GELPKE, ERNST FRIEDRICH: German theologian; b. at Breitenfeld (4 m. n. of Leipsic) Apr. 8, 1807; d. at Bern Sept. 1, 1871. He studied at Grimma, Leipsic, and Berlin, in the latter university coming under the influence of Schleiermacher and Neander. His Evangelische Dogmatik (Bonn, 1834), written while he was a privat-docent at Bonn, gained him a call, in the year of its publication, to the newly founded university of Bern. There he lectured at first on New Testament exegesis, and later on dogmatics and moral theology, in addition to teaching in the gymnasia of the city. His chief work was his Kirchengeschichte der Schweiz (2 vols., Bern, 1856-61), which, however, extends only to the eleventh century. In his theology Gelpke belonged to the mediating school, although his Jugendgeschichte des Herrt (1841) betrayed so strongly the influence of Strauss that it created a sensation at Bern. Humanistic idealism led him to join the freemasons, and he became grand master. Several of his poems were published, including his trilogy Napoleon (1854).
Bibliography: : Frau M. Bach-Gelpke, in Sammlung berniacker Biographies, i. 28 sqq., Bern, 1885; ADB, viii. 552.
GELZER, gelt'zer, HEINRICH: 1. German historian; b. at Schaffhausen Oct. 17, 1813; d. at his estate "Witwald" in the Jura Mountains, canton of Basel, Aug. 15, 1889. He was the son of an artisan, began the study of theology at Zurich, but on the advice of his physician, who considered his health not strong enough for the office of a preacher,
Gelzer published among other works Die drei letzten Jahrhunderle der Schweizergeschichte (2 vols., Aarau, 1838-39), in which he treats in detail the religious conditions and history of morals beside political events; Die Religion im Leben (Zurich, 1839); Die ztvei ersten Jahrhunderte der Schtreizergeschichte (Basel, 1840); Die neuere deutsche NationalLitteratur nach ihren ethischen and religiosen Gesichtspunkten (2 vols., Leipsic, 1847), his most popular work; Protestnntische Briefs sue Südfrankreich and Italien (Zurich, 1852), the result of a journey to Italy. His Dr. Martin Luther . . . in geschichtlichen Umrissen (Hamburg, 1847-51) appeared in several English translations, The Life of Martin Luther . . . in Fifty Pictures (London, 1853; Philadelphia, 1855; London, 1858).
Bibliography: F. Curtius, Heinrich Gelzer, Gotha, 1892; R. Stabelin, in Kirchenblatt für die reformirte Schweis, 1892.
2. German historian, son of the preceding; b. at Berlin July 1, 1847; d. at Jena in 1906. He studied in Basel and Göttingen, taught in a gymnasium in Basel 1869-73, and was appointed associate professor of ancient history in Heidelberg. After 1878 he was professor of classical philology and ancient history at Jena. Among his works those of special theological interest are Patrum Niccenorum nomina Lathe, Grwce, Coplice, Syriace, Arabice, Armenice in collaboration with A. Hilgen- feld and 0. Cuntz (Leipsic, 1898); Geistlichm and Weltlichea aim dem titrkisch-griechischen Orient (1900); Ungedruckte and ungeniigend aero fjentlichte Texte der notitiee episcopalum (Munich, 1901); and Vom heiligen Berge and aus Makedonnien (1905). He was also the editor of the series Scriptores sacri et profani (5 parts, Leipsic, 1897-1903).
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