GELPKE, ERNST FRIEDRICH: German theologian; b. at Breitenfeld (4 m. n. of Leipsic) Apr. 8, 1807; d. at Bern Sept. 1, 1871. He studied at Grimma, Leipsic, and Berlin, in the latter university coming under the influence of Schleiermacher and Neander. His Evangelische Dogmatik (Bonn, 1834), written while he was a privat-docent at Bonn, gained him a call, in the year of its publication, to the newly founded university of Bern. There he lectured at first on New Testament exegesis, and later on dogmatics and moral theology, in addition to teaching in the gymnasia of the city. His chief work was his Kirchengeschichte der Schweiz (2 vols., Bern, 1856-61), which, however, extends only to the eleventh century. In his theology Gelpke belonged to the mediating school, although his Jugendgeschichte des Herrt (1841) betrayed so strongly the influence of Strauss that it created a sensation at Bern. Humanistic idealism led him to join the freemasons, and he became grand master. Several of his poems were published, including his trilogy Napoleon (1854).

(E. Blosch.)

Bibliography: : Frau M. Bach-Gelpke, in Sammlung berniacker Biographies, i. 28 sqq., Bern, 1885; ADB, viii. 552.

GELZER, gelt'zer, HEINRICH: 1. German historian; b. at Schaffhausen Oct. 17, 1813; d. at his estate "Witwald" in the Jura Mountains, canton of Basel, Aug. 15, 1889. He was the son of an artisan, began the study of theology at Zurich, but on the advice of his physician, who considered his health not strong enough for the office of a preacher,


turned to history. He continued both theological and historical studies in Jena, Halle, and Göttingen where he was influenced especially by Hase, Tholuck, Otfried Müller, and Ewald. Returning to Switzerland, he became private tutor in Bern, and formed here an intimate friendship with K. J. vow Bunsen, the Prussian ambassador. In 1839 he established himself as privat-docent at Basel. In 1843 he became professor extraordinary of the history of Switzerland and universal history; in 1844 be was called to Berlin as professor of history. Besides his activity as teacher, he was frequently consulted in political and educational problems. A severe illness compelled him to go to southern France and Italy, and after a time he settled at Basel and founded and edited the Protestantische Alonatsbldtter /Or innere Zeitgeschichte (1853-70), a periodical which attempted " to win the educated circles for the great moral-religious mission belonging to them, from the universal standpoint of genuine German Protestantism." At the same time, Gelzer was active in the spheres of secular and ecclesiastical politics. From the beginning of the sixties he was an intimate adviser of Grand duke Frederick of Baden. His theological standpoint was on the whole that of Rothe and Hundeshagen. As early as 1839, before the appearance of Rothe's "Ethics," Galzer expressed the opinion that " perfect religion must be moral throughout and that perfect morality must be religious throughout." He demanded a theology that should go back to the leading ideas of a Herder, Fichte and Schleiermacher, without giving up the spiritual acquisition of romanticism and pietism, and in that way renew its conception of Christianity and Christian redemption.

Gelzer published among other works Die drei letzten Jahrhunderle der Schweizergeschichte (2 vols., Aarau, 1838-39), in which he treats in detail the religious conditions and history of morals beside political events; Die Religion im Leben (Zurich, 1839); Die ztvei ersten Jahrhunderte der Schtreizergeschichte (Basel, 1840); Die neuere deutsche NationalLitteratur nach ihren ethischen and religiosen Gesichtspunkten (2 vols., Leipsic, 1847), his most popular work; Protestnntische Briefs sue Südfrankreich and Italien (Zurich, 1852), the result of a journey to Italy. His Dr. Martin Luther . . . in geschichtlichen Umrissen (Hamburg, 1847-51) appeared in several English translations, The Life of Martin Luther . . . in Fifty Pictures (London, 1853; Philadelphia, 1855; London, 1858).

(Karl Gelzer.)

Bibliography: F. Curtius, Heinrich Gelzer, Gotha, 1892; R. Stabelin, in Kirchenblatt für die reformirte Schweis, 1892.

2. German historian, son of the preceding; b. at Berlin July 1, 1847; d. at Jena in 1906. He studied in Basel and Göttingen, taught in a gymnasium in Basel 1869-73, and was appointed associate professor of ancient history in Heidelberg. After 1878 he was professor of classical philology and ancient history at Jena. Among his works those of special theological interest are Patrum Niccenorum nomina Lathe, Grwce, Coplice, Syriace, Arabice, Armenice in collaboration with A. Hilgen- feld and 0. Cuntz (Leipsic, 1898); Geistlichm and Weltlichea aim dem titrkisch-griechischen Orient (1900); Ungedruckte and ungeniigend aero fjentlichte Texte der notitiee episcopalum (Munich, 1901); and Vom heiligen Berge and aus Makedonnien (1905). He was also the editor of the series Scriptores sacri et profani (5 parts, Leipsic, 1897-1903).


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