GAD: The name of a Canaanitic deity of fortune. In Isa. lxv. 11 (A.V.) occur the words: "But ye are they .' . . that prepare a table for that troop" (the Hebrew of which is better rendered in the R.V. "that prepare a table for Fortune"; margin "Gad," Gk. tai. daimoniai). The "Gad"of the R.V. margin reproduces the Hebrew, which is evidently a proper name introduced in connection with Meni (q.v.), both Gad and Meni being deities worshiped by apostate Israelites in the worship of the former of wNch a table (lectisternium) was spread. This is the only unquestionable mention of the deity in the Old Testament. Other traces occur, however, which make probable the fact of an extensively propagated cult of Canaanitic or Aramean origin. Thus a place named Baal-gad, " Lord of (good) fortune," situated " in the valley of Lebanon . . . under mount Hermon " is given as the extreme northern limit of Joshua's conquest (Josh. xi. 17, iii. 7, xiii. 5); while Migdal-gad, "Tower of Gad," appears as a 'place in the southwest lowlands of Judah (Josh. xv. 37). In Gen. xxx. 11 (belonging to the J narrative) at the birth of Zilpah's first son her mistress is said to have exclaimed " a troop cometh," R.V.,."Fortunatel" margin, "fortune!" or "Fortune is come" (an attempt to render in the R.V. more closely the Hebrew begad or ba gad). The Talmudists understood this exclamation to refer to the god Gad in the sense of " Gad is here, bringing good fortune," but later commentators are much divided over the sense of the passage. Since from the passage in Isaiah (and other evidences to be adduced) it is clear that Gad is. the name of a deity, it would be expected that the word would be found as an element in proper names. In Num. xiii. 10 appears mention of a " Gaddiel the son of Sodi," and in xiii. 11 of " Gaddi the son of Susi," the latter possibly a shortened form of the former; in II Kings xv. 14, 17 Menahem is called " the son of Gadi " (Septuagint, Gaddi), and possibly ";Gad " in I Sam. xxii. 5 is a form still more simplified. Azgad, "Strong is Gad," as the name of a clan or a chief, appears in Ezra ii. 12, viii. 12; Neh. x. 15. While all of these names do not necessarily contain conscious reference to a deity, there is a probability that, in the light of known practises of later Jews, at least some of them may have been formed with the god in mind. The practise of spreading the lectisternium for Gad continued in Some Jewish families as late as the eleventh century, this in a way vouching for the worship mentioned in Isaiah, while Buxtorf (Lexicon talmudicum) adduces the custom of keeping in the house a couch called "the couch of Gada," finely fitted up, never used by the family, 'but reserved for " the prince of the house," i.e., the protector " Fortune."

In other Semitic regions the name appears as an


element in names, though the meaning can not always be determined. In most cases it is possible to take the element Gad as an appellative, "fortune." Thus there are found in very different provenance the combinations Gad-Nebo, " Fortune of Nebo," and Gad-shirath. So in a number of Palmyrene inscriptions the word occurs in combinations where the second element is the name of another deity, e.g., Gad-Allat, while gadya, " for tunate," occurs. One Palmyrene inscription found at a sacred spring points indubitably to a deity to whom the spring was sacred, reading "to Gada" (of. the place name "Ayin-Dada," Nöldeke, ZDMG, xxix., 1875, 441) and the "Gad-spring" near Jerusalem. In Phenician and Carthaginian environment the word is found as an element in personal names, while in many more probable cases the reading is not sufficiently clear to give entire certainty; moreover the meaning can not always be definitely determined and may be appellative. Gadrnelek, " Gad is king," is an inscription on a stone found in Jerusalem, possibly due to Canaanitic influence. In Arabic the proper name Abd al-Gadd is found, certainly a deity's name (Wellhausen, Heidenlum, p. 148). Isaac of Antioch (Opera, ed. Bickell, ii. 210, Giessen, 1877) reports that tables were prepared on the roofs by his countrymen for Gadda or (pl.) Gadde, and he mentions a "demon" Gadlat as belonging to the city of Beth-hur. Jacob of Sarug speaks of a female. goddess of Haran named Gadlat, while by the plural gadde he means demons. It is noteworthy that both of these references fall in with what is shown by comparative religion as happening within the Semitic sphere; (1) the development of a shadowy consort correspondmg in name to the male deity, and (2) in a subsequent stage of development or under another religion the degradation of both deities to the rank of demons. Post-Christian Jews, especially the rabbis, used the name as that of a demon. Temples of Gad were known in Syria, and Buxtorf cites a passage which speaks of an image of Gad. Jacob of Sarug says that "on the summit of the mountains they now build monasteries instead of belt-gadde" (i .e., temples to Jupiter and Venus, who were identified with the deities of good luck). In late times Gad appears to have been so popular that his name acquired the sense of "genius, godhead." Under the Greek rigime Gad seems to have passed over into the Greek form TychS, who is very often mentioned on coins and in inscriptions in the region of Syria and became a patron of very many Greek cities, possibly also the patron of rulers. The Greek TychB is unquestionably not of native Greek origin, but is an importation from the East, and on Greek soil was sometimes masculine. Whether the Syrian Tychis is the earlier Gad, renamed under Greek influence, can not be definitely decided, as the data are not yet sufficiently numerous or continuous.

The origin of the god Gad is in doubt. It is possible that he arose as the personification of the abstract concept good fortune, though it must be said that this process is not usual in the Semitic sphere. None of the Old Testament passages which bear on the question are very early, unless the view of the critical. school be correct which inclines to the

belief that the tribe of Gad, like that of Asher, took its name from the god. The newer explanation of the composite origin of the Hebrew nation as including clans absorbed by conquest, tradition recording this fact by assigning to the clans so absorbed a humbler origin as the descendants of concubines, would make for an early origin of the deity. But these conclusions are by no means universally accepted, and the worship, even the existence, of Gad in strictly Canaanitio provenance earlier than the Exile rests on the two place names Baal-gad and Migdal-gad (ut sup.).

Geo. W. Gilmore.

Bibliography: J. Bolden, De die Syria, L, i., London, 1017, and the additions of Boyer in ed. of Amsterdam, 1080; F. C. Movers, Die PAonisier, i. 174, Bonn, 1841; D. A. Chwolson, Die Asabier, ii. 220-227, St. Petersburg, 1850; W. W. von Baudissin, Jahve et Moloch, pp. 30 sqq., Leipsic, 1874; F. Lenormant, Chaldaean Magic, p. 120, London, 1877; J. H. Mordtmann, in ZDMG, xxxi (1877), 99-101, xxxix (1885), 44-40; P. Scholz, Galaendienst and Zauberwescn bei den Sebrurn, pp. 409-411, Regensburg, 1877; C. U. A. Siegfried, in JPT, i (1875), 350-307; F. W. A. Baetbgen, Beiträge zur semitiechen Religionageschichte, pp. 7&-80, 159-181, Berlin, 1888; T. Nöldeke, in ZDMG, xlii (1888), 479 sqq.; (1. Kerber, Die religiongeschichtliche Bedeatung der htbrdisches Rigennamen, pp. 00-88, Freiburg, 1897; the commentaries of Dillmann, Cheyne, Delitssch, and (3. A. Smith on lesiah, on the passage 1xv. 11, of Dentssoh on Gened% at xxz. 11, and T. K. Cbeyne, Introduction to Book of Isaiah, pp. 305-300, London, 1895; DB, ii. 70; EB, ii. 1557-1558. "Fortune."


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