John XIII.: Pope 965-972. Formerly bishop of Narni, and apparently a son of the younger Theodora, he was elected under the influence of Otto I. and consecrated Oct. 1. In December the citizens rose and imprisoned him. He escaped, but was unable to reenter Rome except with the help of the emperor, to whom he remained in absolute subjection. This relation, however, increased his consideration in the West, and from countries as distant as Spain, England, and Scotland questions were referred to him for decision. He died Sept. 6, 972.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Epistolae et privilegia are in MPL, cxxxv. Consult: Liber pontificalis, ed. Duchesne, ii. 252, Paris, 1892; Jaffé, Regista, i. 470-477; J. M. Watterich, Romanorum pontificum vitae, i. 44, 66, 685-686, Leipsic, 1862; B. Jungmann, Dissertationes selectae, iv. 493 sqq., Regensburg, 1884; J. Langen, Geschichte der römischen Kirche, iii. 354-363, Bonn, 1892; Hauck, KD, iii. passim; F. Gregorovius, Hist. of the City of Rome, iii 357-377, London, 1895; Bower, Popes, ii. 321-323; B. Platina, Lives of the Popes, i. 255-256, London, n.d.
John XIV.: Pope 983-984. Formerly known as Peter, bishop of Pavia and chancellor of Italy, he was elected in Nov. 983, by the influence of Otto II. After Otto's death the rival claimant, Boniface VII., returned from Constantinople and imprisoned John in the Castle of Sant'Angelo, where he died Aug. 20, 984.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Jaffé, Regesta, i. 484; J. M. Watterich, Romanorum pontificum vitae, i. 66, 686-687, Leipsic, 1862; Bower, Popes, ii. 325; B. Platina, Lives of the Popes, i. 280, London, n.d.; F. Gregorovius, Hist. of the City of Rome, iii. 393, 397, London, 1895.
John XV.: Pope 985-986. During his pontificate the political power in Rome was in the hands of John Crescentius II., and the papacy enjoyed little consideration abroad, as is shown by the history of the Reims contest (see SYLVESTER II.). His relations with Germany, however, were relatively close, and he acted (through his legate Leo of Trevl) as mediator between Ethelred of England and Richard of Normandy, sanctioning the peace of Rouen (Mar. 1, 991). He died early in April, 996.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Liber pontificalis, ed. Duchesne, ii, 260, Paris, 1892; J. M. Watterieh, Romanorum pontificum vitae, i. 66-67, 687-688, Leipsic, 1862; J. Langan, Geschichte der römischen Kirche, iii. 369-380, Bonn, 1892; F. Gregorovius, Hist. of the City of Rome, iii. 398-408, London, 1895; Bower, Popes, ii. 326-329.
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