reports to Trajan that those who were brought away from the Faith imaginem tuam deorumque simulacra venerati suut et Christo male dixerunt (Epp. x. 96).

The strangeness of the metaphor in καταπατεῖν as applied to a person is enhanced by the use of the title 'the Son of God' (comp. vi. 6 note). The word καταπατεῖν occurs Matt. v. 13; vii. 6 in connexions which illustrate the image. That which claims to be precious is not only regarded as having no value: it is also treated with utter contempt.

Καταπατεῖν is not unfrequent in the lxx. in a similar connexion for different Hebrew words: Ps. lvi. (lv.) 2, 3; lvii. (lvi.) 4 (HebrewssW); Is. lxi. 18 (HebrewDtt).

The act of contemptuous rejection of Christ is joined with or rests upon a deliberate judgment. The apostate held the blood of the covenant to be a common thing. The word ἡγεῖσθαι occurs again in this sense: xi. 11, 26.

τὸ αἷμα τῆς διαθήκης] The phrase suggests the contrast on which the writer has already dwelt between the inaugurations of the Old and New Covenants: Ex. xxiv. 8 (c. ix. 20). Comp. c. xiii. 20; Matt. xxvi. 28; Mk. xiv. 24 (τὸ αἷμά μου τῆς διαθήκης); 331 ἡγησάμενος ἐv ᾦ ἡγιάσθη, καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς χάριτος

om. ἐν ᾦ ἡγιάσθη Α.

Luke xxii. 20 (τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον ἡ κ. διαθ. ἐν τῷ αἵμ. μου).

καινὸν ἡγησάμενος] Vulg. pollutum duxerit. Ο. L. communem æstimaverit. Syr. vg. as that of any man. The two senses given by the Latin have each found support in later times. Some have taken κοινός as 'common' in the sense of 'undistinguished from the blood of any other man'; others as (positively) 'impure,' 'unholy,' as if Christ had suffered justly as an evildoer. This sense is supposed to be suggested by the clause ἐν ᾦ ἡγιάσθη which follows. In either case the clause, added after the structure of the sentence was complete, brings in a new thought which places the greatness of the offence in a clearer light: 'holding that common wherein he was made holy.'

The usage of the Ν. T. uniformly places κοινός in contrast with ἅγιος or καθαρός. Comp. c. ix. 13 note.

For the sense 'like that of other men,' 'ordinary,' see Just M. Apol. i. 66 κοινὸς ἄρτος. Perhaps it is simplest here to take the word as negatively opposed to ἅγιος in the sense of 'having no divine virtue.'

ἐν ᾦ...] wherein he was sanctified (hallowed). Vulg. in quo sanctificatus est. Compare Rom. v. 9 (δικαιωθέντες ἐν τῷ αἵμ. αὐτοῦ); Eph. ii. 13 (ἐγενήθητε ἐγγὺς ἐν τῷ αἵμ. Χριστοῦ); Apoc. i. 5 (λύσαντι...ἐν τῷ αἵμ.); and c. ix. 25; x. 19 notes.

The blood of Christ is as 'the fountain' in which the sinner is 'plunged' for cleansing (βαπτίζειν ἐν Matt. iii. 11).

In connexion with ἁγιάζειν the preposition (ἐν) expresses in various forms the idea of the complete introduction (immersion) of that which is hallowed into that element which by embracing hallows. Compare John xvii. 17 (ἁγ. ἐν τῇ ἀληθείᾳ); Rom. xv. 16 (ἡγιασμ. ἐν πν. ἁγ.); 1 Cor. i. 2 (ἡγιασμ. ἐν Χ. Ί.); vii. 14 (ἡγ. ὁ ἀνὴρ (ἡ γυνὴ) ἐv...); Jude 1 (τοῖς ἐν θ. πατρὶ ἡγιασμένοις).

The 'hallowing' of the Christian is spoken of as one definite act (ἡγιάσθη). By incorporation into Christ he was once for all devoted to God. Comp. 1 Cor. vi. 11.

τὸ πν. τῆς χάρ. ἐνυβρ.] Vulg. et (qui) spiritui gratiæ contumeliam fecerit, and (who) doth outrage to the Spirit of grace. There is still a third element in the apostasy. The apostate offers insult and outrage to that Power through Whom the highest divine influences flow to man. This act of open rebellion against the present power of God, active through the Body of the Church, crowns the personal hostility to Christ and the violation of the allegiance which had been pledged.

The word ἐνυβρίζειν is not found elsewhere in the Ν. T. or lxx. Ὕβρις is that insolent self-assertion which disregards what is due to others. It combines arrogance with wanton injury. Comp. Rom. i. 30; 1 Tim. i. 13.

This outrage is directed against One Who is spoken of by the unique title 'the Spirit of grace.' Comp. Const. Apost. vi. 18 οἱ βλασφημήσαντες τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς χάριτος καὶ ἀποπτύσαντες τὴν παρ'αὐτοῦ δωρεὰν μετὰ τὴν χάριν.

Other corresponding phrases are: τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς ἀληθείας (John xv. 26; xvi. 13; 1 John iv. 6); τὸ αὐτὸ πν. τῆς πίστεως (2 Cor. iv. 13); τὸ πv. τῆς ἐπαγγελίας τὸ ἅγ. (Eph. i. 13).

In these cases the gen. expresses that which finds expression through the spirit, as in the commoner forms πνεῦμα δουλείας (Rom. viii. 15), πνεῦμα σοφίας (Eph. i. 17, &c.). Here then 'the Spirit of grace' is the Spirit through whom the grace of God is 332 ἐνυβρίσας. ³°οἴδαμεν γὰρ τὸν εἰπόντα Έμοὶ ἐκδίκησις, ἐγὼ ἀνταποδώσω. καὶ πάλιν κρινεῖ Κύριος τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ. ³¹Φοβερὸν τὸ ἐμπεσεῖν εἰς χεῖρας θεοῦ ζῶντος.

30 ἀνταποδώσω א* D₂* vg syr vg me: + λέγει κύτιος S א* Α syr hl. + ὅτι' κρ. κύρ. D₂ vg. κρ. κύρ. א* AD₂ vg syrr: κύρ. κρ. S א* me.

manifested. The apostate wilfully wrongs the Power whose action he has felt.

It will be observed that the action of the Holy Spirit falls into the background in the Epistle from the characteristic view which is given of the priestly work of Christ. Comp. c. vi. 4 note.

(30). The certainty of the retribution to which the writer has pointed lies in the knowledge of the divine character.

οἵδαμεν γάρ...] For we know Him that said. We know not only who He is that said, but we know His character who said....We know that He is a 'living God,' and that His words will find fulfilment to the uttermost. Comp. John iv. 22; vii. 28 f.; 1 Thess. iv. 5; 2 Thess. i. 8; Tit. i. 16; c. viii. 11 note.

The two quotations establish two facts with regard to the divine judgment. It will carry with it strict requital; and it will extend to all those who stand to God as His people.

The first quotation is an adaptation of Deut. xxxii. 35, which differs from the Hebrew (To me belongeth vengeance and recompense) and the lxx. (ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ἐκδικήσεως ἀνταποδώσω). It occurs in the same form in Rom. xii. 19, and had probably taken this shape in popular use. The clause is rendered very nearly in the same way in the Targum of Onkelos (Vengeance is before me, and I will repay). Philo quotes the words differently: Leg. Alleg. iii. § 34 (i. 108 M.).

The second quotation is also taken from the same passage of Deuteronomy (xxxii. 36; comp. Ps. cxxxv. 14). In the original context the idea of judgment is that of just vindication. But the character of God requires that the same act which upholds the righteous should punish the wicked. The point of this quotation is that God's people will be judged, that they from their peculiar position will be specially objects of His care. What the judgment will be for them lies in themselves (v. 27).

(31). φοβερὸν] The word takes up the φοβερά of v. 27. The adjective is found in the Ν. T. only in these passages and in c. xii. 21.

ἐμπ. εἰς χ.] The phrase occurs in the lxx. in a different connexion, 2 Sam. xxiv. 14; 1 Chron. xxi. 13; Ecclus. ii. 18.

θεοῦ ζῶντος] See c. iii. 12 note.

(3) vv. 32—39. Encouragements from past experience.

Words of encouragement follow upon the words of warning, just as the warnings in c. vi. 4-8, were followed by the expression of joyful confidence. The Hebrews are reminded of their former courageous faith (32—34); and they are exhorted not to peril its fruit at the last moment (35—39). They had fought their battle: all that was required was that they should endure to wait for their crown: ἄρα ἑνὸς ὑμὶν δεὶ μόνου, ἵνα ἀναμείνητε τὴν μέλλησιν οὐχ ἵνα ἀθλήσητε πάλιν...πρὸς τὸ στεφανωθήναι ἑστήκατε λοιπὸν. τοὺτο μόνον φέρετε, τῆν μέλλησιν τοῦ στεφάνου (Chrys.).

³²But call to mind the days of former time wherein after ye were enlightened ye endured a great struggle of sufferings, ³³partly being made a gazing-stock both by reproaches and afflictions, and partly claiming fellowship with those who so lived. 333 ³²Ἁναμιμνήσκεσθε δὲ τὰς πρότερον ἡμέρας, ἐv αἶς φωτισθἐντες πολλὴν ἄθλησιν ὑπεμείνατε παθημάτων, ³³τοῦτο μὲν

32 ταῖς πρoτέραις ἡμέραις D₂*. ἡμέρας: ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν א*.

³⁴For ye both had compassion on them that were in bonds and accepted with joy the spoiling of your possessions, knowing that ye had your own selves for a better possession and an abiding one. ³⁵Cast not away therefore your boldness seeing it hath great recompense of reward. ³⁶For ye have need of patience, that having done the will of God ye may receive His promise.

³⁷For, yet a very little while,

He that cometh shall come, and shall not tarry.

³⁸But my righteous one shall live by faith;

And if he shrink back, my soul hath no pleasure in him.

³⁹But we are not of shrinking back unto destruction, but of faith unto gaining of the soul.

32—34. The retrospect of their own history was sufficient to inspire the Hebrews with patience. They had borne sufferings themselves and shared the sufferings of others. They had experienced in all this the assurance of a better possession than any that they could lose by persecution. And, as Chrysostom says: πολλὴ ἡ διὰ τῶν ἔργων παράκλησις. τὸν γὰρ ἀρχόμενον πράγματος προῖόντα ἐπιδιδόναι χρή.

(32). ἀναμιμνήσκεσθε δέ...] Call again to remembrance...Call to mind...Latt. Rememoramini autem (igitur). 2 Cor. vii. 15; 2 Tim. i. 6 (ἀναμιμνήσκω σε ἀναζωπυρεῖν). The word is used of recalling specific subjects to the mind. Contrast c. xiii. 2 μιμνήσκεσθε τῶν δεσμίων.

The phrase τὰς πρότερον ἡμέρας does not so much express 'the former days' (τὰς προτέρας ἡμ.) as a definite period, as 'the days at a former time,' at an earlier stage of your faith (Thuc. vi. 9 ἐν τῷ πρότερον χρόνῳ). Compare 1 Pet i. 14 ταῖς πρότερον ἐν τῇ ἀγνοίᾳ ὑμῶν ἐπιθυμίαις. 2 Pet. i. 9 (τῶν πόλαι αὐτοῦ ἁμαρτημάτων); iii. 6 (ὁ τότε κόσμος); iii. 7 (oἱ νῦν οὐρανοί); Rom. iii. 26 (ἐν τῷ νῦν καιρῷ); c. viii. 18; xi. 5; 1 Cor. iv. 11 (ἄρχι τῆς ἄρτι ὥρας); 2 Cor. viii. 14; Gal iv. 25 (τῇ νῦν Ἰερουσαλήμ); 1 Tim. iv. 8 (ζωῆς τῆς νῦν καὶ τῆς μελλούσης); vi. 14 (ἐν τ«ψ νῦν αἰῶνι); 2 Tim. iv. 10; Tit. ii. 12.

ἐν αἶς...πολ. ἄθλησιν ὑπεμ. παθημάτων] wherein...ye endured a great struggle of sufferings, that is, consisting in sufferings, Lat. in quibus illuminati...certamen sustinuistis passionum. The use of the word ἄθλησις (here only in Ν. T., and not in lxx.: comp. 2 Tim. ii. 5) adds to the picture the image of the resolute combatant. The Hebrews not only suffered, but bore themselves as those who were contending for a crown.

Πολύς is frequently used (like 'much,' multus) of that which is great in degree and not only frequent in repetition: Acts xxiv. 3 π. εἰρήνη xxvii. 10 π. ζημία; id. 27 π. ἀσιτία &c. Here the notions of intensity and repetition are both applicable to the struggle of the Hebrews.

Chrysostom notices the force of ἄθλησις: οὐκ εἶπε πειρασμοὺς ἀλλὰ ἄθλησιν, ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἐγκωμίου ὅνομα καὶ ἐπαίνων μεγίστων.

For φωτισθέντες (Syrr. having received baptism) see c. vi. 4 note: for ὑπομένειν comp. c. xii. 2, 3, 7; v. 36.

(33). τοῦτο μέν...τοῦτο δέ...] Vulg. et in altero quidem...in altero autem. The courage of the Hebrews was shewn both in what they bore personally, and (which is often more difficult) in their readiness to shew sympathy to those who were in affliction. The contrast in the tenses of the participles, θεατριζόμενοι, 334 ὀνειδισμοῖς τε καὶ θλίψεσιν θεατριζόμενοι, τοῦτο δὲ κοινωνοὶ τῶν οὕτως ἀναστρεφομένων γενηθέντες. ³⁴καὶ γὰρ τοῖς δεσμίοις συνεπαθησατε, καὶ τὴν ἁρπαγὴν τῶν

33 θεατριζόμενοι: ὀνιδιζόμενοι D₂*. 34 δεσμίοις AD₂* vg syrr me : δεσμοῖς μου Sא.

γενηθέντες, which is necessarily lost in translation (as in the Latin), suggests that upon some special occasion the persons addressed had in a signal manner identified themselves with fellow-Christians in an outbreak of persecution (συνεπαθήσατε, προσεδέξασθε); while they were habitually exposed to public reproach.

The combination τοῦτο μέν...τοῦτο δέ..., which is frequent in Greek writers from Demosthenes downwards, is found here only in N.T.

ὀνειδισμοῖς τε καὶ θλίψεσιν] The personal sufferings of the Hebrews were twofold. They had endured reproaches, which contrast a man's conduct with what might have been expected from him (Matt. xi. 20; Mk. xvi. 14; James i. 5): and afflictions, in which force is the expression of ill-will. Reproaches affect the character: afflictions affect material prosperity. (Syr. vg. connects these words with the preceding verse.)

For ὀνειδισμός see c. xi. 26; xiii. 13. Comp. 1 Pet. iv. 14. The word is common in the lxx. in the prophetic and later books.

θεατριζόμενοι] Vulg. spectaculum facti, made a gazing-stock. Comp. 1 Cor. iv. 9. The simple verb θεατρίζειν appears to be found here only and in derived passages. The compound ἐκθεατρίζειν is not uncommon in late Greek in the same sense: to expose as a spectacle for derision. See Schweigh. Polyb. Ind. s. v.

κοιν. τῶν οὔτως ἀναστρεφ. γεν.] avowing your fellowship with those who were so facing reproaches and afflictions in their daily life. The Hebrews, so far from abandoning their fellow Christians, courageously claimed connexion with them, sharing their perils by the active avowal of sympathy. The ὄυτως applies more naturally to the description which immediately precedes than to the more remote πολλ. ἄ. ὑπεμ. παθ.; and this latter reference is excluded by the form of the sentence (ὑπεμ....τοῦτο μέν...δέ...).

For κοινωνοὶ γενηθέντες (in place of κοινωνήσαντες) see c. iii. 14; and for ἀναστρέφεσθαι c. xiii. 18 (ἀναστροφή c. xiii. 7).

For the difference between κοινωνός and μἐτοχος see c. iii. 1. Κοινωνός, even when it is used in connexion with material things, includes the idea of a personal fellowship: 1 Cor. x. 18; 2 Cor. i. 7; 1 Pet. v. 1 (2 Pet. i. 4).

(34). The statements of the former verse are defined in inverse order by reference to specific facts. The Hebrews had shewn sympathy when it could not but be perilous to do so: and they had welcomed material loss.

καὶ γάρ...] Constant usage suggests that the καί emphasises the general statement and does not simply correspond with the καί which follows: For in fact ye... Comp. c. iv. 2; v. 12; xii. 29; xiii. 22; and so constantly in the epistles of St Paul: 1 Thess. iv. 10; Rom. xi. 1 &c.

τοῖς δεσμίοις συνεπαθήσατε] ye had compassion on them that were in bonds, Vulg. vinctis compassi estis (O. L. consensistis). The definite article points to some familiar fact. Comp. c. xiii. 3. Elsewhere the word δέσμιος is used in the epistles of the N. T. only by St Paul of himself: Eph. iii. 1 &c.

For συνεπαθήσατε see c. iv. 15, note (Job ii. 11 Symm.).

καὶ τὴν ἁρπ....προσεδέξασθε] and 335 ὑπαρχόντων ὑμῶν μετὰ χαρᾶς προσε γινώσκοντες ἔχειν ἑαυτοὺς κρείσσονα ὕπαρξιν καῖ μένουσαν. ³⁵Μὴ ἀποβάλητε οὖν τὴν παρρησίαν ὑμῶν, ἥτις ἔχει μεγάλην μισθαποδοσίαν, ³⁶ὑπομονῆς γὰρ ἔχετε χρείαν

γινωσκον א. ἑαυτούς אAH₂ vg me: ἑαυτοῖς D₂: ἐν ἑαυτοῖς S. ὕπαρξιν א* AD₂* H₂* vg me: + ἐν οὐρανοῖς S א* syrr. 35 ἀποβάλητε: ἀπολύητε (i.e. ἀπολλύ.) D₂*. μισθ. μεγ. S. 36 χρ. ἔχ. א*.

accepted (welcomed) with joy the spoiling of your possessions... You gladly accepted loss as if it were gain. For προσδέχομαι see c. xi. 35 οὐ προςδεξάμενοι τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν. Phil. ii. 29 προσδέχεσθε αὐτὸν ἐν Κυρίῳ μετὰ πάσης χαρᾶς; for ἁρπαγή, Matt. xxiii. 25; Luke xi. 39; and for τὰ ὑπάρχοντα 1 Cor. xiii. 3; Matt. xxiv. 17 &c.

γινώσκοντες ἔχειν ἑαυτοὺς...μένουσαν] knowing that ye had your own selves for a better possession and an abiding one. Stripped of their goods the Christians learned better than before that their true self remained unchangeable. That was not marred but purified: they had 'won their souls in patience' (Luke xxi. 19). This possession they had so that they could never lose it. By the use of the word γινώσκοντες, as distinguished from εἰδότες (Eph. vi. 8 f.; Rom. v. 3; vi. 9 &c.), the writer implies that the knowledge was realised through the trial: through that the confessors came to know the value of their faith. Comp. James i. 3.

The order in the words κρείσσονα ὕπαρξιν καὶ μένουσαν gives distinctness to the two thoughts: 'a better possession and that too an abiding one.' Comp. 1 Pet. i. 23. The word ὕπαρξις (Latt. substantia) occurs again Acts ii. 45, and several times in the later books of the lxx.

35—39. The sacrifices which the Hebrews once made proved their confidence—confidence in an unseen future—which they boldly proclaimed; and at the same time they confirmed it. The lesson of the past therefore encouraged them to still further endurance. And such endurance God claims from His people.

(35). μὴ ἀποβάλητε οὖν] Vulg. Nolite itaque amittere....The Latin rendering can be justified, but the context evidently requires the stronger sense Do not therefore cast (fling) away (Mark x. 50), as though it were of no value, the boldness which you once made you own. The opposite is expressed c. iii. 6 τὴν παρρησίαν κατασχεῖν. The exact phrase occurs in Dion Chrys. xxxiv. p. 425; and a fragment of Nicostratus gives the image with singular force: ταύτην [τὴν παρρησίαν] ἐάν τις ἀπολέσῃ, τὴν ἀσπίδ' ἀποβέβληκεν οὗτος τοῦ βίου (Fragm. Inc. 5).

Chrysostom remarks on the encouraging form of the address: οὐκ...εἶπεν...ἀνακτήσασθε...ἀλλὰ...μὴ ἀποβάλητε, ὅ μᾶλλον αὐτοὺς ἐψυχαγώγει καὶ ἐποίει ῥωσθῆναι.

τὴν παρρησίαν] The Apostle first chooses the term which describes endurance under its most commanding aspect, as ready to proclaim the hope on which it rests and as secure of victory; and then afterwards (v. 36) he presents the idea of simple endurance. Comp. c. iii. 6 note.

ἥτις ἔχει] seeing that it hath great recompense. The recompense is included even now in the spirit of the believer who has learnt to rate outward afflictions at their true value (Rom. viii. 37).

For μισθαποδοσία compare c. ii. 2 note; and for one aspect of the thought c. vi. 10.

(36). ὑπομ. γὰρ ἔ. χ.] for of patience 336 ἵνα τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ ποιήσαντες καμίσησθε τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν.

³⁷ἔτι γὰρ μικρὸν ὅσον,

κομίσασθαι א.

37 ὅσον...ὁ: ὅθεν D₂*.

ye have need....The force of the reason lies in the moral efficacy of endurance. 'Do not cast away your confidence, for yon have need of it. The trials to which you are subjected belong to the perfect discipline of the faith which you hold. You have need of patience therefore that you may obtain what you expect.'

The word ὑπομονή occurs again xii. 1; contrast μακροθυμία c. vi. 12 note.

ἔχετε χρείαν] See c. v. 12 note.

Primasius works out the thought of the athlete who has completed his struggles asking impatiently for his prize: Sustine parumper usque dum veniat arbiter aut etiam rex, qui tibi bravium referat pro victoria tua.

Ἐκάμετε, φησίν, ἠθλήσατε, κἀγὼ τοῦτό φημι. ἀλλὰ ἀναμείνατε. τοῦτο γάτ ἐστι πίστις. μὴ ἐνταῦθα ζητεῖτε τὸ πᾶν (Chrys. on c. xi. 1).

ἵνα τὸ θ. τ. θ. ποι....τὴν ἐπ.] that, having done the will of God, ye may receive the promise... This general term 'the will of God,' which occurs throughout the Ν. T., takes its colour from the context. Not unfrequently the mention of 'the will of God' suggests a contrast to man's will through the discipline of suffering (Matt. xxvi. 42; Eph. vi. 6; 1 Pet. ii. 15; iii. 17; iv. 19), as is the case here.

The phrase also necessarily recals what was said of Christ's work (c. x. 5 ff.) as a fulfilment of the will of God. Man in his little field must follow the example of his Lord (1 Pet. ii. 21), which is always set before us as an example of suffering.

The aor. part. (ποιήσαντες, Vulg. facientes inadequately: O. L. voluntate Dei consummata) marks that which precedes the fulness of reward ('after doing'), and not (as it does in some places) that which is coincident with it (c. ii. 10 note). From the point of sight here the work is seen to be completed before the prize is received.

By receiving the promise, we must understand 'receiving all that was expressed in the promise.' The exact phrase occurs again c. xi. 39 (comp. vi. 15 ἐπέτυχεν τῆς ἐπαγγ.); and with the plural noun c. xi. 13 (μὴ κομισ. τὰς ἐπαγγ.). There is a difference between ἐπιτυχεῖν ἐπαγγ. and κομίσασθαι ἐπαγγ. which is at once felt. Ἐπιτυχεῖν describes the simple fact of obtaining: κομίσασθαι adds the thought of personal appropriation and enjoyment, of taking as one's own for use: Matt. xxv. 27. So the word κομίσασθαι is used specially with regard to future retribution: 2 Cor. v. 10; Eph. vi. 8; Col. iii. 25; 1 Pet. i. 9; v. 4; [2 Pet. ii. 13 v.l.]

'The promise' in this connexion is defined by St John as 'eternal life' (1 John ii. 25), which is the complete expression of 'the promise made to the fathers' (Acts xiii. 32; xxvi. 6). Of this the gift of the Spirit (Luke xxiv. 49; Acts i. 4; ii. 33 ff.; Gal. iii. 14; Eph. i. 13) and 'the presence of the Lord' (2 Pet. iii. 4, 9) were pledges. Compare c. vi. 12 note.

(37) f. The writer of the Epistle uses freely the language of ancient prophecy to express the general truth which he wishes to enforce, that the purpose of God will be fulfilled in its due time even if it seems to linger. So it was when Isaiah charged the people to withdraw for a space and wait till the divine wrath was spent. So it was when the Chaldæans threatened Israel with utter destruction.

337

ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἡξει καὶ οὐ χροηίσει. ³⁸ὁ δὲ δίκαιός [μου] ἐκ πίστεως ξήσεται, καὶ ἐὰν ὑποστείληται, οὐκ εὐδοκεῖ ἡ ψυχή μου ἐν αὐτῷ.

38 ὁ δὲ δίκ. μου ἐκ πίστ. אΑ vg: ὁ δὲ δἰκ. ἐκ πίστ. μου D₂* syrr me (so lxx. אB): ὁ δὲ δίκ. ἐκ πίστ. S (no varr. in Gal. iii. 11). om. καὶ ἐὰν ὑποστείληται D₂*. μου ἡ ψ. D₂*.

In old times the faithful had to wait for the manifestation of the salvation of God. It must be so always; and past experience furnishes a sufficient support for hope.

(37). ἕτι γὰρ...ὅσον] For, yet a very little while...(modicum [ali] quantulum, V.). These words with which the quotation from Habakkuk is prefaced by the writer of the Epistle occur in Is. xxvi. 20 (lxx.), where the prophet charges the people to hide themselves 'for a little moment until the indignation should be overpast.' The thought of the purposes of God wrought through the discipline of Israel thus serves as a preparation for the understanding of His counsel for the Church.

For ἔτι μικρόν compare John xiv. 19; xvi. 16 ff. (μικρόν).

Ὅσον ὅσον, which appears to be a colloquial form, occurs in Arist. Vesp. 213 and Leon. Tarent. lxx. 4 (Anthol. i. 238).

(37) b, (38). ὁ ἐρχόμενος...ἐν αὐτῷ] These words are taken with modifications and transpositions from the lxx. version of Hab. ii. 3 f. (see Additional Note). In the original context that which is expected is the fulfilment of the prophetic vision of the destruction of the Chaldæans, the enemies of God's people, to be followed by the revelation of His glory. The judgment was executed and the promise was accomplished in due time, but not as men had hoped. The lesson had a significant application to the condition of the early Church.

ἥξει] v. 7 note; 2 Pet. iii. 10; Apoc. iii. 3, 9; xv. 4; xviii. 8. He will make His coming felt as a present fact.

(38). The original text gives the sense: 'His soul is puffed up with pride: it is not right within him; but the righteous shall live by his faithfulness,' where the reference is to the vain confidence of the Chaldæan invader as contrasted with the trust of the people upon God. The lxx. represents a different text in the first clause; and the author of the Epistle has transposed the two clauses of the lxx. in order to bring out more clearly the idea which he wishes to enforce, the necessity of endurance in the righteous.

(38). ὁ δὲ δίκ....ζήσεται] but my righteous one shall live by faith... Vulg. justus autem meus ex fide vivit (sic). The argument requires that the words ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται should be taken together. The just—the true believer—requires faith, trust in the unseen, for life. Such faith is the support of endurance (ὑπομονή) and the seal of confidence (παρρησία).

It is said that the phrase was held in Rabbinic teaching to declare the essence of the Law: Delitzsch, Römerbrief s. 75, Compare Gal. iii. 11; Rom. i. 17.

καὶ ἐὰν ὑποστ.] and if he, who has been spoken of as 'the just,' draw (shrink) back, Vulg. quod si subtraxerit se. The insertion of 'any man,' so as to avoid the thought of the falling away of 'the just one,' is wholly unwarranted, and it is precisely this contingency which gives the point to the words (comp. v. 32 φωτισθέντες). Thus Theophylact says expressly ἐὰν ὑποστείληται ὁ δίκαιος.

The word ὑποστέλλεσθαι implies a shrinking away from fear of or regard

338

³⁹ἡμεῖς δὲ οὐκ ἐσμὲν ὑποστολῆς εἰς ἀπώπίστεως εἰς περιποίησιν ψυχῆς.

39 ἀπωλίας א*.

for another. Compare Wisd. vi. 8 oὐ γᾶρ ὑποστερλεῖται πρόσωπον ὁ πάντων ὁ δεσπότης. Job xiii. 8 (HebrewDJ9Kfc); Deut. i. 17; Ex. xxiii. 21; Gal. ii. 12 (ὑπέστελλεν καὶ ἀφώριζεν ἑαυτόν); Acts xx. 27, (20).

οὐκ εὐδ. ἡ ψ. μ. ἐν αὐ.] my soul hath no pleasure in him, Vulg. non placebit animæ meæ. The construction εὐδ. ἐν is a reproduction of the Hebrew 3rWJ. Compare Matt. iii. 17 and parallel; xvii. 5; 1 Cor. x. 5; 2 Cor. xii. 10. Εὐδοκεῖν εἰς is also found: [Matt. xii. 18]; 2 Pet. i. 17.

For ἡ ψυχή μου compare Is. i. 14.

(39). ἡμεῖς δὲ...ὑποστ.] But we are not of shrinking back (of them that shrink back)... Vulg. nos autem non sumus subtractionis [all. add. filii). The thought of shrinking back is at once put aside.

The writer here identifies his readers with himself, as before he has identified himself with them (vi. 1; v. 26 f.).

The genitives ὑποστολῆς, πίστεως, express that which marks the two classes. Our character is not expressed by 'shrinking back' but by 'faith.' Compare c. xii. 11 (οὐ δοκεῖ χαρᾶς εἶναι); 1 Thess. v. 5 (οὐκ ἐσμὲν νυκτός, v. 8 ἡμέρας ὅντες); 1 Cor. xiv. 33 (οὐκ ἔσιν ἀκαταστασίας ὁ θεός); Luke ix. 55 (οἵου πνεύματός ἐστε); Acts ix. 2 (τῆς ὁδοῦ ὅντες).

Primasius dwells on the 'filii' of his Latin text: non sumus ego et vos filii eorum paganorum et gentilium qui se subtrahunt a vita fidei...sed sumus filii patriarcharum...

Ἀπώλεια, which occurs here only in the Epistle, is the opposite of σωτηρία, which is represented vividly under one aspect as περιποίησις ψυχῆς (Vulg. acquisitio (0. L. renascentia) animæ). This phrase exactly expresses the Lord's promise Luke xxi. 19 ἐν τῇ ὑπομονῇ ὑμῶν κτήσεσθε τὰς ψυχὰς ὑμῶν. Compare also Luke xvii. 33 (ζωογονήσει); Matt. x. 39.

For περιποίησις see 1 Thess. v. 9; 2 Thess. ii. 14.

339

*Additional Note on the reading of* x. 1.

The clause κατ' ἐνιαυτὸν ταῖς αὖταῖς... δύναται is given with unusual variations of form by the most ancient authorities.

(l) *ταῖς αὖταῖς θυσίαις ἅς προσφέρουσιν... οὐδέποτε δύνανται...C.

(2) *ταῖς αὖταῖς θυσίαις αὐτῶν ἅς προσφέρουσιν... οὐδέποτε δύνανται...א P₂.

(3) ταῖς αὖταῖςre θυσίαις προσφέρουσιν...[αἱ]οὐδέποτε δύνανται... A syr. hl. arm.

(4) ταῖς αὖταῖς θυσίαις αἶς προσφέρουσιν...οὐδέποτε δύνανται...D₂ H₂ me vg.

The later manuscripts are divided between δύναται and δύνανται, a few read αἶς for ἅς, and a few omit the relative, one adding αἱ bεfore οὐδέποτε. Thε Latin and Egyptian Versions read δύναται. The Syriac Versions represent δύνανται, and translate the first clause as a finite sentence ('For there was in the Law...,' 'For since the Law had...'), but there is no reason to suppose that this fact points to any further variation of the text not now preserved in the Greek copies. The translators treated σκιὰν γὰρ ἔχων ὁ νόμος... as an 'absolute clause' (so Theophylact expressly); and, if δύνανται is read, this appears to be the only way of dealing with the passage. It must be supposed that the construction of the sentence is suddenly broken after πραγμάτων, and the subject changed from the Law to the priests. In this case two explanations of the second clause are possible, represented by (3) and by (1), (2).

If (3) is adopted the sense will be that given by the Harklean Syriac: 'For since the Law has a shadow... they [the priests, the appointed ministers,] make offering year by year with the same sacrifices continually, which can never make perfect...' This is the general view of Theodoret, but such a sense of θυσίαις προσφέρειν is most strange, and the whole construction is singularly harsh, for there is nothing to lead to a sudden break.

If the general form of (1) and (2) be taken, for the addition of αὐτων appears to be simply an emphasising of the action of the Levitical ministers, we must translate: 'For since the Law has a shadow... they [the priests] can never with the same sacrifices year by year, which they offer continually, make perfect...' So Theophylact: but the harshness of the construction is still essentially the same as before, though it is hidden in the rendering; and, according to the teaching of the Epistle, the Law, and not the priest, is the instrument of the divine action. 'The Law made nothing perfect.'

Hence it is best to adopt (as in the notes) the reading δὐναται, and to regard the construction as continuous throughout. The change from δὐναται to δὐνασται (δυνᾶται) is of a type which occurs constantly and it was suggested by προσφίρουσιν. It seems right also to adopt the αἶς of the same authorities (comp. vi. 10), though it may be thought that such an attraction would be more likely to be Introduced than changed. The preceding -αις cannot be urged confidently on either side, yet it explains naturally the omission of the relative in the form αἶς.

340

*Additional Nοte οn* x. 5. *The Body of Christ*.

The idea of 'the Body of Christ' has a very wide and important bearing upon the apprehension of the truth of the Incarnation. The 'body' is the one complete organism through which the life is realised under special conditions. The body, if we may so speak, is the expression of the life in terms of the environment Thus the one life of the Son of man is equally manifested under different circumstances by 'the body of humiliation' and by 'the body of glory.'

The conception of 'the body' is fundamentally different from that of 'flesh and blood,' the symbolic (representative) elements, which go to form our present bodies. Of these 'the blood' is taken to symbolise the principle of the earthly life. That in us which is represented by 'the blood' has no place in the body of the Resurrection (Luke xxii. 39 σάρκα καὶ ὀστέα. Compare the early addition to Eph. v. 30).

We have then to consider the relation of tho Lord's 'body of humiliation,' and of His 'body of glory,' to humanity and to man.

The writer of the Epistle in treating finally of the Lord's redemptive and consummative work finds the lesson which he desires to convey in the words of tho Psalmist spoken in the person of the Christ: Lo I am come to do Thy will, Ο Lord: a body didst Thou prepare for me.

This earthly body became the organ of a perfect, a universal, human life. By the offering of His body (x. 10) in the absolute service of life, in the voluntary endurance of death, the Lord fulfilled the destiny of man as created, and bore the penalty which fallen man had brought upon himself. In the offering of Himself He offered to God the humanity which He had taken. The effect of this offering is both individual and social. Each believer finds himself in Christ, and in Him realises the fulfilment of his own destiny. He was potentially included in Him, so that the death of Christ was his death, and the life of Christ through death is his own life. At the same time the separated fragments of creation are brought together, and the barriers by which men are kept apart are removed.

These thoughts find clear expression in the Apostolic writings:

He Himself bore (ἀνήνεγκεν carried up and laid as upon an altar) our sins @in his body upon the tree, that we having died unto sin might live unto righteousness (1 Pet. ii. 24).

Ye were made dead to the law through the body of Christ (Rom. vii. 4; comp. vi. 3 ff.).

By the offering of the body of Jesus Christ we have been sanctified (Hebr. x. 10).

So far the personal effects accomplished through 'the Body of Christ'—'the Body of His humiliation'—are affirmed. The wider effects are described no less distinctly.

It was the good pleasure [of the Father]...through Him to reconcile all things unto Himself, having made peace through the blood of His cross...and you did he reconcile (ἀποκατήλλαξεν) in the body of His flesh through death... Col. i. 19—22).

341

He is our peace, who made both one (τὰ ἀμφότερα ἔν)...that He might create in Himself of the twain one new man (τοὺς δύο...εἶς ἕνα καινὸν ἄνθρωπον); and might reconcile them both in one body unto God through the cross...(Eph. ii. 14—16).

What is thus begun has to be fulfilled. This fellowship with the ascended Christ finds a realisation on earth. There is still an organism of the life of the Son of man, a Body through which He works, and to which men may minister.

I...fill up on my part (ἀνταναπληρῶ) that which is lacking of the afflictions of Christ in my flesh for His body's sake, which is the Church (Col. i. 24).

Of this Body He is even now the Head:

The Father. ..gave Him to be head over ail things to the Church, which is His body...(Eph. i. 23; comp. iv. 15; v. 23).

He is the head ofthe body, the Church... (Col. i. 18).

This Body is necessarily one, even as Christ is one:

In one Spirit were we all baptized into one body, whether Jew or Greeks, whether bond or free (1 Cor. xii. 13).

There is one body and one Spirit... one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all...(Eph. iv. 4, 5).

Let the peace of Christ rule in your hearts, to the which also ye were called in one body (Col. iii. 15).

At the same time, like the natural body, it 'grows' by the action of its own vital law through the ministry of its constituent parts, and it is 'built up' by the introduction of new members; but 'growth' and 'building up' are alike manifestations of the informing power of Christ, the Head:

...the Head, from Whom all the body, being supplied and knit together through the joints and bands, increaseth with the increase of God (αὔξει τὴν αὔξησιν τοῦ θεοῦ) (Col. ii. 19).

He gave some to be apostles, and some prophets,... for (πρὂος) the perfecting of the saints, unto (εἶς) the work of ministering, unto the building up (οἰκοδομή) of the body of Christ (Eph. iv. 11, 12).

From Whom all the body...maketh the increase of the body unto the building up of itself in love (Eph. iv. 16).

Into this Body Christians are incorporated by Baptism:

We are members of His body (Eph. v. 30; comp. v. 26); 1 Cor. xii. 13.

And they are sustained in their vital union with Christ by the fellowship of His body and blood (1 Cor. x. 16 f.).

So it is that Christians themselves are one body in Christ (Rom. xii. 5); and severally members one of another (Eph. iv. 25; Rom. xii. 5), sharing in a common life but charged with different offices (Rom. xii. 4, 6 ff.; 1 Cor. xii. 27 ὑμεῖς ἐστε σῶμα Χριστοῦ καὶ μέλη ἐκ μέρους); and under this aspect our bodies are members of Christ (1 Cor. vi. 15).

It is obvious that the view which is thus opened to us of the Body of Christ as the one organism, if the word may be allowed, through which His life is fulfilled, throws light upon the 'words of Institution' at the Last Supper. Christ does not say 'This is my flesh': He does say 'This is my blood.' He offers us part in the one organisation of the One Life which transcends earth (This is my body, 1 Cor. xi. 24; Matt. xxvi. 26; Mk. xiv. 342 22; Lk. xxii. 19): He offers as the virtue of His life on earth through which we may now fulfil our work. Compare Additional Note on St John vi.

The discernment and appropriation of this spiritual reality is at once the great trial and the highest blessing of the Christian life (...if he discern not the body@. 1 Cor. xi. 27—29).

*Additional Note on* x. 7. *The expression of an end or purpose*.

The purpose or end of an action is expressed in the Greek of the Ν. T. by many different forms of construction which are found also in classical language, though the relative frequency of their occurrence varies in different periods: each form presents the thought under a distinct aspect; and it will be interesting to the student to consider in connexion the examples which are offered in the Epistle. The purpose or end—if we use the words in a very wide sense—is expressed in the Epistle by (1) the infinitive, (2) the preposition εῑς, (3) the final particles ὅπως, ἵνα, (4) the conjunction ὥστε.

(1) The infinitive.

The infin. is used to mark the end in two forms:

(a) The simple infin.:

v. 5 ὁ χριστὸς οῦχ ἐαυτὸν ἐδόξασεν γενηθῆναι ἀρχιερέα...

vi. 10 οὐ γὰρ ἄδικος ὁ θεὸς ἐπιλαθίσθαι τοῦ ἔργου ὑμῶν...

vi. 18 οἱ καταφυγόντες κρατῆσαι...

ix. 24 (εἰσῆλθεν) νῦν ἐμφανισθῆναι...οὐδ' ἵνα πολλάκισ προσφέρῃ ἐαυτόν...

xi. 8 'Αβραὰμ ὑπήκουσεν ἐξελθεῖν...

In these cases the infin. is the complement of the direct verbal statement, defining how that was fulfilled. Compare also vii. 5, 11, 27.

(b) The infin. with gen. τοῦ:

x. 7, 9 ἰδοὺ, ἦκω τοῦ ποιῆσας τὸ θέλημά σου (lxx.).

xi. 5 Ἐνὼχ μετετέθη τοῦ μὴ ἰδεῖν θάνατον.

Here the gen. seems to express that which is closely connected with the action as its motive (or cause).

The gen. in v. 12 is probably to be explained differently.

This construction is characteristic of St Luke. It is not found in St John (? Apoc. xii. 7) or St Mark (not iv. 3). For the use in the lxx. see Moulton-Winer, pp. 410 f.

In St Luke ii. 22, 24 the two uses of the infin. occur together.

343

(2) The preposition εἰς.

(a) Εἰς with nouns:

i. 14 εἰς διακονίαν ἀποστελλόμενα.

iii. 5 εἰς μαρτύριον τῶν λαληθησομίνων.

ix. 15 θανάτου γενομένου εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῶν...παραβάσεων...

ix. 26 εἰς ἀθέτησιν τῆς ἁμαρτίας...πεφανέρωται.

x. 19 ἔχοντες...παρρησίαν εἰς τὴν εἴσοδον...

The preposition corresponds with the English 'for,' 'unto,' and in combination with the noun describes the direct purpose of the action.

Compare the use of πρὸς, v. 14; vi. 11; ix. 13.

(b) Εἰς with infin. and art.:

ii. 17 ὤφειλεν...ὁμοιωθῆναι..ἵνα ἐλ. γένητας...εἰς τὸ Διάσκεσθαι...

vii. 25 ζῶν εἰς τὸ ἐντυγχάνειν.

viii. 3 πᾶς ἀρχιερεὺς εἰς τὸ προσφέρειν...καθίσταται...

ix. 14 καθαριεῖ...εἰς τὸ λατρεύειν...

ix. 28 ...προσενεχεὶς εἰς τὸ πολλῶν ἀνενεγκεῖν ἁμαρτίας...

xi. 3 νοοῦμεν κατηρτίσθαι...εἰς τὸ μή...γεγονέναι.

xii. 10 ὁ δὲ (ἐπαίδενεν)...εἰς τὸ μεταλαβεῖν...

xiii. 21 ...καταρτίσαι ὑμᾶς...εἰς τὸ ποιῆσαι...

Here the end appears, in the light of a result which is (at least potentially) secured by the foregoing action rather than as a purpose aimed at. The difference will be realised by substituting in vii. 25 ἵνα ἐντυγχάνῃ for εἰς τὸ ἐνρυγχάνειν. See also ii. 17; v. 1 (notes).

This construction is very rare in St Luke: v. 17; Acts vii. 19.

(3) The final particles ὅπως, ἵνα.

(a) Ὅπως is rare in the Epistles generally. It occurs:

ii. 9 ...βλέπομεν...ἐστεφανωμένον, ὅπως χάρετι θεοῦ...γεύσηται...

ix. 15 μεσίτης ἐστίν, ὅπως...τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν λἀβωσιν οἱ κεκλημένοι...

(b) Ἵνα and ἵνα μή are frequent.

(α) Ἵνα.

ii. 14 ...μετέσχεν...ἵνα καταργήσῃ...

ii. 17 ...ὥφειλεν...ὁμοιωθῆναι ἵνα ἐλεήμων γένηται...

iv. 16 προσερχώμεθα...ἵνα προσφέρῃ...

v. 1 ...καθίσταται...ἵνα προσφέρῃ...

vi. 18 ...ἐμεσέτευσεν...ἵνα...παράκλησιν ἔχωμεν...

ix. 25 οὐδ' (εἰσῆλθεν) ἵνα πολλάκις προσφέρῃ ἐαυτόν.

x. 9 ἀναιρεῖ...ἵνα...στήσῃ.

x. 36 ...ἔχετε χρείαν...ἵνα...κομίσησθε...

xi. 35 ...οὐ προσδεξάμενοι...ἵνα...τύχωσιν...

xii. 27 ...δηλοῖ...μετάθεσιν...ἵνα μείνῃ...

xiii. 12 ...ἵνα ἁγιάσῃ...ἔπαθεν.

xiii. 17 πείθεσθε...ἵνα...παιῶσιν...

xiii. 19 παρακαλῶ...ἵνα...ἀποκατασταθῶ ὑμῖν.

344

(β) Ἵνα μή.

iii. 13 παρακαλεῖτε...ἵνα μὴ σκληρυνθῇ τις...

iv. 11 σπουδάσωμεν...ἵνα μὴ...τις...πέσῃ...

vi. 12 ἐπιθυμοῦμεν...ἐνδείκνυσθαι σπουδήν...ἵνα μὴ...γένησθε.

xi. 28 πεποίηκεν τὸ πάσχα...ἵνα μή...θίγῃ.

xi. 40 ...τοῦ θεοῦ...προοβλεφαμένου, ἵνα μή...τελειωθῶσιν.

xii. 3 ἀναλογίσασθε...ἵνα μὴ κάμητε...

xii. 13 τροχιὰς ὀρθὰς ποιεῖτε...ἵνα μή...ἐκτραπῇ.

In all these cases there is the thought of a definite end aimed at in the foregoing action.

(4) Ὥστε.

xiii. 6 εἴρηκεν...ὥστε...λέγειν...

The particle gives the natural sequence of that which has been stated.

Additional Note on x. 10. The effects of Christ's Sacrifice.

The effect of Christ's Sacrifice of Himself is presented in different places of the Epistle under various aspects in relation to man's position end needs. In consequence of sinfulness and sin man is spiritually in bondage, in debt, alienated from God. He requires redemption, forgiveness, atonement, reconciliation. All these blessings Christ has brought to humanity by His Incarnation, His Life, His Passion, His Ascension. By His perfect fulfilment of the destiny of man under the conditions of the Fall, He has brought again within man's reach the end of his creation (Ps. viii; c. ii. 5 ff.).

The general teaching of the Epistle upon the subject can be summarised most conveniently into two heads:

L The effect of Christ's Sacrifice on the general relation of man to spiritual powers.

ii. The effect of Christ's Sacrifice on man's personal state.

i. The relation of man to spiritual powers.

(1) The might of the devil is brought to naught. Christ was Incarnate ἵνα διὰ θανάτου καταργήσῃ τὸν τὸ κράτος ἔχοντα τοῦ θανάτου τοῦτ' ἔστι τὸν διάβολον (ii. 14). Comp. Apoc. i. 18.

(2) As a consequence of this men are delivered from

(a) a present tyranny: καὶ ἀπαλλάξῃ τούτους ὅσοι φόβῳ θανάτου διὰ παντὸς ζῆν ἔνοχοι ἧσαν δοθλείας (ii. 15); and

(b) an obligation contracted in the past; θανάτου γενομένου εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῶν ἐπὶ τἧ πρώτῃ διαθήκῃ (ix. 15). Comp. ix. 22, x. 18 (ἄφεσις); ix. 12 αἰωνία λύτρωσις.

345

(3) At the same time a propitiation is offered for the sins of the people, so that they can come before God: ii. 17, 18.

These blessings are made permanent because the dominion of sin is set at naught, shewn in its essential impotence: εἰς ἀθέτησιν τῆς ἁμαρτίας διὰ τῆς θυσίας αὐτοῦ πεφανέρωται (ix. 26).

ii. Man's personal state.

Man was created to gain the divine likeness: he needs therefore perfect hallowing.

He is sin-stained: he needs cleansing.

He has powers capable of exercise, cultivation, development: he needs perfecting.

These three, hallowing, cleansing, perfecting, are connected in the Epistle with Christ's Sacrifice in Life and Death.

(1) Hallowing:

(a) The purpose of Christ: Ἰησοῦς ἵνα ἁγιάσῃ διὰ τοῦ ἰδίου αἵματος τὸν λαόν, ἔξω τῆς πύλης ἔπαθεν (xiii. 12).

(b) The fact: τὸ αἷμα τῆς διαθήκης ἐν ᾦ ἡγιάσθη (x. 29).

(c) The realisation: ἐv f λήματι ἡγιασμένοι ἐσμὲν διὰ τῆς προσφοράς τοῦ σώματος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐφάπαξ (x. 10), μιᾷ προσφορᾷ τετελείωκεν εἰς τὸ διηνεκὲς τοὺς ἁγιαζομένους (x. 14). The work is complete on the divine side (ἡγιασμένοι, τετελείωκεν) and gradually appropriated on man's side (ἁγιαζομένους).

(d) The ground: ὁ τε ἁγιάζων καὶ οἱ ἁγιαζόμενοι ἐξ ἑνὸς πάντες (ii. 11). The Redemption completes and crowns the purpose of Creation, which included the possibility of it.

(e) An object of human effort: διώκετε...τὸν ἁγιασμόν, οὗ χωρὶς οὐδεὶς ὄψεται τὸν κύριον (xii. 14).

(2) Cleansing:

Consecration requires as the beginning of its actual fulfilment cleansing. This is presented

(a) Generally: καθαρισμὸν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ποιησάμενος (i. 3).

(b) Individually: τὸ αἷμα τοῦ χριστοῦ...καθαριεῖ τὴν συνείδησιν ἡμῶν ἀπὸ νεκρῶν ἔργων εἰς τὸ λατρεύειν θεῷ ζῶντι (ix. 14).

(c) As complete on the divine part: διὰ τὸ μηδεμίαν ἔχειν ἔτι συνείδησιν ἁμαρτιῶν τοὺς ἅπαξ κεκαθαρισμένους (x. 2).

(d) As extending to the scene of man's heavenly service: αὐτὰ τὰ ἐπουράνια κρείττοσι θυσίαις παρὰ ταύτας (καθαρίζεται) (ix. 23).

(3) Perfecting.

The perfecting of men is wholly dependent on Christ's own perfecting (comp. Addit. Note on ii. 10). Of this perfecting we see

(a) The ground, in Christ's work: τετελείωκεν εἰς τὸ διηνεκὲς τοὺς ἁγιαζομένους (x. 14).

346

(b) The accomplishment, according to a purpose of God slowly fulfilled to our eyes: τοῦ θεοῦ περὶ ἡμῶν κρεῖττόν τι προβλεψαμένου, ἵνα μὴ χωρὶς ἡμῶν τελειωθῶσιν (xi. 40).

(c) The partial fulfilment in a vision of the heavenly city: προσεληλύθατε...πνεύμασι δικαίων τετελειωμένων (xii. 23).

In this connexion it is desirable to study together the four verbs which represent typical views of Christ's work, καθαρίζειν, τελειοῦν, ἱλάσκεσθαι, ἁγιάζειν. The two former deal with man in himself in his present and final state: the two latter with man in his relation to God as devoted to and in fellowship with Him. Of these τελειοῦν and ἱλάσκεσθαι have been discussed elsewhere (Additional Notes on c. ii. 10; 1 John ii. 2): ἁγιάζειν and καθαρίζειν still require notice,

The sense of 'holy' (ἅγιος) is derived from the highest application of the word to God Himself. God is spoken of as 'holy' under the aspect of His inviolable purity, majesty, awe-inspiring glory. Those who are devoted to Him that they may reflect His character are 'holy' (ἅγιοι). That is hallowed which is made to minister to the manifestation of His glory: Matt. vi. 9 (άγιασθήτω τὸ ὅνομά σου); comp. 1 Pet. iii. 15.

Hence generally ἁγιάζειν, Ηebrew B^p, fi^lpn (unclassical, partly represented by ἁγίζειν), has two man's senses.

(1) To set apart for God: to separate from 'the world.'

(2) To make conformable in character to such a dedication. Compare Lev. xx. 26.

As applied to Christians there are therefore two distinct aspects of the words 'holy,' 'hallowed': the initial consecration which marks the destiny for which as Christians they are set apart—the 'indelible character,' in theological language, which is given by Baptism—and the progressive hallowing by which the divine likeness is slowly formed (comp. John x. 36; xvii. 19). The different tenses in which the verb is used place the different aspects of 'hallowing' in a clear light.

Thus the aorist marks the historic fact: x. 29 (ἐν ᾦ ἡγιάσθη) (xiii. 12); John x. 36.

The present shews the continuous process by which the divine gift is slowly realised from stage to stage in the individual life or in successive generations: x. 14 (τοὺς ἁγιαζομένους); ii. 11.

The perfect expresses a state abiding in its divine stability: Acts xx. 32 (lxx.); xxvi. 18; 1 Cor. i. 2; vii. 14; Rom. xv. 16; 2 Tim. ii. 21.

The use of the pres. and perf. together in John xvii. 19 is instructive.

ii. The idea of 'purity' (καθαρότης, καθαρός) expresses primarily the satisfaction of external conditions. In the first instance it marks ceremonial cleanness. The leper as unclean was excluded from the outward commonwealth of Israel. He was restored by cleansing (Matt. viii. 2 f.).

Hence καθαρίζειν (Hebrewpjjp very rarely Κ&Π, the corresponding classical form is καθαίρειν) is

(1) To remove outward defilement; and so to make ceremonially fit to draw near to God.

347

(2) To remove spiritual defilement; and so to make morally fit to come before God. Comp. Acts xv. 9; Eph. v. 26; Tit. ii. 14; 1 John i. 7.

The difference between ἁγιάζειν, καθαρίζειν, and ἱλασκεσθαι may be presented in another light by the consideration of the parallel forms ἁγιασμός, καθαρισμός, ἱλασμός. Of these ἁγιάσμός is prospective, and points forward to a future state not yet attained (xii. 14); καθαρισμός is retrospective and points to a past which has been done away (i. 3; 2 Pet. i. 9); ἱλασμός marks the present restoration of fellowship with God, by the removal of that which stays the outflow of His love (1 John ii. 2).

The use of the words in the lxx. is of considerable interest (see Lev. viii. 15; xvi. 19 f.); and each of them is used to represent ΗebrewT&9: ἁγιάζειν, Ex. xxix. 33; καθαρίζειν, Ex. xxix. 36 f.; xxx. 10; ἱλάσκεσθαι, Ps. lxiv. (lxv.) 4; lxxvii. (lxxviii.) 38; lxxviii. (lxxix.) 9. Comp. Eph. v. 26.

It may be added that both ἁγιάζειν and καθαρίζειν are used in certain connexions of divine and of human action.

i. Of divine action: ἁγιάζειν, John xvii. 17; 1 Thess. v. 23: καθαρίζειν, Acts xv. 9; Tit. ii. 14; 1 John i. 7.

ii. Of human action: ἁγιάζειν, 1 Pet. iii. 15: καθαρίζειν, James iv. 8; 2 Cor. vii. 1.

The verb δίκαιοῦν is not found in the Epistle.

*Additional Note on* x. 37 f. *On the quotation from Hab*. ii. 3 f.

The quotation in c. x. 37 f. consists of an introductory clause [ἔτι γὰρ] μικρὸν ὅσον ὅσον from Is. xxvi. 20, and an adaptation of the lxx. version of Hab. ii. 3, 4.

The text of the lxx. is

[διότι ἔτι ὅρασις εἰς καιρόν......

ἐὰν ὑστερήσῃ, ὑπόμεινον αὐτόν,]

ὅτι ἐρχόμενος ἥξει καὶ οὐ μὴ χρονίσῃ.

ἐὰν ὑποστείληται, οὐκ εὐδοκεῖ ἡ ψυχή μου ἐν αὐτῷ.

ὁ δὲ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεώς μου (Α μου ἐκ π.) ζήσεται.

The Hebrew is rendered (R.V.)

[For the vision is yet for the appointed time...

Though it tarry, wait for it;]

Because it will surely come, it will not delay.

Behold, his soul is puffed up, it is not upright in him:

But the just shall live by his faith.

In contrast with both the writer of the Epistle gives: ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἥξει καὶ οὐ χρονίσει. ὁ δὲ δίκαιός [μου] ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται, καὶ ἐὰν ὑποστείληται οὐκ εὐδοκεὶ ἡ ψυχή μου ἐν αὐτῷ.

348

He that cοmeth shall come, and shall not tarry.

But my righteous (just) one shall live by faith;

And if he shrink back, my soul hath no pleasure in him.

A comparison of these words with those of the lxx., taken in connexion with the introductory clause, shews that the writer is freely using familiar language to convey his own thought. The lxx. had given a personal interpretation to the Vision which embodied the divine promise: wait for Him (i.e. the Lord, or His representative); and the writer of the Epistle, in the light of his Christian faith, defines the Person 'He that cometh,' even the Ascended Christ, adding the article and so separating ἐρχόμενος from ἥξει. It was natural therefore that he should at once connect with this assurance of the coming of the Saviour the reward of faith, and transpose to the end the clause which reveals the peril of slackened zeal. By this adaptation prophetic words conveyed the lesson which he desired to enforce, and the associations which they carried with them gave a solemn colouring to the thought of necessary endurance. The deliverance from Chaldæa, however real, was not such as Israel looked for.

The text of the Epistle has influenced some @mss.@ of the lxx. (which give some ὁ ἐρχόμενος and others οὐ χρονίσει -ιεῖ) and patristic quotations: Euseb. Dem. Ev. vi. 14 (p. 276); Cyr. Alex. In Is. c. viii. 3 (ii. 134); Theophlct. ad loc.

It is interesting to notice that the words of the same passage are combined with words of Malachi (iii. 1) in Clem. 1 ad Cor. 23...συμμαρτυρούσης καὶ τῆς γραφῆς ὅτι

ταχὺ ἥξει καὶ οὐ χρονιεῖ,

καὶ ἐξαίφνης ἥξει ὁ κύριος εἰς τὸν ναὸν αὐτοῦ,

καὶ ὁ ἅγιος ὅν ἡμεῖς προσδοκᾶτε (lxx. ὁ ἄγγελος τῆς διαθήκης ὅν ὑμεῖς θελετε).

349
« Prev X. Next »



| Define | Popups: Login | Register | Prev Next | Help |