GFROERER, gfrol'rer, AUGUST FRIEDRICH: German historian; b. at Calm (20 m. w.s.w. of Stuttgart) Mar. 5, 1803; d. at Carlsbad July 6, 1861. He studied theology at Tübingen, where he became repetent in 1828, after he had spent three years in Switzerland and Italy. In 1829 he became Stadtvicar at Stuttgart, and in 1830 librarian at the royal library there. He then definitely aban doned the ministry and devoted himself to his torical studies. In 1846 he was appointed pro fessor of history at Freiburg, and in 1848 was elected to the German parliament, in which he dis tinguished himself as an adherent of the "Gross deutsche" party and an opponent of Prussia. After failing in an attempt at Frankfort to unite Protestants and Catholics he joined the Roman Catholic Church in 1853. He had already been long recognized as one of the leaders of the Ultramontane party in Germany. His principal works are, Philo und die judisch-Alezandrinische Theosophie (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1831); Gustav Adolf und seine Zeit (2 vols:, 1835--37); Geschichte des Urchristentums (3 vols.,1838); Allgemeine Kirchengeschichte (4 vols., 1841-46); Geschichte der ost- and westfrdnkischen Karolinger (2 vols., Freiburg, 1848); Urgeschichte des menschlichen Geschlechts (2 vols., Schaffhausen, 1855); and Papst Gregorius VII. und sein Zeitalter (7 vols., Schaffhausen, 1859-61; index vol., 1864).

Bibliography: P. Alberdingk Thijm, A. F. Gfrvrer en zifne werken, Haarlem, 1870; KL, v. 579-580.

GIANTS IN THE OLD TESTAMENT: The passages in the Old Testament where the word giant or its equivalents occur may be differentiated into two classes: (1) those which adduce sporadic cases of exceptional stature or strength, against which no a priori historical objection can lie (such as I Sam. xvii.); (2) those in which a mythological or early legendary character is clearly in evidence. The first class requires no discussion here. In con sidering the second class preliminary notes of im portance are (1) that in the canonical writings there are but fugitive references to what was probably a much larger body of current folk-lore, which entered literature extensively only in the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha (H. Gunkel, Gene sis, Göttingen, 1901, p. 52); and (2) that illumina tion is received from comparison with like myths of other peoples. In the Old Testament two words convey the idea of giants Nephilim (Gen. vi. 4, J; Num. xiii. 33, JE), and Repha'im (Gen. xiv. 5, from a special source; Deut. ii. 10-12, 20, 21, iii. 11; II Sam. xxi. 16-21). The passage Gen. vi. 1-4 stands alone in the canonical writings in speaking of a race of giants which sprang from a union of angels (" sons of God," the " watchers " of the Pseudepigrapha) and women ("daughters of men"). This- narrative is an etiological myth accounting to the Hebrew mind for the giants ah-eady known to common folk-lore. Its motif is taken up in the pseudepigraphic literature, especially that which gathered about the name of Enoch. In the other passages the terms Nephilim and Repha'im, used as inclusive of Emim, Zuzim, . 'Ana*im, and Horim, signify the autochthonous inhabitants of Palestine (in its larger sense of the region both east and west of the Jordan), the predecessors of the Canaanites from whom the Hebrews took the land. The philological notion underlying Nephilim is not satisfactorily determined. Repha'im is connected with the word meaning " shade " or " ghost," and thus fits absolutely with the mythological references to the extinct races supposed to have inhabited the land. Other particulars agree with this interpretation. Thus the reference in Deut. iii. 11 to the bed (better "sarcophagus," so Schaff, Bible Dictionary, New York, 1880) of Og, king of Bashan, probably a coffin-shaped block of basalt (" iron "), is to be put alongside similar objects elsewhere, such as the Giant's Causeway, a name embodying a primitive explanation of a strange feature of the Irish landscape.

In ethnic myths the earlier inhabitants of earth are pictured as of more than human stature and strength, and often as living beyond the usual span of human life. Thus in India the first Jina is said to have been 3,000 feet in height and to have lived eight millions of years. Another characteristic of these myths is that the giants come into conflict with the gods and are destroyed. Examples of this are the Marduk-Tiamat myth of Babylonia and the Gigantomachia and Titanomachia of Greece. In Hebrew legend these characteristics are separated; the lengthened span of life is assigned to antediluvians in general, abnormal stature is attributed to the prehistoric race in canonical literature, the contest of the giants with God appears first in the Apocrypha (Ecclus, xvi. 7) and develops enormously in the Pseudepigrapha. Wisd. of Sol. xiv. 6 has a curious explanation of the survival of the flood by the giants, and rabbinic literature explains in equally grotesque fashion the survival of Og. In such passages as Baruch iii. 26-28, III Macc. ii. 4, Enoch vii. 2-4, and Jubilees vii. these varied characteristics appear. The "sons of God" were angels of high estate who fell, and the idea was perpetuated and finds its extreme expression in Christian literature in Milton's Paradise Lost.

It may be noted that among the Repha'im were the Horim, generally explained as "troglodytes," and that excavations in Palestine as elsewhere shows the cave-dwellers to have been of low stature (see Gezer).

Geo. W. Gilmore.

Bibliography: J. L. Porter, Giant Cities of Bashan, New York, 1871; F. Lenormant, Les Origines de 1'histoire, 2 vols., Paris, 1880-84, Eng. transl. of vol. i., London, 1883; E. Meyer, in ZATW i (1881), 139, and Schwally in the same, xviii (1898), 127 sqq.; K. Budde, Die biblische Urgeschichte, pp. 30 sqq., Giessen, 1883; H. E. Ryle, Early Narratives of Genesis, London, 1892; S. R. Driver, Commentary on Deuteronomy, on Deut. iii. 11, New York, 1895; ' C. R. Briggs, Study of Holy Scripture, pp. 333-334, lb.

1899; DB, i. 90 (" Anakim "), ii. 166-168, iii. 512 ("Nephi·


lim "); EB, i. 161-162, iii. 3391 sqq.; JE, v. 658-868; the literature on Enoch and Baruch under Pseudepigrapha.


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