GERMAN EVANGELICAL CHURCH DIET. See Church Diet, German Evangelical.

GERMAN EVANGELICAL PROTESTANT CHURCH: A name given collectively to a number of independent German churches, mostly west of the Alleghany Mountains, holding the general position of the Protestant Union, German (q.v.), represented by two associations named respectively " Union of Ministers of the German Evangelical Protestant Church of North America, "and" Evangelical Protestant Preachers' Conference of North America." The first, formed in 1885, succeeded the defunct "Protestant Union," and aimed to furnish a representation of the churches interested, to preserve their independence and mutual interests, and to increase the efficiency of the ministers. It has three districts, Pittsburg, Cincinnati, and Western, with a central executive board of three members, and reports thirty-four churches and as many ministers. The second association, holding essentially the same position, was formed in 1896, and has twelve ministers and fourteen oongregations. Besides the churches represented in the associations named, there are a number of independent congregations, the ministers of which are unaffiliated, the number and membership of which is not known, but the latter may reach 20,000. The fundamental principles are practically those of the United Evangelical Church of Prussia of 1817. Its religious foundation is the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the interpretation of which is left to the judgment of the believer, guided by the Christian idea. The associations maintain an orphan's home and a home for the aged near Pittsburg, Pa., have a ministers' seminary, aid in the support of the Protes-


tant Orphan's Home in Cincinnati and St. Louis, and give occasional assistance to other benevolent institutions. The publications consist chiefly of aids to church services and devotion. Its period icals are: the Kirchenzeitung, monthly at Cincinnati and weekly at Pittsburg; the Christliche Jugend freund, a weekly and semimonthly paper for Sun day-schools; and the Protestantische Volks-Kalender, an annual.

H. K. Carroll.

Bibliography: B.. K. Carroll, in American Church History Series, i. 155, New York, 1896.

GERMAN EVANGELICAL SYNOD OF NORTH AMERICA: An organization founded at Gravois Settlement, near St. Louis, Mo., Oct.. 15, 1840, by six German ministers. The name Der deutsche evangelische Kirclenverein des Westens was then chosen. Owing to the expansion of the Synod this was changed in 1866 to Synod of the West and again in 1877 to its present name. It represents in the United States the State Church of Prussia, which is a union of Lutheran and Reformed elements (see Prussia). Its creed and mission are stated in 2 and 3 of its constitution: " The German Evangelical Synod of North America, as a part of the Evangelical Church, understands by `Evangelical Church' that ecclesiastical body, which acknowledges the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as the Word of God and as the only and infallible criterion of faith and life and accepts the interpretation given in the symbolic books of the Lutheran and Reformed Churches, the most important of which are: the Augsburg Confession, Luther's Catechism and the Heidelberg Catechism in so far as these agree; but in their points of difference the German Evangelical Synod adheres strictly to the passages of Holy Scripture pertaining thereunto and avails itself of that liberty of conscience prevailing in the Evangelical Church."

"The object and purpose of the German Evangelical Synod in general is the advancement and extension of the Kingdom of God, but especially the establishment and expansion of the Evangelical Church among the German population of the United States of America."

The Synod is divided into eighteen districts, which hold annual conferences. The general conference of the body convenes every four years, to which each district sends delegates, one for every twelve ministers and one lay delegate for every twelve congregations. A . president, vice-president, secretary and treasurer are the officers of the Synod. The various branches of synodical work are controlled by separate boards of directors elected by the General Synod. Its agencies include a Home Mission Board which ministers to 102 congregations and expends upward of $25,000 annually; a Church Extension Fund which assists in the erection of churches by loaning money at low rates of interest; a Relief Fund for the aid of invalid and superannuated pastors, teachers and their widows and orphans; a foreign mission board which conducts work at four principal stations and forty-one outlying stations in India and reports 3,088 Inembers; an immigrant mission operated at Baltimore, Md., since 1886; deaconesses' homes and hospitals at

St. Louis, Mo., Indianapolis, and Evansville, Ind., Cincinnati, O., and Lincoln, Ill.; homes for epilep tics at Marthasville and St. Charles, Mo.; orphan ages at St. Louis, Mo., Hoyleton and Chicago. Ill. -also at Detroit, Mich., and Bensenville, Ill., with homes for old peopi6 --t the last two places; and the Eden Publishing House (and book-store) at St. Louis, with a branch at Chicago, the whole valued at $143,775, with net proceeds of $37,000 annu ally, devoted to carrying on the work of the Synod in its various branches. There are 650 parochial schools with 25,777 scholars, instructed by 110 professional teachers and 571 pastors, also 1,044 Sunday-schools with 10,752 teachers and 110,385 scholars. The theological seminary, Eden College, is located near Wellston, St. Louis County, Mo. It was founded in 1850 near Marthasville, Mo., and removed in 1883 to its present location. It has a three years' course, four professors and sixty-seven students. At Elmhurst, Ill., a suburb of Chicago, is located a proseminary, having a five-year course, with 105 students and seven professors. While German is predominantly the language used in the churches and schools, English is also employed in church service and religious instruction and a few English churches have been organized in the last few years. The official organ is Der Friedensbote, a weekly with circulation of 27,334 copies. Other publications are: Messenger of Peace, Theologische Zeitschrift, Jugendfreurul, Kiuderzeitung, and Evan gelical Companion. The Church began with six ministers, twelve churches, and 353 communicants. The statistics of 1907 give 974 ministers, 1,262 con gregations, 1,095 churches, 654 school buildings, 237,321 communicants, value of church property $8,214,391.38, contributions for general purposes, in 1905, $119,233.21.

Paul Irion.

Bibliography: A. Shory, Geschichte der deutschen evangelischen Syreode von Nord America, St. Louis, 1889; Evangelical Catechism, ib. 1892; Evangelischer Kalender (annual).


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