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Letter XIV.

To Anastasius, Bishop of Thessalonica.

Leo, bishop of the City of Rome, to Anastasius, bishop of Thessalonica.

I.  Prefatory.

If with true reasoning you perceived all that has been committed to you, brother, by the blessed apostle Peter’s authority, and what has also been entrusted to you by our favour, and would weigh it fairly, we should be able greatly to rejoice at your zealous discharge of the responsibility imposed on you117117    De iniunctæ tibi sollicitudinis devotione (an obscure expression)..

II.  Anastasius is taxed with exceeding the limits of his vicariate, especially in his violent and unworthy treatment of Atticus.

Seeing that, as my predecessors acted towards yours, so too I, following their example, have delegated my authority to you118118    See Letter IV., where it will be remembered the appointment of Anastasius, as Vicar of Illyricum, was made., beloved:  so that you, imitating our gentleness, might assist us in the care which we owe primarily to all the churches by Divine institution, and might to a certain extent make up for our personal presence in visiting those provinces which are far off from us:  for it would be easy for you by regular and well-timed inspection to tell what and in what cases you could either, by your own influence, settle or reserve for our judgment.  For as it was free for you to suspend the more important matters and the harder issues while you awaited our opinion, there was no reason nor necessity for you to go out of your way to decide what was beyond your powers.  For you have numerous written warnings of ours in which we have often instructed you to be temperate in all your actions:  that with loving exhortations you might provoke the churches of Christ committed to you to healthy obedience.  Because, although as a rule there exist among careless or slothful brethren things which demand a strong hand in rectifying them; yet the correction ought to be so applied as ever to keep love inviolate.  Wherefore also it is that the blessed Apostle Paul, in instructing Timothy upon the ruling of the Church, says:  “an elder rebuke not, but intreat him as a father:  the young men as brethren:  old women as mothers:  young women as sisters in all purity119119    1 Tim. v. 1, 2..”  And if this moderation is due by the Apostle’s precept to all and any of the lower members, how much more is it to be paid without offence to our brethren and 17fellow-bishops? in order that although things sometimes happen which have to be reprimanded in the persons of priests, yet kindness may have more effect on those who are to be corrected than severity:  exhortation than perturbation:  love than power.  But they who “seek their own, not the things which are Jesus Christ’s120120    Phil. ii. 21.,” easily depart from this law, and finding pleasure rather in domineering over their subjects than in consulting their interests, are swoln with the pride of their position, and thus what was provided to secure harmony ministers to mischief.  That we are obliged to speak thus causes us no small grief.  For I feel myself in a certain measure drawn into blame, on discovering you to have so immoderately departed from the rules handed down to you.  If you were careless of your own reputation, you ought at least to have spared my good name:  lest what only your own mind prompted should seem done with our approval.  Do but read, brother, our pages with care, and peruse all the letters sent by holders of the Apostolic See to your predecessors, and you will find injunctions either from me or from my predecessors on that in which we learn you have presumed.

For there has come to us our brother Atticus, the metropolitan121121    Some for metropolitanus here read Nicopolitanus, Bishop of Nicopolis, the metropolitan see of old Epirus.  Quesnel. bishop of Old Epirus, with the bishops of his province, and with tearful pleading has complained of the undeserved contumely he has suffered, in the presence of your own deacons who, by giving no contradiction to these woeful complaints, showed that what was impressed upon us did not want for truth.  We read also in your letter, which those same deacons of yours brought, that brother Atticus had come to Thessalonica, and that he had also sealed his agreement in a written profession, so that we could not but understand concerning him that it was of his own will and free devotion that he had come, and that he had composed the statement of his promise of obedience, although in the very mention of this statement a sign of injury was betrayed.  For it was not necessary that he should be bound in writing, who was already proving his obedience by the very dutifulness of his voluntary coming.  Wherefore these words in your letter bore witness to the bewailings of the aforesaid, and through his outspoken account that which had been passed over in silence is laid bare, namely that the Præfecture of Illyricum had been approached, and the most exalted functionary among the potentates of the world122122    The language is, I think, intentionally exaggerated and high-flown:  parturiunt montes nascetur ridiculus mus. had been set in motion to expose an innocent prelate:  so that a company was sent to carry out the aweful deed who were to enlist all the public servants in giving effect to their orders, and from the church’s holy sanctuary charged with no crime, or at best a false one, was dragged a priest, to whom no truce was granted in consideration of his grievous ill-health or the cruel winter weather:  but he was forced to take a journey full of hardships and dangers through the pathless snows.  And this was a task of such toil and peril that some of those who accompanied the bishop are said to have succumbed123123    Anastasius seems to have arraigned Atticus before the civil court of the Prefect of Illyricum:  he sent his apparitors, who violently dragged him out of the church, and brought him in midwinter across country to be tried..

I am quite dumb-founded, beloved brother, yea and I am also sore grieved that you brought yourself to be so savagely and violently moved against one about whom you had laid no further information than that when summoned to appear he put off and excused himself on the grounds of illness; especially when, even if he deserved any such treatment, you should have waited till I had replied to your consulting letter.  But, as I perceive, you thought too well of my habits, and most truly foresaw how fair-minded124124    The word is civilia, in which Brissonius thinks he sees an allusion either to the opposition between civil law and prætor’s law (to which Anastasius had appealed), or else to the technical meaning of the word in jurisprudence as equivalent to ‘Legitimate’ or ‘fair’.  The latter is more likely. an answer I was likely to make to preserve harmony among priests:  and therefore you made haste to carry out your movements without concealment, lest when you had received the letter of our forbearance dictating another course, you should have no licence to do that which is done.  Or perhaps some crime had reached your ears, and metropolitan125125    Quesnel here accepts Nicopolitanum instead of metropolitanum (see n. 7 above), but with little reason. bishop that you are, the weight of some new charge pressed you hard?  But that this is not consistent with the fact, you yourself make certain by laying nothing against him.  Yet even if he had committed some grave and intolerable misdemeanour, you should have waited for our opinion:  so as to arrive at no decision by yourself until you knew our pleasure.  For we made you our deputy, beloved, on the understanding that you were engaged to share our responsibility, not to take plenary powers on yourself.  Wherefore as what you bestow a pious care on delights us much, so your wrongful acts grieve us sorely.  And after experience in many cases we must show greater foresight, and use more diligent precaution:  to the end that through the spirit of love and peace all matter of offence may be removed from the Lord’s churches, 18which we have commended to you:  the pre-eminence of your bishopric being retained in the provinces, but all your usurping excesses being shorn off.

III.  The rights of the metropolitans under the vicariate of Anastasius are to be observed.

Therefore according to the canons of the holy Fathers, which are framed by the spirit of God and hollowed by the whole world’s reverence, we decree that the metropolitan bishops of each province over which your care, brother, extends by our delegacy, shall keep untouched the rights of their position which have been handed down to them from olden times:  but on condition that they do not depart from the existing regulations by any carelessness or arrogance.

IV.  The negative qualifications of a bishop determined.

In cities whose governors126126    Rectores. have died let this form be observed in filling up their place:  he, who is to be ordained, even though his good life be not attested, shall be not a layman, not a neophyte, nor yet the husband of a second wife, or one who, though he has or has had but one, married a widow.  For the choosing of priests is of such surpassing importance that things which in other members of the Church are not blame-worthy, are yet held unlawful in them.

V.  Continence is required even in sub-deacons.

For although they who are not within the ranks of the clergy are free to take pleasure in the companionship of wedlock and the procreation of children, yet for the exhibiting of the purity of complete continence, even sub-deacons are not allowed carnal marriage:  that “both those that have, may be as though they had not127127    1 Cor. vii. 29.  A reference to this passage will show that S. Paul does not limit himself to the clergy in what he says:  for an interesting note on the text (written, of course, from the Roman standpoint), the reader is referred to Hurter’s edition in loc., who adduces some valuable illustrations from Epiphanius, Jerome, &c.,” and those who have not, may remain single.  But if in this order, which is the fourth from the Head128128    Quartus a Capite, i.e. from Jesus Christ, the Head of the Church, or perhaps from the Bishop of Rome, His soi-disant representative on earth (cf. chap. xii, below)., this is worthy to be observed, how much more is it to be kept in the first, or second, or third, lest any one be reckoned fit for either the deacon’s duties or the presbyter’s honourable position, or the bishop’s pre-eminence, who is discovered not yet to have bridled his uxorious desires.

VI.  The election of a bishop must proceed by the wishes of the clergy and people.

When therefore the choice of the chief priest is taken in hand, let him be preferred before all whom the unanimous consent of clergy and people demands, but if the votes chance to be divided between two persons, the judgment of the metropolitan should prefer him who is supported by the preponderance of votes and merits:  only let no one be ordained against the express wishes of the place:  lest a city should either despise or hate a bishop whom they did not choose, and lamentably fall away from religion because they have not been allowed to have whom they wished.

VII.  Metropolitans are to refer to their Vicar:  the mode of electing metropolitans is laid down.

However the metropolitan bishop should refer to you, brother, about the person to be consecrated bishop, and about the consent of the clergy and people:  and he should acquaint you with the wishes of the province:  that the due celebration of the ordination may be strengthened by your authority also.  But to right selections it will be your duty to cause no delay or hindrance, lest the Lord’s flocks should remain too long with their shepherd’s care.

Moreover when a metropolitan is defunct and another has to be elected in to his place, the bishops of the province must meet together in the metropolitical city:  that after the wishes of all the clerics and all the citizens have been sifted, the best man may be chosen from the presbyters of that same church or from the deacons, and you are to be informed of his name by the priests of the province, who will carry out the wishes of his supporters on ascertaining that you agree with their choice129129    This method of electing the metropolitan will at once strike the reader:  the electors apparently are (1) the bishops of the province (who are not eligible for the office); (2) the clergy of the diocese (who alone are eligible); and (3) the laity of the diocese.  Only if one remembers how limited each diocese was in extent, can one realise the working of the method..  For whilst we desire proper elections to be hampered by no delays, we yet allow nothing to be done presumptuously without your knowledge.

VIII.  Bishops are to hold provincial councils twice a year.

Concerning councils of bishops we give no other instructions than those laid down for the Church’s health by the holy Fathers130130    The Council of Nicæa (325) fixed two councils a year, one ante quadragesimam Paschæ (i.e. before Eastertide), the other circa tempus autumni.:  to wit that two meetings should be held a year, in which judgment should be passed upon all the complaints which are wont to arise between the various ranks of the Church.  But if perchance among the rulers themselves a 19cause arise (which God forbid) concerning one of the greater sins, such as cannot be decided by a provincial trial, the metropolitan shall take care to inform you, brother, concerning the nature of the whole matter, and if, after both parties have come before you, the thing be not set at rest even by your judgment, whatever it be, let it be transferred to our jurisdiction.

IX.  Translation from one see to another is to be prohibited.

If any bishop, despising the insignificance of his city, shall intrigue for the government of a more populous place, and transfer himself by whatever means to a larger flock, he shall first be driven from the chair he has usurped, and also shall be deprived of his own:  so shall he preside neither over those whom in his greed he coveted, nor over those whom in his arrogance he spurned.  Therefore let each be content with his own bounds, and not seek to be raised above the limits of his present post.

X.  Bishops are not to entice or receive the clergy of another diocese.

A cleric from another diocese let no (bishop) accept or invite against the wishes of his own bishop:  but only when giver and receiver agree together thereupon by friendly compact.  For a man is guilty of a serious injury who ventures either to entice or withhold from a brother’s church that which is of great use or high value.  And so, if such a thing happen within the province, the metropolitan shall force the deserting cleric to return to his church:  but if he has withdrawn himself still further off, he shall be recalled by your authoritative command:  so that no occasion be left for either desire of gain or intrigue.

XI.  When the Vicar shall require a meeting of bishops, two from each province will be sufficient.

In summoning bishops to your presence, we wish you to show great forbearance:  lest under a show of much diligence you seem to exult in your brethren’s injuries.  Wherefore if any greater case arise for which it is reasonable and necessary to convene a meeting of brethren, it may suffice, brother, that two bishops should attend from each province, whom the metropolitans shall think proper to be sent, on the understanding that those who answer the summons be not detained longer than fifteen days from the time fixed.

XII.  In case of difference of opinion between the Vicar and the bishops, the bishop of Rome must be consulted.  The subordination of authorities in the Church expounded.

But if in that which you believed necessary to be discussed and settled with the brethren, their opinion differs from your own wishes, let all be referred to us, with the minutes of your proceedings attested, that all ambiguities may be removed, and what is pleasing to God decided.  For to this end we direct all our desires and pains, that what conduces to our harmonious unity and to the protection of discipline may be marred by no dissension and neglected by no slothfulness.  Therefore, dearly beloved brother, you and those our brethren who are offended at your extravagant conduct (though the matter of complaint is not the same with all), we exhort and warn not to disturb by any wrangling what has been rightfully ordained and wisely settled.  Let none “seek what is his own, but what is another’s,” as the Apostle says:  “Let each one of you please his neighbour for his good unto edifying131131    Phil. ii. 4, and Rom. xv. 2..”  For the cementing of our unity cannot be firm unless we be bound by the bond of love into an inseparable solidity:  because “as in one body we have many members, but all the members have not the same office; so we being many are one body in Christ, and all of us members one of another132132    1 Cor. xii. 12, &c.:  the quotation is loose, cf. Rom. xii. 5..”  The connexion of the whole body makes all alike healthy, all alike beautiful:  and this connexion requires the unanimity indeed of the whole body, but it especially demands harmony among the priests.  And though they have a common dignity, yet they have not uniform rank; inasmuch as even among the blessed Apostles, notwithstanding the similarity of their honourable estate, there was a certain distinction of power, and while the election of them all was equal, yet it was given to one133133    Viz., S. Peter. to take the lead of the rest.  From which model has arisen a distinction between bishops also, and by an important ordinance it has been provided134134    Magna ordinatione provisum est. that every one should not claim everything for himself:  but that there should be in each province one whose opinion should have the priority among the brethren:  and again that certain whose appointment is in the greater cities should undertake a fuller responsibility, through whom the care of the universal Church should converge towards Peter’s one seat, and nothing anywhere should be separated from its Head.  Let not him then who knows he has been set over certain others 20take it ill that some one has been set over him, but let him himself render the obedience which he demands of them:  and as he does not wish to bear a heavy load of baggage, so let him not dare to place on another’s shoulders a weight that is insupportable.  For we are disciples of the humble and gentle Master who says:  “Learn of Me, for I am gentle and humble of heart, and ye shall find rest for your souls.  For My yoke is easy and My burden light135135    S. Matt. xi. 29, 30..”  And how shall we experience this, unless this too comes to our remembrance which the same Lord says:  “He that is greater among you, shall be your servant.  But he that exalteth himself, shall be humbled:  and he that humbleth himself, shall be exalted136136    Ibid. xxiii. 11, 12..”

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