GENOUDE, zhe''nud', ANTOINE EUGÈNE DE: French priest and publicist; b. at Montélimar (135 m. s. of Lyons) 1792; d. at Hyères (12 m. e. of Toulon) Apr. 19, 1849. After teaching for a while at the Lycée Bonaparte, Paris, he entered the seminary of St. Sulpice. At the restoration of the Bourbons he became secretary and adjutant to Prince de Polignac. Entering journalism he collaborated in 1818 on the Conservateur, which was directed against the ministry of Decazes, and in 1820 joined Lemennais in founding the Défenseur. In 1821 he bought the Étoile, which became the official journal of the government. For his services to the government he was ennobled in 1822. In 1827 he revived the Gazette de France. After the July Revolution of 1830 his violent defense of the fallen dynasty involved him in troubles with the pope and the French bishops. In 1835 he entered the priesthood but soon returned to journalism. In 1846 he was elected a member of the Chamber of Deputies from Toulouse. Besides political writings, a translation of the Bible, and a translation of the "Imitation of Christ," by Thomas à Kempis, his publications include, La Raison du christianisme (12 vols., Paris, 1834-35), a compilation from many sources; La Vie de Jesus Christ et des apótres (2 vols., 1836); Leçons et modèles de litterature sacrée (1837); Exposition du dogme catholique (1840); Sermons et conférences (1844); and L'histoire d'une âme (1844), an autobiography.

Bibliography: Besides the autobiography, consult: Biographie de M. de Genoude, Paris, 1844; Lichtenberger, ESR, v. 527-529.

GENTILE, jen-ti'le, GIOVANNI VALENTINO: Antitrinitarian; d. at Bern Sept. 10, 1567. He was a native of Cosenza in Calabria , and was one of those Italians who about the middle of the sixteenth century left Italy to live freely according to their religious convictions. In 1556 or 1557 he came to Geneva. When in 1558 all members of the Italian colony were required to subscribe an orthodox confession which especially emphasized the Trinity, he preferred to leave the city for a time together with Alciati and Matteo Gribaldi (q.v.). Their countrymen brought them back and induced them to subscribe. Nevertheless the council proceeded (1558) against Gentile, and forced him to a humiliating submission and penance. He fled to Lyons, opposed Calvin's doctrine of the Trinity in the Antidota, dedicated to King Sigismund of Poland, whither he went to 1563. His name occurs from time to time during the next three years in letters from Poland. Then he returned to Switzerland and settled at Gex, which was under the jurisdiction of Bern. Fresh proceedings were instituted against him, on a charge of blaspheming the Holy Trinity and reviling the Reformed Church, and


ended in his execution. His theological position may be seen from the Antidota and from the confession which he presented to the Bern clergy (printed in Trechsel). Gentile opposed the traditional doctrine of the Trinity and its "fantastical and sophistical" terminology, but he professed to be attempting to vindicate the position of the Persons in the Trinity as something more than mere constituent parts of the divine substance. He hoped to escape the difficulties of the doctrine of the two natures by conceding the incarnation of the Logos in Mary as a person at once divine and human, though he thus obscured the doctrine of the perfect humanity of Christ.

K. Benrath.

Bibliography: The Geneva process of 1558 was published by Fasy in Mémoires de l'Institut Genevois, vol. xiv., 1878-79; on the Bern process consult F. Trechsel, Die protestantischen Antitrinitarier, vol. ii., Heidelberg, 1844, where some details concerning Gentile are given. Consult also J. H. Allen, Hist. of the Unitarians, p. 62, New York, 1894.


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