« Counsels and Purposes of God, The Courts of Justice Covenants »

Courts of Justice

Have authority from God — Ro 13:1-5.

Superior court

Held first by Moses alone in the wilderness. — Ex 18:13-20.

Consisted subsequently of priests and Levites. — De 17:9; Mal 2:7.

Presided over by the governor or the high priest. — De 17:12; Jdj 4:4,5.

Held at the seat of government. — De 17:8.

Decided on all appeals and difficult cases. — Ex 18:26; De 1:17; 17:8,9.

Decisions of, conclusive. — De 17:10,11.

Inferior court

In all cities. — De 16:18; 2Ch 19:5-7.

Held at the gates. — Ge 34:20; De 16:18; 21:19; Job 5:4.

Judges of, appointed by the governor. — Ex 18:21,25; De 1:9-15; 2Sa 15:3.

All minor cases decided by. — Ex 18:26; 2Sa 15:4.

All transfers of property made before. — Ge 23:17-20; Ru 4:1,2.

Re-established by Jehoshaphat — 2Ch 19:5-10.

Re-established by Ezra — Ezr 7:25.

Sanhedrim or court of the seventy

Probably derived from the seventy elders appointed by Moses. — Ex 24:9; Nu 11:16,17,24-30.

Mentioned in the latter part of sacred history. — Lu 22:66; Joh 11:47; Ac 5:27.

Consisted of chief priest, &c. — Mt 26:57,59.

Presided over by high priest. — Mt 26:62-66.

Sat in high priest’s palace. — Mt 26:57,58.

Of the romans in Judea

Presided over by the governor or deputy. — Mt 27:2,11; Ac 18:12.

Place of, called the hall of judgment. — Joh 18:28,33; 19:9.

Never interfered in any dispute about minor matters or about religion. — Ac 18:14,15.

Could alone award death. — Joh 18:31.

Never examined their own citizens by torture. — Ac 22:25-29.

Appeals from, made to the emperor. — Ac 25:11; 26:32; 28:19.

Generally held in the morning — Jer 21:12; Mt 27:1; Lu 22:66; Ac 5:21.

Sometimes held in synagogues — Mt 10:17; Ac 22:19; 26:11; Jas 2:2.

Provided with

Judges. — De 16:18.

Officers. — De 16:18; Mt 5:25.

Tormentors or executioners. — Mt 18:34.

Judges of

Called elders. — De 25:7; 1Sa 16:4.

Called magistrates. — Lu 12:58.

Rode often on white asses. — Jdj 5:10.

To judge righteously. — Le 19:15; De 1:6.

To judge without respect of persons. — Ex 23:3,6; Le 19:15; De 1:17; Pr 22:22.

To investigate every case. — De 19:18.

Not to take bribes. — Ex 23:8; De 16:19.

To judge as for God. — 2Ch 19:6,7,9.

To decide according to the law. — Eze 44:24.

To promote peace. — Zec 8:16.

Sat on the judgment-seat while hearing causes. — Ex 18:13; Jdj 5:10; Isa 28:6; Mt 27:19.

Examined the parties. — Ac 24:8.

Conferred together before giving judgment. — Ac 5:34-40; 25:12; 26:30,31.

Pronounced the judgment of the court. — Mt 26:65,66; Lu 23:24; Ac 5:40.

Both the accusers and accused required to appear before — De 25:1; Ac 25:16.

Causes in, were opened by

The complainant. — 1Ki 3:17-21; Ac 16:19-21.

An advocate. — Ac 24:1.

The accused

Stood before the judge. — Nu 35:12; Mt 27:11.

Permitted to plead their own cause. — 1Ki 3:22; Ac 24:10; 26:1.

Might have advocates. — Pr 31:8,9; Isa 1:17.

Exhorted to confess. — Jos 7:19.

Examined on oath. — Le 5:1; Mt 26:63.

Sometimes examined by torture. — Ac 22:24,29.

Sometimes treated with insult. — Mt 26:67; Joh 18:22,23; Ac 23:2,3.

The evidence of two or more witnesses required in. — De 17:6; 19:15; Joh 8:17; 2Co 13:1.

Witnesses sometimes laid their hands on the criminal’s head before punishment. — Le 24:14.

False witnesses in to receive the punishment of the accused — De 19:19.

Corruption and bribery often practised in — Isa 10:1; Am 5:12; 8:6.

The judgment of

Not given till accused was heard. — Joh 7:51.

Recorded in writing. — Isa 10:1.

Immediately executed. — De 25:2; Jos 7:25; Mr 15:15-20.

Witnesses first to execute. — De 17:7; Ac 7:58.

Allusions to. — Job 5:4; Ps 127:5; Mt 5:22.

Illustrative of the last judgment. — Mt 19:28; Ro 14:10; 1Co 6:2.

« Counsels and Purposes of God, The Courts of Justice Covenants »



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