GALLUS, CAIUS VIBIUS TREBONIANUS: Roman emperor 251-253; b. at Perusia (the modern Perugia, 85 m. n. of Rome), probably in 207; d. at Forum Flaminu (probably the modern San Giovanni pro Fiammo, 2 m. n. of Foligno) or at Interamna (the modern Terni, 59 m. s. e. of Perugia) late in the summer of 253. He was a general of Decius in the war against the Goths, and after the death of this emperor was declared Augustus by the Senate in 251, together with Hostilianus, the son of Decius. Hostilianus died in the following year, and Volusianus, the son of Gallus, was appointed his successor. The reign was one of disaster, marked by a shameful peace with the Goths and their renewed inroads, the loss of Syria and Armenia to the Persians, and a terrible pestilence. On the Danube the Pannonian legions proclaimed lhnil ianus emperor, whereupon Gallus and his son marched against him, only to fall at the hands of their mutinous troops on the way. In the early portion of the reign of Gallus the Christians had a brief respite from the horrors of the persecution of Decius, but before long the new emperor reenforced measures of repression, either at his own initiative or under the compulsion of the people, who were maddened by pestilence and poverty. As early as May, 252, it was feared at Carthage that the new laws would be enforced, and in the summer of the following year Cyprian wrote to the Roman bishop Cornelius of an imperial edict by which "the people were commanded to offer sacrifices." The actual persecutions, however, seem to have been mild, banishment being the penalty rather than death, so that all recollection

of a persecution during the reign of Gallus soon vanished from the Church.

(Adolf Harnack.)

Bibliography: Sources are: J. C. Orelli, Inecriptionum Latinarum . . . Coilectio, nos. 281, 997, 998, 1000, 3 vols., Zurich, 1828,1858; Eusebius, Hist. scat., V11. i., x. 1; idem, Chronicon, 2289-72; Jerome, Chronicon, 2268-2270. Consult: L. 8. Le Nain de 7111emont, Hist. des empsrsure, x. 245-246, Dresden, 1754; Gibbon, Decline and Fall, i. 250-252; Milman, Latin Christianity, i 85; Neander, Christian Church, i. 138, 268, 711; and the literature under Persecutions, Christian, in the Roman Empire, and Cyprian.

GALLUS (HAHN), NICOLAUS: Leader of the Reformation in Regensburg; b. at K6then (19 m. n. of Halle), Anhalt, 1516; d. at Zellerbad, near Liebenzell (20 m. w. of Stuttgart), Württemberg, June, 1570. At Wittenberg, where he became a student in 1530 and received the master's degree in 1537, he won the commendation of Melanchthon. In 1543 Luther sent Hieronymus Nopus as preacher to Regensburg at the request of the city council and with him went Gallus, who was ordained by Bugenhagen in April. In 1548 trouble arose in Regensburg over the acceptance of the Interim. Gallus wrote a treatise against it, and had to leave the city; services in the only Evangelical church there were discontinued. For a time Gallus preached for Cruciger (who was ill) at Wittenberg, then in 1549, through the influence of his brother-in-law, Heinrich Merkel, city secretary at Magdeburg, he went to the Ulrich Church in that city. He joined Flacius in opposition to the adiaphorism of the Wittenberg circle and published a Disputation von Mitteldingen in 1550. He remained in Magdeburg after its capitulation in 1551, and kept up the dispute against Osiander and Major. In June, 1553, Prince Wolfgang of Anhalt called him to his native city to assist in the settlement of the administration of the church property. In August, 1553, Gallus was called back to Regensburg as leader of the Evangelical cause. He worked there for almost seventeen years, and the effects of his activity were felt far beyond the borders of the town. In the disputes of the following years he fought faithfully on the side of Flacius. Like him he tried to influence Mehanchthon by letters, but the latter treated Gallus rather haughtily. It probably angered him that Gallus had republished (1554) his Sententite veterum de coma Domini, which was directed against Œcolampadius. In 1561 Gallus warned the princes convened at Naumburg of the spreading Calvinistic doctrine of the Lord's Supper. He also got into a dispute with Brenz, whom he suspected of leanings toward Melanchthonism. From 1562 to ISM he furnished a refuge to Flacius, who had been expelled from Jena. Melanchthon reproached Gallus for fighting continually against the Evangelicals, instead of combating Romanism. But the reproach was not pertinent; during the diet in 1556 he preached against the Roman Catholics, and there are still extant manuscripts containing theses of disputation against the Ingolstadt Catholics. In this connection may be mentioned Gallus' writing directed against Corpus Christi day: Vom abg6ttischen Fest, FrohnLiehnama-Tag genannt (1561). His congregation esteemed him highly for his zeal


in the maintenance of pure doctrine and moral discipline, and his personal life was blameless.

(G. Kawerau.)

Bibliography: Sources: Some of his letters are printed in CR, viii., ix., and in J. Fecht, Hist. eccl. awculi xvi., supplement vol., pp. 27 sqq.; part of his writings are in W. Preger, M. Flacius, ii. 540 sqq., Erlangen, 1861 (where other biographical material is found). Consult: L. Widmann in Chroniken der deutschen Sthdte xv. 187 sqq.; W. Germann, J. Forater, pp. 371 sqq., Meiningen, 1894; E. BSh1, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Reformation in Oesterreirh, Jena, 1902; ADB, viii. 351 sqq.


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