GILMOUR, JAMES: Scotch Congregationalist and missionary; b. at Cathkin (5 m. s. of Glasgow) June 12, 1843; d. in Tientsin (70 m. s.s.e. of Peking), China, May 21, 1891. After studying at the Univer sity of Glasgow (B.A., 1867; M.A., 1868) and at Cheshunt Congregational Theological College (14 m. n. of London; 1867-69), he was accepted by the London Missionary Society as missionary to reopen the long-suspended mission in Mongolia. Conse quently he studied a year in the society's missionary seminary at Highgate (a London suburb 4J m. n.n.w. of St. Paul's), and Chinese in the city. In 1870 he left for Peking, and after a few weeks there pressed forward into Mongolia. Until 1882 he spent his summers with the nomadic Mongols, acquired their language, adopted their dress, lived in their tents and upon their food, and as far as possible made himself one with them. He increased his hold upon them by practising medicine. In the winters he lived in Peking, ministering to such Mongols as he found in need .of aid. In 1874 he married and his wife shared his experiences and dangers. In 1882 he made a visit home and was induced to write his well-known book, Among the Mongols (London and New York, 1883), which tells so much and so graphically about those nomads. In 1883 he returned to his exposed life. His wife could not stand the strain and died in 1885, leaving two boys. Solitary and sad, he took up work with the agricul tural Mongols of Eastern Mongolia and carried it on till his own death, which was hastened by his trials and dangers. He was a missionary hero, lived for the strange people he loved so much, and will go down in the annals of missionary history as "Gil mour of Mongolia."
Bibliography: R. Lovett, James Gilmour of Mongolia, London and New York, 1892.
GILPIN, BERNARD: English clergyman, called "The Apostle of the North"; b. at Kentmere (17 m. s.w. of Keswick), Westmoreland, 1517; d. at Houghton-le-Spring (10 m. s.e. of Newcastleupon-Tyne) Mar. 4, 1583. He was educated at Queen's College, Oxford (B.A., 1540; M.A., 1542; B.D., 1549), where he was elected to a fellowship and admitted to holy orders in 1542. He was one of the first scholars elected to Christ Church, on the completion of Wolsey's foundation by Henry VIII. To clear up his theological doubts he went abroad in 1552 and lived for several years in Louvain and Paris. On his return to England in 1556 he was made rector of Essington and archdeacon of Durham, despite the fact that he had now adopted the theology of the Reformation. Soon afterward he became rector of Houghton-le-Spring. His life at Houghton is said to have been a ceaseless round of benevolent activity; and his extensive charities here and throughout the northern counties soon won for him wide popularity, which, coupled with his Protestant views and his fearless denunciation of clerical vices, naturally made him enemies among the clergy. He was accused before Edmund Bonner, bishop of London, and would have been tried for heresy, and probably beheaded, but for an accident. While on his way to London for trial he broke his leg; and before he was able to continue his journey Queen Mary died. In 1559 he declined the bishopric of Carlisle, and in 1560 the provostship of Queen's College, Oxford. His most important charity was the foundation of a large grammar-school at Houghton. A sermon preached by Gilpin before Edward VI. has been preserved (London, 1581; reprinted 1630).
Bibliography: G. Carleton wrote a life in Latin, London,
1628, Eng transl., 1629. W. Gilpin, Life of Bernard Gitpin, London, 1752, reissued in Lives of the Reformers, vol. ii., 1809; A. A Wood, Pasti Oxoniensee, ed. P. Bliss, i. 129, ib. 1820; DNB, xxi. 378-380.
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