LIFE AND ADVENT UNION. See ADVENTISTS, 4.
LIFTINÆ, SYNOD OF: The second Australian synod held during the reign of Carloman, apparently in 743, at Liftinae, in the sixteenth century called Lestines, the modern Eatinnes (7 m. s.e. of Mons), Belgium. Many things occur in its acts which do not really belong there, and others have scant independent value, being mere confirmations of the first Australian synod of the previous year. It marked an important step in advance, however, in that the principles of church government already fixed in the earlier synod were now more accurately defined as an adherence to primitive usage. Direct dependence on the canons of the earlier Fathers (i.e., the ecumenical councils) was expressly postulated and the attitude assumed toward unlawful marriages prepared the way for the entrance of the Roman code into the kingdom of the Franks. Still more important was the legal aspect, which was equally momentous for Church and State, inasmuch as it involved the moot question of the enormous secularization of the eighth century. They seem to have begun chiefly with Charles Martel, who invested laymen with bishoprics. After the death of Charles the process of restitution began in Austrasia, when the newly consecrated bishops were reinstated in the possessions of the Church, although the greater portion still remained in the hands of laymen as precariæ. In Neustria, on the other hand, those who held ecclesiastical estates retained their illegal property until the accession of Pepin, who gradually put an end to this state of affairs, partly by actual restitution and partly by the system of precariæ which he could revoke at pleasure, even though secularization was still practised to some extent both by him and Carloman.
The provisions of 742 and 743 are important as inaugurating a real, though limited, restitution and as guaranteeing a regular mode of procedure. At the synod Carloman reached an agreement with the bishops. Those who had received ecclesiastical fiefs from the king held them only for life, the
The decisions are given in MGH., Leg., sectio ii, 1, p. 26, no. 11. Consult: G. Waitz, Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte, iii. 35 sqq., 8 vols., Kiel, 1844-78; P. Roth, Geschichte des Benefizialwesens, Erlangen, 1850; idem, Feudatität und Unterthanenverband, Weimar, 1863; idem, in Münchner historisches Jahrbuch, i (1865), 275; Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, iii. 525; Rettberg, KD, i. 306.
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