GARISSOLES, g8"rf"sal', ANTOINE: French Protestant; b. at Montauban (110 m. s.e. of Bordeaux) June, 1587; d. there Mar., 1651. He was pastor at Puylaurens from 1610 to 1620, when he was called to Montauban. He was professor of theology at the Academy of Montauban from Oct., 1527, till his death, and with the exception of Charmer and Cameron, he is the best-known lecturer of this ancient institution. In 1645 he presided at the Synod of Charenton and distinguished himself by his successful resistance to - royal demands that menaced Protestant liberties. At this synod he also attacked the doctrine of mediAte imputation of Placesus. His works include: La voie du salut expose en huiE sarmona. (Montauban, 1637); Deereti eynodici Carentoniorwia (1648); Theses theologicta (1648); Disprut¬Ętionee elenchticee (1650 ;; and Catechesim scclaaiarum in Gallia (Geneva, 1656).

Bibliography: Bulletin de la A du yrotestantsma

GARLANDS: Garlands and flowers played an important part in the private and public life of the ancient Egyptians. The court used a hundred garlands daily for the adornment of wine-vessels, and at festal repeats the guests decked themselves with wreaths. Flowers were offered to the gods and the sarcophagus of the dead was entwined with them. The use of wreaths and flowers by Greeks and Romans is well known. The Israelites had no especial fondness for flowers, although it may be mere accident that there is no mention of flower gardens. The use of green sprays and flowers for personal adornment at banquets, marriage feasts, and on other festival occasions was, however, not foreign to the Israelites (Isa. xxviii. 1; cf. Ezek. xxiii. 42; Cant. iii. 11; III Macc. iv. 8). Later, under the influence of Hellenism, this custom became general; fragrant flowers were regarded as elements of a cheerful and joyous life (Wisd. of Sol. ii. 8); joy and mirth found expression in the adornment of the person and house with garlands (III Macc. vii. 16; Ecclus. vi. 31, xv. 6). Garland and crown are used as metaphors for ornament and honor of every kind (Job xix. 9; Prov. xii. 4, xiv. 24). It does not appear, however, that garlands were used in religious observances; at least there is no mention of the adornment of the Temple with natural flowers. To place wreaths upon sacrificial animals was a pagan custom (Acts xiv. 13). Only at the Feast of Tabernacles, according to later usage, those who took part in the procession carried branches of citron and palm.

I. Benzinger.

Bibliography: Tertullian, De corona; B. Ugolini, Thesaurus antiqaitaham sacnarunk vol. xxx.. 34 vols., Venice, 1744-89; L. LBw, in Ben Chananja. 1887, nos. 11. 12: DD, i. 529-531; EB, i. 723, 983; JR, iv. 370: and ord#arx in the la=ioons


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