JACOPONE DA TODI, ya"co-po'nê da to'dî (properly Jacopo de' Benedetti, Lat. Jacobus de Benedictis):
Jacopone's literary products include sententious maxims of the sort found in the Liber conformitatum compiled by Bartholomew of Pisa, which were gratefully preserved and circulated in the Franciscan order. But a much larger circle of devotees was won by his Italian and Latin lyrics. The Florentine edition by Bonaccorsi (1490) gives 100 Italian poems; the Venetian edition by Tressati (1614) no fewer than 211 satires, odes, penitential
The question of authenticity is much more difficult in case of the Latin hymns which bear Jacopone's name, and they have been ascribed to various authors. Apart from Cur murtdus militat (cf. H. A. Daniel, Thesaurus hymnologicus, ii., Leipsic, 1844, 379; S. W. Duffield, Latin Hymn-Writers, New York, 1889, 279-280) the most important is the renowned sequence Stabat mater dolorosa, beside which the manuscripts contain also the parody Stabat mater speciosa juxta foenum gaudiosa, dum jacebat parvulus. The hymn undoubtedly originated in the Franciscan order, but who the actual author was is open to many hypotheses. Gregory the Great, Bernard of Clairvaux, Innocent Ill., and others have been suggested. The hymn is anonymous in manuscripts of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and it is tradition of the Franciscan order which names Jacopone as its author. It was sung by the Flagellants who traversed Italy in 1398 (see FLAGELLATION, FLAGELLANTS) and, according to the Summa historialis of Antoninus Florentinus (d. 1450), sang "hymns in Latin and the vernacular, and especially that Stabat mater dolorosa which they say Gregory gave forth." The sequence was used in the Church as early as the fourteenth century, and eighty-three German translations alone are known. Of musical settings for this celebrated hymn, the compositions of Palestrina and Pergolese, Astorga, and Haydn are well known. The Protestant judgment of the hymn must be, doctrinally, that it divides reverence between mother and son in a manner never to be endured by a Protestant temperament; but, regarded esthetically, it may be pronounced a pearl among medieval hymns.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bartholomew of Pisa, Liber conformitatum p. 60b, Milan, 1510; L. Wadding, Annales Minorum, v. 407 sqq., vi. 77 sqq., Rome, 1733; F. A. March, Latin Hymns, pp. 171-177, 300-303, New York, 1874 (gives text of Stabat mater, notes on it, and notes on Jacopone); H. Thode, Franz von Assisi und die Anfänge der Renaissance in Italien, pp. 408 sqq., Berlin, 1885; S. W. Duffield, Latin Hymn-Writers and their Hymns, chap. xxv., ib. 1889; KL, vi. 1196-98. On the Stabat mater the three best works are: F. G. Lisco, Stabat mater, Berlin, 1853; C. H. Bitter, Studie zum Stabat mater, Leipaic, 1883; J. Kayser, Beiträge zur Geschichte und Erklärung der ältesten Kirchenhymnen, ii. 100-192, Paderborn, 1888; A. Tenneroni, in Nuova Antologia, June 16, 1907; G. Galli, Disciplinanti dell' Umbria del 1260 e le loro Landi, Turin, 1907. Available in English are R. C. Trench, Sacred Latin Poetry, pp. 262-263, London, 1864; Seven Great Hymns, pp. 96-109, New York, 1868 (text, transl., and notes); D. T. Morgan, Hymns of the Latin Church, pp. 5-8, 184-186, London, 1871; W. A. Merrill, Latin Hymns, pp. 65-66, Boston, 1904 (text and notes); Julian, Hymnology, pp. 1081-84 (admirable summary of data, details of principal texts and Eng. transls.).
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