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GETHSEMANE. See Jerusalem, V., 5.

GEZELIUS, ge-z5'li-us, JOHANNES: The name of two bishops of Abo, Finland.

1. Johannes Gezelius the Elder was born at Romfertuna, Westmanland, Sweden, 1615; d. 1690. He studied at Dorpat from 1632 and became professor -of Greek and Hebrew there in 1641. As such he lectured diligently and published text-books of which there was a great need at that time. About 1649. he became provost at Skedevi in Oesterg6tland, Sweden, where he devoted himself with diligence to the service of the congregation, and also gathered students around him and held lectures. On the recommendation of Count M. G. de Is Gardie he was appointed general superintendent in Livonia and vice-chancellor of the University of Dorpat. Owing to his energy and efficiency, he was made bishop in Abo in 1664, where he found his real life-work. He was intent upon raising the standard of education among the Finnish preachers, required a theological examination of all who intended to enter the ministry, and ordered all preachers to introduce church registers with the names of all church-members. Of people who intended to marry, he required a knowledge of Luther's catechism. Every family was to be provided with a hymn-book, a book of prayer and meditations. He exerted himself to teach his people to read, and paid much attention to the education of children. He had his own printing establishment in which most of the Finnish publications of the time were printed. He showed impatience of the opinions of others, however, and his reluctance to grant liberty of conscience to Pietists is not free from blame. He published many text-books, and one on the Greek language (1647) was much used. For his preachers he published a Fasciculus hamileticarum dispositionum annis eirciter XXVII seorsim editarum (1693) and Casuum conscientice et prmeipuorum qucestionum practicarum decisiones (1689). He also started a great work on the Bible which was continued by his son.

2. Johannes Gezelius the Younger, son of the former, was born in 1647; d. 1718. He entered the university in 1661. In 1670 he received a royal stipend to go abroad for the completion of his studies, and visited Germany, Holland, England, and France. Immediately after his return, he was appointed professor extraordinary in the University of Abo. In 1681 he became superintendent in In- germanland. In 1689 his aged father called him back to Abo to be his assistant, and the next year he became his successor. He faithfully continued his father's labors and devoted much time to the great work on the Bible; but he also was not able to finish it. The New Testament appeared during his lifetime (1711-13), the Old Testament after his death (1724-28). In 1711 he fled before the invading Russians to Stockholm, where he remained until his death. His attitude toward the Pietists was as haughty and intolerant as that of his father.

 

(J. A. Cederberg.)

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