GIBBONS, JAMES: Cardinal; b. at Baltimore, Md., July 23, 1834. He received his early education in Ireland, but returned to the United States in 1851, and lived for several years in New Orleans. He studied at St. Charles' College, Ellicott City, Md. (1855-57), and at $t. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore (1857-81). He was ordained priest in 1861, and after being assistant at St. Patrick's, Baltimore, for a few months, was appointed rector of $t. Bridget's, Canton (a suburb of Baltimore), where he remained until 1865. He was private secretary to Archbishop Spalding 1865-68, and was also chancellor of the archdiocese 1866-88. He was assistant chancellor of the Second Plenary Council of the American Roman Catholic Church held at Baltimore in 1866, and in 1868 was consecrated titular bishop of Adramytum and appointed vices apostolic of North Carolina. In 1872 he was translated to the see of Richmond, Va., and after five years became archbishop coadjutor with, right of succession to Archbishop Bailey of Baltimore. Five months later he succeeded to the see, thus becoming the primate of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. He presided over the Third Plenary Council at Baltimore in 1884, and two yews later was created cardinal On account of his advancing yes-, Bishop Curbs, formerly of Wilmington, Del., was appointed to assist him in 1M. He has written The Faith of our Fathers (New York, 1871); Our Christian Heritage (Baltimore, Md., 1889); and The Ambassador of Christ (1,898).

GIBERTI, ji-Ar't~ GIOVANNI MATTEO: A reforming prelate of the sixteenth century; b. at Paleermo 1495; d. at Verona Dee. 30, 1543. Being appointed by Clement VII. apostolic datary, he became a member of the Oratory of Divine Love at Rome. In 1524 he was made bishop of Verona, but he did not enter upon his episcopal duties until 1528. He endeavored to raise the educational and mural standard of the clergy and to enforce the discipline of the religious orders. In the work Condituttbnes eoelesiadicw and in various treatises, ordinances, and letters, he proposed far-reaching measures of reform. But he was obstinately opposed by both the secular clergy and the religious orders; and the famous Concilium de emendanda ecclesia (1537), in whose authorship, besides Contarini and Ceraffa, Giberti was also concerned, produoed no result. After entering upon his episcopal duties, Giberti had one more important commission outside his diocese, going to the Colloquy of Worms (1540) as papal legate. It was intended that he should act in a similar capacity at the Council of Trent, but his sudden death prevented this. His works were published in Verona 1733, 1740; his official correspondence in Guiociaandim, Opere inedile, iv., v (Florence, 1863).

B. Benrath.

Bibliography: A. von Reumont, Geschichte der Stadt San, vol. iii., part 2, passim, Berlin, 1870; Dittrich, in Historiadhes Jahaburh der aorrerGesdUahog vi (1888), 1-50; Creighton, Papam, vi. 278-291. 808-M.


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