JUMPERS: A name applied in derision to the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists (see PRESBYTERIANS) since they not only expressed their emotion in the outcries frequent in Methodist meetings, but also "leaped and sprang for joy." These ecstatic manifestations first appeared about 1760 in circles of Welsh Methodists, and spread with such contagion that they were for a time regarded as a characteristic of the sect. Justification for the practise was sought from I Sam. vi. 16; Luke vi. 23; and Acts iii. 8. The custom later became obsolete.
JUNCKER, yunk'er, ALFRED: German Protestant; b. at Ida- und Marienhütte, Silesia, July 4, 1865. He was educated at the universities of Breslau, Berlin, Leipsic, and Halle from 1884 to 1888 (lic. theol., Halle, 1891). From 1892 to 1895 he was pastor at Bunzlau, after which he was appointed inspector of the Sedlnitzkysches Johanneum, Breslau. In 1896 he became privat-docent at the University of Breslau, where he was appointed to his present position of associate professor of New-Testament exegesis in 1904. He has written Das Ich und die Motivation des Willens im Christentum, ein Beitrag zur Lösung des eudämonistischen Problems (Halle, 1891); Die Ethik des Apostels Paulus, vol. i. (Halle, 1904); and Das Gebet bei Paulus (Gross-Lichterfelde, 1905).
JUNILIUS: Ecclesiastical writer; b. in Africa; d. about 550. He was a contemporary of Cassiodorus and lived at Constantinople under Justinian, where he held some high civil office (according to Procopius, Historia arcana, xx., that of Quaestor sacri palatii). According to his own statement, his work entitled: Instituta regularia divinæ legis, which he dedicated to Bishop Primasius of Hadrumetum at the time of the Three Chapter Controversy (q.v.), is based on the communications of a Persian Paulus. In the form of question and answer, this work, in two books, contains a methodical introduction into the sacred Scriptures. The first part (book i. 1-10) treats of the various rhetorical styles, of the varied authority and authorship of the Scriptures, distinction between poetry and prose, of the proper sequence between the two Testaments. The books of Chronicles, Job, Ezra with Nehemiah and Esther, and also Canticles, James, II Peter, Jude, II and III John, and Revelation are not reckoned among the canonical Scriptures. The second part (book i. 11-ii. 27) presents a synopsis of the doctrinal content of Scripture: of God, his being, the persons of the Trinity, God's modes of operation, and his relation to his creatures; of the present world, creation, divine government, nature, free will; and of the world to come, the story of salvation, election and calling; of types and prophecies, and their fulfilment both in time and in eternity. In conclusion, there are some hermeneutical rules (ii. 28), grounds for the credibility of Scripture (ii. 29), and an explanation of the relation between reason and faith.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The work of Junilius was edited by J. Gast, Basel, 1545, reproduced Paris, 1644, and reprinted in MPL, Ixviii. 15-42; also by H. Kihn, Freiburg, 1880, and in pp. 465-528 of Kihn's Theodor von Mopsuestia und Junilius Africanus, ib: 1880. Consult: A. Rahlfs, in Nachrichten der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften . . . zu Göttingen, 1890, pp. 242-246; DCB, iii. 534-535.
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