Qualifications of Candidates (§ 1).
Analysis of the Constitutions (§ 2).
On the Virtue of Obedience (§ 3).
Rules and Other Manuals (§ 4).
The Jesuits (Societas Jesu, "Company of Jesus") is " the most wide-spread of all the religious orders founded in modern times." For an account of the founding of the order see IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA.
The Constitutiones Societatis Jesu cum earum declarationibus, having been approved by Paul III., Julius III., and Paul IV., and commended after careful examination by the Council of Trent, was again emphatically approved and confirmed by Gregory XIII. (Feb., 1582) and printed in Rome in 1583. The text is accompanied by marginal declarations or explanatory notes printed in italics, with a full alphabetical index. The end of the society is declared to be the salvation and perfection of the souls of its members as well as of men in general. The ordinary vows of obedience, poverty, and chastity are required of all members, and that of poverty is explained so as to exclude absolutely not only individual but collective possessions. Receiving compensation for masses, sermons, lectures, or any sort of religious service, even in the form of alms, is absolutely prohibited (Examen, i. 3). An exception is made in the case of colleges and houses of probation with their buildings and revenues. Scholars take the three ordinary vows of poverty, obedience and celibacy and promise to enter the higher ranks of service if the glory of God should require it. Coadjutors or helpers, whether in spiritual or in temporal things, take only the same. Their promotion to the ranks of the Professed depends on their faithfulness and efficiency in the things committed to them. The Professed, or members of the inner circle, who possess the secrets of the order, and from whom the officers are chosen, take in addition to these vows a special vow to the pope, that they will journey without parleying and without asking for traveling expenses, whithersoever he may order, whether among believers or unbelievers. A fourth class is made up of those whose position in the order has not yet been determined, but who are in readiness to enter either grade that the superior may direct. A period of probation (novitiate) usually lasting for two years, in which the candidate is trained in obedience and thoroughly tested as regards aptitude, mental, physical, moral, and spiritual, for the purposes of the order, precedes entrance into any of the grades mentioned (Examen, i. 12). Inquiry is to be made of each candidate whether he has ever been separated from the Church by reason of denial of the faith or falling into errors or into schism; whether he has perpetrated homicide or become infamous on account of enormous sins; whether he has belonged to another order; whether be has been bound by the chain of matrimony or servitude; whether he is afflicted with poor judgment. Affirmative answers to these questions disqualify for admission (Examen, ii.). Careful inquiry, is further to be made respecting name, age, birth-place, legitimacy of birth, religious character of ancestors, names, occupations, and worldly condition of parents (similar inquiries about brothers and sisters); whether he is under obligation to marry, whether he has any son, whether he is in debt or has civil liabilities, whether he has a trade and can read and write, whether be has any disease, has received ecclesiastical ordination, or is under a vow; what have been his habits of religious devotion, reading, and meditation; whether he entertains any religious opinions different from those of the Church, whether he is ready to leave the world and to follow the counsels of our Lord Jesus Christ, whether he fully purposes to live and die in the society; and when, where, and by whom was he first moved to take this position. The answers expected to these inquiries are manifest (ibid. iii.). The candidate is required to relinquish his possessions, if not immediately, at latest after one year. Intercourse with relatives is restricted and practically prohibited. He must agree to have all his defects and errors pointed out to him. He must submit to training in the "Spiritual Exercises," and spend a month doing menial work in a hospice and another month in traveling as a mendicant. For the rest of the two years of probation many other tests are applied, the aim being to make the candidate as a "corpse or a staff" in the hands of his superior. The candidate must express a willingness to become a secular coadjutor or whatever his superiors may determine to be for the greater glory of God and to be willing in all things to submit his own feeling and judgment to that of the society (ibid. v.). For coadjutors and scholars a still further testing of absolute obedience and requisite efficiency is provided (ibid. vi.-viii.).
The body of the work consists of eight books. Part I. treats of "Admission to Probation." To the general belongs the final decision as to whether an applicant shall be accepted or rejected. The qualities sought in those to be admitted are given in detail: good appearance, health, youth, physical
For "The Spiritual Exercises," see EXERCITIA SPIRITUALIA.
Ignatius' tract "On the Virtue of Obedience" stands side by side with the Spiritual Exercises and the Constitution as one of the foundation books of the society. It is a letter of less than 4,000 words addressed in April, 1553, to "the brethren of the Society of Jesus who are in Lusitania." He wishes his brethren, while being perfect in all spiritual gifts and ornaments, to be preeminent in the virtue of obedience:
" The only virtue that inserts the other virtues in the mind
and guards those that have been inserted. While this
flourishes, beyond doubt the rest will flourish. . . . Our
salvation was wrought by Him who 'became obedient unto
death.' . . . We may the more easily suffer ourselves to be
surpassed by other religious orders in fastings, vigils, and
other asperity of food and clothing, which each by its own
ritual and discipline holily receives: I could wish, dearest
brethren, that you who serve our Lord Jesus Christ in this
society should be conspicuous indeed in true and perfect
obedience and abdication of will and especially of judgment
and for the true and germane progeny of this same society
to be distinguished as it were by this note, that they never
look upon the person himself whom they obey, but in him
look upon Christ the Lord for whose sake they obey. Even
if the superior be ornamented and furnished with prudence,
goodness, and whatever other gifts, he is not to be obeyed
on account of these things, but solely because he is God's
vicegerent by whose authority he performs his functions, who
says 'he that heareth you heareth me,' 'he that despiseth
you despiseth me': nor, on the contrary, even if the superior
should be somewhat deficient in counsel or prudence, ought
there to be any remission of obedience on that account, so
long as he is one's superior; since it has reference to the
person of Him whose wisdom can not be deceived: and He
will supply whatever may be wanting to his minister, whether
he be lacking in probity or in other ornaments--seeing that
when Christ had said in express words 'The Scribes and
Pharisees sit on Moses' seat,' he straightway added 'All
things therefore whatsoever they have said to you, observe
and do, but refuse to do according to their works.' "
He proceeds to show that mere outward obedience to a superior, with inner disapproval of the command, is the "lowest and utterly imperfect form of obedience, not worthy of the name of virtue unless it ascends to another grade, which makes one's own the will of the superior and so agrees with it that not only the execution appears in the effect, but also the consent in the affection, and so both will the same thing and disapprove the same thing." Obedience is declared to be " the sacrifice of one's own will, which is the highest part of the mind," the highest possible offering we can make to God. He warns his readers never to attempt to bend the will of a superior to their own. This would be not to conform your will to the divine, but to wish to regulate the divine will by the standard of your own. As a third degree of obedience, which he would have his readers attain, he urges that they should not only will the same, but also think the same as the superior; they should subject their judgment to his. The devout will is able to sway the intelligence, so that "whatever things the superior commands and thinks may seem to the inferior right and true." The best way to accomplish this "holocaust" so essential to personal peace and tranquillity, alacrity, and diligence, and to the unity and efficiency of the society, is "not to look upon the person of the superior as a man obnoxious to errors and miseries, but as Christ himself, who is the highest wisdom, immeasurable goodness, infinite love, who can neither be deceived nor does he wish to deceive you; and since you are conscious within yourselves that by the love of God you have subjected yourselves to the yoke of obedience, that in following the will of the superior you follow more certainly the divine will, do not allow yourselves to doubt that the most faithful love of the Lord will go on by his own ministry which he has appointed over you to govern you from step to step and lead you in right ways. Therefore the voice of your superior and his orders receive not otherwise than as the voice of Christ." On Jan. 1, 1604, Acquaviva, general of the society, prescribed the reading of this tract by every member of the society every two days. It is appended to the Regulae Societatis Jesu in the edition published in Rome in 1616 and frequently afterward.
Early in the history of the society a body of rules was printed for the guidance of members in private and in public life. The edition of 1616, published in Rome by Bernardus de Angelis, secretary of the society, embraces additions made by the Seventh General Congregation. It begins with a summary of the Constitution. "Common rules" to be observed by all regarding general deportment, religious exercises, reading, etc., follow. Next come the "Rules of the Provincial," the responsible leader in a province, and his assistants; those of the provost of the house of the professed; those of the college rector; those of the examiner who has to pass upon the qualifications of candidates for admission into the society; those of the master of the novices (with a list of ascetical books suitable for his use); instruction for rendering an account of one's conscience, comprising fourteen questions to be answered in confession and intended to cover all experiences of soul for six months (a year in case of the professed) follows. Rules for those who go on pilgrimages, for assistants of provosts and rectors, consultors (experts without office available for the settlement of difficulties that may arise in any institution of the society), the monitor (whose function is to admonish superiors and report to consultors, to collect the letters of consultors and send them to superiors, etc.). A formula for writing letters by superiors to provincials and by provincials to the general, and directions for the preparation of the annual catalogue of each institution with full information about each member, follow. Rules for prefects, priests, preachers, proctors, librarians, sextons, those who have the care of the sick, etc., are also given.
The Institulum Societatis Jesus (Rome, 1606, Lyons, 1607) and the Corpus Institutionum S. J. (Antwerp, 1709) include a collection of the works already mentioned, with the "Decrees and Canons of the General Congregations," the "Ordinances of the Generals," and some ascetical works.
In 1614 there was published at Cracow what purported to be the secret instructions given to members of the society as to the means to be used to acquire influence over the rich and the noble and to get the advantage of members of other orders and of secular priests in the confessional and other kinds of service. It abounds in worldly-wise advice and recommends the use of all kinds of chicanery for the enrichment and aggrandizement of the society. It consists of seventeen short chapters. It has been frequently reprinted and translated into many languages, thus becoming widely circulated. It seems highly probable that Hieronymus Zahorowski, who had recently severed his connection with the society, published the book with the co-operation of Count George Zbaraski and other Polish enemies of the order. The repudiation of the work by the society is no conclusive evidence of its spuriousness. It has been its policy from the beginning to deny all discreditable reports and to take the chances of being proved unveracious. If the Monita Secreta was really written by Jesuit officials, it is probable that it was never printed by them and that copies in manuscript were very closely guarded before and especially after the publication of 1614. On the other hand, there is no conclusive proof of the genuineness of the work. It embodies in true
"Of grace with God, that nobody may be able to be in God's grace nor to obtain indulgence or absolution of sins save through the Jesuits; of grace with princes and magnates, that no one may be able to obtain honors, offices or wealth from them, save through the Jesuits; of the Catholic faith, that no one may be able from being a pagan to become a Christian or from being a heretic to become a Catholic, save by the work of the Jesuits; of perfection, that no one may be able to be perfect or holy, save through the Jesuits, i.e., unless he be received into their society; of learning, that no one may be able to learn divine and human letters, unless he avail himself of Jesuit masters; of virtue or good morals, that no one may become well moralised, save through the admonitory examples of the Jesuits; of reputation or good name, that no one may be esteemed good or learned, save by their votes, or at least with the suffrance of the Jesuits" (p. 11; for several other classified and tabulated statements against the society cf. pp. 9-23).
Having approved of the constitution of the
society and conferred upon it extensive privileges,
Paul III. proceeded at once to employ
its members in the most difficult and
responsible undertakings. In fact his
eagerness to send his associates on
missions was embarrassing to the
founder, who feared that such prominent
service would interfere with the
maintenance of obedience, humility,
and poverty that he thought essential.
They soon came into sharp rivalry with the Dominicans,
the recognized leaders in philosophy and
theology, and formerly the promoters and executive
officers of the Inquisition (see DOMINIC, SAINT, AND THE DOMINICAN ORDER). In the Council of Trent,
especially the later sessions, they were the confidential
spokesmen of the papal teaching and policy
and took a leading part in the revival and the establishment
of the Inquisition wherever it was practicable.
In Italy the influence of the society soon
became paramount. The Collegium Romanum, endowed
with special privileges and most generously
supported by the pope and his friends, carried on
the educational work of the society with the greatest
enthusiasm and success (1550 onward). Side by
side with this the Collegium Germanicum was established
by Gregory XIII. (1753) for the education
of those who were to carry forward the Counter-Reformation
in German-speaking countries. It was the
policy of the pope and of the Jesuit administration
to fill this college with students of noble birth,
though it was not found practicable to make the
restriction absolute. About the middle of the seventeenth
century the nobles were in the majority
(cf. documents cited by Reusch in ZKG, xiii. 269-270,
1892). The king of Portugal invited Francis
Xavier (q.v.) and Simon Rodriguez d'Azendo, two
of Ignatius' earliest and most zealous associates,
to his court and committed himself to the fullest
cooperation with the society. Rodriguez became
his chief counselor and Xavier went on his great
mission to India and China under the king's patronage.
The Jesuits were soon in control of the
college at Coimbra, and until a reaction occurred
in 1578 they virtually ruled the state. In Spain
their conquest was less rapid and complete. They
were opposed to the policy of conciliation in relation
to Protestantism that had been adopted by
Charles V. The Dominicans, who had gained great
prestige in Spain because of their leadership in the
drastic measures against Mohammedans and Jews
as well as against nascent Protestantism, bitterly
opposed the society, partly because of its early
manifestation of Pelagian tendencies. Melchior
Cano (q.v.) denounced the Jesuits as the forerunners
of Antichrist (
Germany and Austria were the scenes of their greatest triumphs. The first Jesuit to enter Germany was Lefèvre, who, in 1640, accompanied Ortiz, deputy of Charles V., to the Diet of Worms. In the city of Worms he found only one priest that was not a concubinary or polluted with crime, so with a zeal rarely surpassed he undertook to rally the demoralized Catholic forces and to inspire with love for Romanism and hatred for Protestantism the few priests and laymen that were amenable to his influence. He participated in the Diet of Regensburg (Apr., 1641), at which Butzer and Melanchthon represented the Evangelical interests. Deeply lamenting the lack of zeal and efficiency in the Catholics present, he invited bishops, prelates, electors, ambassadors, vicars-general, theologians, and others to his courses in training in the Spiritual Exercises. He was made the confessor of the son of the duke of Savoy. Germans, Portuguese, Spanish, and Italians eagerly sought his spiritual guidance. He extended his efforts to Nuremberg. Having been ordered by the general to Portugal, his place was taken by LeJay, whose chief work was to train the priests for aggressive work against heresy and to inspire the nobles with the conviction that heresy must be exterminated at whatever cost. He was soon reinforced by Bobadilla, who in 1541 had achieved a great success in the diocese of Viterbo, had formed an intimate acquaintance at Innsbruck with Ferdinand I., king of the Romans, won him to the Jesuit way of thinking, and accompanied him to Vienna, and had supported the Catholic cause in a number of diets. A college was established in Vienna, which soon became affiliated with the university. LeJay succeeded in filling with enthusiastic zeal against Protestantism many priests who had been idle and indifferent and in enlisting many nobles in the coercive and educational measures proposed by the society. Lefèvre returned to Germany in 1642 and made his influence powerfully felt in Speyer, Mainz, Brandenburg, and other places. Peter Canisius (q.v.) was even more important than Lefèvre or LeJay in organizing Jesuit work in Germany and in establishing training-schools for the propagation of Jesuit principles. From 1559 onward Munich was the chief Jesuit center, and came to be known as the "German Rome"; and the college established there attracted many noble Protestant youths, who were won over by their instructors. All the chief cities of Germany where Catholics had retained the ascendancy and many where Protestantism had made great headway felt the influence of these enthusiastic and dauntless missionaries. Under their guidance Albert V. of Bavaria gave his Protestant subjects the choice of becoming Catholics or leaving the country. With their help Baden was cleared of Protestants in two years (1570-71). Similar measures were carried out in the territory of the abbot of Fulda, in Cologne, Münster, Hildesheim, Paderborn, and Würzburg. In 1595 the bishopric of Bamberg was cleared of heretics, and about 1602 the work was completed in the archbishopric of Mainz. From 1578 onward Jesuits led in the work of exterminating Protestantism in the Austrian provinces. The Counter-Reformation had largely accomplished its work in Austria and its dependencies before the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War (1618; q.v.). It was rapidly pressed to completion from this time onward. For the details of Jesuit activity in the Counter-Reformation and in the revived Inquisition, see COUNTER-REFORMATION and articles there referred to; also INQUISITION.
From 1542 onward the Jesuits had been active in Belgium. They were expelled from the country during the early years of the war with Spain, but were readmitted, under the patronage of Alexander Farnese, after Spanish authority had been reestablished, and were protected by Philip II., who had formerly opposed them (1581-1584). Within a few years they had almost taken possession of the land and made it the base of successful propagandism in the Protestant Netherlands. By 1692 twenty-two Jesuits and 220 secular priests, most of whom had been educated in their colleges, were working in the United Netherlands, and the Catholic membership had increased from a few thousand scattered and discouraged souls to 345,000. The assassination of William of Orange (1584) was commonly attributed to Jesuit influence on the ground that, as was asserted, Baltha sar Gerard claimed the blessing of the rector of the Jesuit college at Treves before committing the crime.
The Jesuits early addressed themselves to the task of reestablishing papal supremacy in England. In 1542 Paschasius Brouet and Alphonso Salmeron (q.v.) made a secret and rapid tour through Ireland and in thirty-four days succeeded in inflaming the Catholics of Ireland against the government of Henry VIII. and against Protestantism. But the Jesuits met with little success in Scotland. In England they carried on for more than a century a secret but effective propaganda. In 1569 William Allen (q.v.), afterward a cardinal, established at Douai (q.v.) a training-school for Jesuit missionaries to England, where a large number of British Catholic youths were prepared for the extremely perilous work of restoring papal authority in Britain. Sacked by the Protestants of Flanders at the instigation of the English government, the college was reopened at Reims under the patronage of the archbishop, and continued to train men for English work and martyrdom. In 1579 an English college was opened in Rome for the same purpose. The moat active leaders of the Jesuit work in England were Robert Parsons and Edmund Campian (qq.v.). In Scotland Jesuits attached themselves to the court of Mary Stuart (c. 1587), and by encouraging her aspirations after the English crown wrought her destruction. The "Gunpowder Plot" (1605) was commonly attributed to their machinations.
The missionary efforts of the Jesuits, under French patronage, in North America among the Indians (see INDIANS OF NORTH AMERICA, MISSIONS TO; MISSIONS TO THE HEATHEN, A) and the French colonists were from their own point of view highly successful. In Florida, Mexico, South America and Central America, and California they established their great mission compounds where captured natives, sometimes guarded and forced by Spanish and Portuguese troops, were employed as laborers and compelled to conform to Roman Catholic observances. Their work among the North American Indians, as well as among the natives of India, China and Japan, displayed heroic self-sacrifice of the highest order along with a willingness to receive a very superficial knowledge of Christianity as evidence of its acceptance. Those whom they baptized, even clandestinely, they claimed as members of the Christian Church.
Attention has already been called to the obligation of absolute and unquestioning obedience inculcated by Ignatius that involved the suppression or destruction of the individual conscience. The doctrine of Probabilism (q.v.) was not originated by the Jesuits, but was wrought out by their writers during the seventeenth century with more minuteness than by earlier Roman Catholic writers. According to this teaching one is at liberty to follow a probable opinion, i.e., one that has two or three reputable Catholic writers in its favor, against a more probable or a highly probable opinion in whose favor a multitude of the highest authorities concur. To justify any practise, however immoral it might be commonly esteemed, a few sentences from Catholic writers sufficed, and these were often garbled. Some Jesuits and some popes repudiated this doctrine. In 1680 Gonzales, an opponent of the doctrine, was made general of the society through papal pressure; but he failed to purge the society of probabilism and came near being deposed by reason of his opposition. Another antiethical device widely approved and employed by members of the society is Mental Reservation or Restriction (see RESERVATION, MENTAL), in accordance with which, when important interests are at stake, a negative or a modifying clause may remain unuttered which would completely reverse the statement actually made. This principle justified unlimited lying when one's interests or convenience seemed to require. Where the same word or phrase has more than one sense, it may be employed in an unusual sense with the expectation that it will be understood in the usual (amphibology). Such evasions may be used under oath in a civil court. Equally destructive of good morals was the teaching of many Jesuit casuists that moral obligation may be evaded by directing the intention when committing an immoral act to an end worthy in itself; as in murder, to the vindication of one's honor; in theft, to the supplying of one's needs or those of the poor; in fornication or adultery, to the maintenance of one's health or comfort. Nothing did more to bring upon the society the fear and distrust of the nations and of individuals than the justification and recommendation by several of their writers of the assassination of tyrants, the term "tyrant" being made to include all persons in authority who oppose the work of the papal church or the order. The question has been much discussed, Jesuits always taking the negative side, whether the Jesuits have taught that "the end sanctifies the means." It may not be possible to find this maxim in these precise words in Jesuit writings; but that they have always taught that for the "greater glory of God," identified by them with the extension of Roman Catholic (Jesuit) influence the principles of ordinary morality may be set aside, seems certain. The doctrine of philosophical sin, in accordance with which actual attention to the sinfulness of an act when it is being committed
Lainez, who succeeded Ignatius in the office of general (1558-65), manifested in the administration of the affairs of the society more of worldly wisdom and less of pietistic enthusiasm than the founder. Paul IV. became alarmed at the remarkable growth and aggressiveness of the society. He sought (1558) to curb the almost irresponsible power of the generals by limiting their tenure of office to three years, and to limit the freedom of the body by requiring the observance of the canonical hours for singing in the choir. These changes would have placed the society on somewhat the same basis as the other orders and would have stripped it of half its power. These measures were earnestly resisted and the death of the pope (1559) prevented the calamity. Pius IV. let Lainez have his ambitious and aggressive way and employed his services in the later sessions of the Council of Trent. Francis of Borgia had spent his fortune in founding a college in Gandia and the Collegium Romanum and came to the office of general (1565) with all of the ascetical enthusiasm of Ignatius, but with little of his worldly wisdom. He was succeeded in 1572 by Mercurian, whose administration was relatively feeble. The greatest of all the generals was Claudius Acquaviva (1581-1615), a Neapolitan. He had to contend with a powerful and determined Spanish faction in the society that resented Italian control. The Spanish Jesuits secured the support of the Inquisition, of Philip II., and of Clement VIII. The latter summoned a General Congregation (1592) to deal with the difficulties. Acquaviva managed the meeting with such adroitness that he was triumphantly vindicated and thoroughly established in his office. Molina's Pelagian teaching provoked a fresh Dominican onslaught on the society. Acquaviva and his supporters espoused the cause of Molina (q.v.), though he had been condemned by the Spanish Inquisition. The pope transferred the dispute to Rome (1596) and for a time it looked as if the Dominicans would triumph; but Acquaviva's consummate skill again averted calamity. At the General Congregation he confounded his opponents by springing upon the assembly the news that Henry IV. of France had espoused his cause. Under Acquaviva the Counter-Reformation was carried forward with astonishing success. The failure of Dominicans, Inquisition and pope to silence the Pelagian anthropology of the order encouraged its members to go to the greatest extremes in their moral theology. Under the administration of Mutius Vitelleschi (1615-45) the Counter-Reformation was carried almost to its completion and the Thirty Years' War almost ran its course. In 1640 the jubilee of the society was celebrated with great éclat. It now numbered 15,000 members distributed into thirty-nine provinces. The ascetical requirements of Ignatius had been put aside. The professed had increased in numbers in far greater proportion than the membership, and now freely accepted positions of honor and influence, enjoyed regular incomes, and lived like gentlemen, leaving the drudgery of the educational and church work to younger and less experienced men. They constituted a sort of aristocracy that neutralized to some extent the autocracy of the General. Degeneration continued unimpeded under Caraffa (d. 1649) and Piccolomini (d. 1651). The German Nickel (1651-64) proved so unsatisfactory as general that Oliva was made his vicar (1661). Oliva was a favorite of the pope and lived in splendor. His independent administration (1664,81) was favorable to the development of the worst features of Jesuitism. He was an advocate and promoter of Probabilism and other immoral forms of teaching and encouraged to the utmost the disposition to meddle with national and international politics that had become characteristic of the society. Ignatius had opposed with all his might the promotion of Jesuits to high ecclesiastical positions. In 1593 Tolet was made a cardinal; in 1599, Bellarmine; in 1629, Pazmany; in 1643, De Lugo, and many afterward. Their literary activity in all religious and secular branches of learning was very great during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The same may be said of the more recent time.
The growing secularization of the society and its need of vast resources for the maintenance and extension of its world-wide work and the diminution of free-will offerings that had sufficed in the times when religious enthusiasm was at its height led the society to engage in great speculative business enterprises, those conducted in Paraguay and Martinique resulting in disaster to many innocent investors (1753 onward), and brought upon the society much reproach in Portugal and France. In Portugal the Marquis of Pombal, one of the foremost statesmen of his time, became convinced that the liberation of the country from ecclesiastical rule, in which Jesuits had long been predominant, required the exclusion of the latter. An insurrection in Portuguese Paraguay by the natives furnished an occasion to Pombal for denouncing the Jesuits to the king and for demanding papal prohibition of their commercial undertakings. The papal prohibition was issued in 1758 and priestly privileges were withdrawn from Jesuits in Portugal. An attempt upon the life of the king (Sept. 3, 1758) was attributed to Jesuit influence and led to a decree for the expulsion of the society and the confiscation of its property (Sept. 3, 1759). The pope tried in vain to protect them and his nuncio was driven from the country. Malgrida, a Jesuit, was burned at the stake in 1761. Speculations by Jesuits in Martinique, in which vast sums of money were lost by French citizens, led to a public investigation of the methods of the society. and on April 16, 1761, the Parliament
At the time of its abolition the society had about 22,000 members. It would have been unreasonable to expect that so large a body of trained men, adepts at secret and evasive methods of work, and with centuries of successful effort behind them, would suddenly vanish in response to a papal brief extorted by the Roman Catholic powers. Thousands of them, without change of principles, became members of societies of the Sacred Heart of Jesus; others of the society of Fathers of the Faith, founded by Nicolo Paccanari (q.v.); others became Redemptorists or Liguorists (see LIGUORI, ALFONSO MARIA DE). Frederick II. of Prussia encouraged and protected them with a view, no doubt, to using their political knowledge and skill against the Bourbons, the Hapsburgers, and the pope. Catherine II. of Russia hoped by showing them favor to conciliate her new Polish subjects and to use them against Bourbons and Hapsburgers. In Naples and in France the papal decree was only imperfectly executed. Pius VI. gave full papal approval (1783) to the perpetuation of the society in Russia, while Pius VII. (1801) approved of their designating their vicar-general as general. The same pope approved of the restoration of the society in Naples and Sicily (July, 1804) so that the head of the society now became "General for Russia and Naples." The Napoleonic disturbance of Europe having come to an end and Pius VII. having been released from his French captivity, the need of the society for leadership in an aggressive movement for the restoration of the Roman Catholic Church to its former power was profoundly felt by the Curia. On Aug. 7, 1814, Pius VII. issued the bull Solicitudo omaium ecclesiarum, by which he restored the society. Since that time it has suffered many reverses and much persecution. Most of the states of Europe have repeatedly expelled its members. Yet it has steadily grown in power and has for nearly a century dictated the policy of the papal administration. Jesuits are to-day the chief diplomats of the Roman Catholic Church and they are surpassed in astuteness and the ability to achieve results by those of no civil government. The promulgation of the dogma of the immaculate conception of Mary (1854), the Encyclical and Syllabus of 1864, the Vatican Council with its decree of papal infallibility (1869-70), the recent drastic measures against Biblical criticism and in opposition to freedom of research and freedom of teaching and publishing, are commonly attributed to Jesuit influence. The society had in 1902, 15,231 members, 6,743 being priests and 4,542 students for the priesthood. There are about 1,800 in the United States, and they are numerous in Canada, Mexico, Central and South America, Cuba, and the Philippines. [The Jesuits have from the beginning laid especial stress upon education and adopted a high standard. But they have had to run the gantlet of sharp criticism not only from Protestants but from Roman Catholics. Nor can it be explained away that the order was for a considerable period under the papal ban. Their secrecy, superior skill and learning, and especially the casuistry advocated in books written by members of the order, have concentrated much attention on them, not always to their approval. They can not claim exemption from the common failings of mankind, or any special divine leadership. They have had ambitious and unscrupulous members and have been under unworthy leadership. Their meddling
The number of Jesuits throughout the world is small. In 1902 there were but 15,231 of all grades. The Official Catholic Directory for 1909, pp.746-747, gives these figures for the United States:
|New York - Maryland Province||340||333||157|
|New Mexico and Colorado Mission||59||34||26|
|New Orleans Province||132||77||48|
|California and Rocky Mountain Mission||154||128||106|
A rather full list of works, including sources,
is given in Hauck-Herzog, RE, viii. 742 sqq.; and a monograph devoted to the subject is A. Carayon, Bibliographie
historique de la Compagnie de Jesus, Paris, 1864. Without
consulting the earlier and now often inaccessible editions
of the documents which created and protected the society,
it is possible to obtain a view of all that is essential in the
late edition of the documents, 3 vols., Rome, 1869 sqq.,
which contains the Constitutions, the Examen generale,
the pertinent papal bulls, briefs, and privileges, the decrees
and canons of the General Constitution, the plan of study,
the "Spiritual Exercises," and the Directorium. A late
edition of the Monita privata is by C. Souvestre, Paris,
On the general history of the order the great work of De Backer (see vol. i., p. xxiii, of this work) and of Crétineau-Joly are of first importance; and the literature under Ignatius of Loyola contains much of importance. Consult further for the general history: Maynard, The Studies and Teaching of the Society of Jesus at the Time of its Suppression, 1750-1753, Baltimore, 1855; C. Paroissen, Principles of the Jesuits, London, 1860; J. M. S. Daurignac, Hist. of the Society of Jesus, 2 vols., Cincinnati, 1865; F. Nippold, Der Jesuitenorden von seiner Wiederherstellung bis zur Gegenwart, Mannheim, 1867; S. Rose, Ignatius Loyola and the Early Jesuits, London, 1871; J. Stephen, Founders of Jesuitism, in Essays in Ecclesiastical Biography, London, 1875: W. C. Cartwright, The Jesuits; their Constitution and Teachings, London, 1876; P. Bert, La Morale des Jésuites, Paris, 1880; T. Griesinger, The Jesuits; a complete History of their Proceedings, London, 1883; T. Carlyle, Jesuitism, in Works, II. 259-485, Boston, 1885; T. Hughes, Loyola and the Educational System of the Jesuits, London, 1892; G. B. Nicolini, Hist. of the Jesuits; their Origin, Progress, Doctrines and Designs, London, 1893; E. Piaget, Essai sur l'organisation de la compagnie de Jésus, Paris, 1893; F. H. Reuseh, Beiträge zur Geschichte des Jesuitenordens, Munich, 1894; R. W. Thompson, The Footprints of the Jesuits, New York, 1894; E. Gothein, Ignatius von Loyola und die Gegenreformation, Halle, 1895; M. F. Cusack, The Black Pope; a Hist. of the Jesuits, London, 1896; H. Müller, Les Origines de la Compagnie de Jésus; Ignace et Lainez, Paris, 1898; A. Hamy, Galerie illustrée de la Compagnie de Jésus, Paris, 1900; J. Michelet and E. Quinet, Etude sur les Jésuites, latest ed. Paris, 1900; J. Hochstetter, Monita Secreta; Die geheimen Instruktionen der Jesuiten, Stuttgart, 1901; Kaiser Franz Joseph I. und die Jesuiten, Barmen, 1901; L. Wittwe, Friedrich der Grosse und die Jesuiten, Halle, 1901; R. Schwickerath, Jesuit Education, its History and Principles, St. Louis, 1903; J. Bézy, Un prédicateur apoatolique au 16. siècle, Frey de Neuville, 1693-1774, Paris, 1904; B. Pascal, The Provincial Letters, often reprinted, e.g., New York, 1904; P. Suan, St. Françis de Borgia, 1510-1572, Paris, 1905; A. Brou, Les Jésuites de la legende. Part I. Les Origines jusqu'à Pascal, Paris, 1906.
For the Jesuits in England consult: H. Foley, Records of the English Province of the Society of Jesus, 8 vols., London, 1877-83: A. Kobler, Die Märtyrer und Bekenner der Gesellschaft Jesu in England 1580-1681, Innsbruck, 1886; E. L. Taunton, Hist. of the Jesuits in England, 1580-1773, London, 1901; W. Walsh, The Jesuits in Great Britain, London, 1903. For their history in France: A Carayon, Documents inédits concernants la Compagnie de Jésus, 23 vols., Poitiers, 1863 sqq.; J. Prat, La Compagnie de Jésus en France, 4 vols., Paris, 1877; E. Piaget, Hist. de l'etablissement des Jésuites en France 1540-1560, Leyden, 1895; M. Chosset, Les Jésuites et leurs æuvres d Avignon, 1553-1768, Avignon, 1896; E. Souillier. Les Jésuites à Marseille aux 16. et 18. siècles, Avignon, 1899; J. Pra, Les Jésuites à Grenoble, 1587-1763, Lyons, 1901; J. Delfour, Les Jésuites à Poitiers, 1604-1762, Paris, 1902. For Germany: S. Sugenheim, Geschichte der Jesuiten in Deutschland 1540-1773, 2 vols., Frankfort, 1847; J. Hansen, Rheinische Akten zur Geschichte des Jesuitenordens, 1542-1582, Cologne, 1896; B. Duhr, Die Jesuiten an den deutschen Fürstenhöfen des 16. Jahrhunderts, Freiburg,
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