« Phlippi, Friedrich Adolph Philippi, Jacobus Philippians, Epistle to the »

Philippi, Jacobus

PHILIPPI, JACOBUS: German Roman Catholic; author of the Reformatorium vitæ clericorum (Basel, 1494); b. at Külchhoffen or Kilchen (now Kirchhoffen, a hamlet near Freiburg) about 1435; d. apparently after 1510. In 1463 he matriculated in the theological faculty at Basel. Here he edited a gradual (Basel, 1488) and a breviary (1492), and also lectured on various books of the Bible, especially on the Pauline epistles. In 1464 he was a member of the committee of advisement on the university statutes. In scholastic philosophy he was a realist. Of his activity little is known; but it is evident that he was inclined toward the Brethren of the Common Life (see Common Life, Brethren of the), making his will in favor of their house at Zwolle in 1486. He was attracted to the community primarily by his brother Ludwig, who had become one of their number at Zwolle in 1472, and who died there as rector of the Brethren in 1490. The statement in Johann Butzbach's Auctarium de scriptoribus ecclesiasticis that Jacobus Philippi was still living after 1508 seems to be confirmed by a title-deed of 1510.

Among Philippi's writings Butzbach makes special mention of the Sermons ad populum (thus far undiscovered) and of the Præcordiale sacerdotum devote celebrare cupientium utile et consolatorium (Strasburg, 1489). His chief work, however, was his Reformatorium (first printed at Basel, 1494, not 1444, as a misprint led many to suppose), directed against evils in the life of the clergy. As a remedy Philippi recommended the community of the Brethren of the Common Life. The close of the book admonishes against the misuse of benefices accumulated in the hands of a single holder. In all his reform measures Philippi shows himself in harmony with many of his contemporaries.

L. Schulze.

Bibliography: Biographical material is to be found in the Reformatorium; scattered notices are collected by L. Schulze in ZKW, 1886, pp. 88 sqq., and by Schöngen in the "Chronicle" of Jacobus Trajecti published by the Historical Society of Utrecht, 1903. Consult further: J. Hürbin, Peter von Andlau, Strasburg, 1897; idem, Handbuch der schweizerischen Geschichte, ii. 87 sqq., Stans, 1902.

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