name of two popes.
Gelasius I.: Pope 492-496. He was a Roman
by birth, and entered upon his administration as
successor to Felix III. on Mar. 1,
492. The schism
with Byzantium which had begun under Felix in
484, on occasion of the excommunication of the
Patriarch Acacius of Constantinople for his encour
agement of the Monophysite doctrine (see
continued under Gelasius.
Nor was Gelasius on good terms with Odoacer, the
eastern emperor's "governor," but he got on better
with the Ostrogothic
king Theodoric, who from
493 resided at Ravenna as king of Italy, and as
yet refrained from encroachments upon the province
of the Church. This reserve of the Arian was of
the utmost moment for Gelasius, who set his heart
on extending the rights of the Roman primacy.
In his letters he claimed the right to receive appeals
from all parts of the world, and he contested the
admissibility of appeal to any other tribunal from
a deliverance by the bishop of Rome. The preeminence of the see of Rome is guaranteed for him
Bibliography: The Epistolm are in MPL, lix. 13-140, and one of them in MGH, Epist., iii (1891), 32-33. Sources are in Jaffé, Regesta, i. 83-95, 619-743; Liber pontificalis, ed. Duchesne, i. 255, Paris, 1886, ed. Mommsen in LiiGH, Gest. Pont. Rom., i (1898), 116-118. Consult: A. Roux, Le Pape S. GElase I., Paris, 1880 (on the life and writings); J. Langen, Geschichte der römischen Kirche, ii. 159-214, Bonn, 1885; Zahn, Kanon, II., i. 259 sqq.; Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, ii. 616 sqq.; Bower, Popes, i. 282-291; Milman, Latin Christianity, i. 348-349.Gelasius II. (Giovanni da, Gaeta): Pope 1118 1119. He was born at Gaeta, and, after receiving his education in the monastery of Monte Cassino, was drawn to the curia by Urban II., appointed chancellor, and also promoted to the rank of cardi nal deacon. He loyally supported Paschal II. (q.v.) when this pope was taken captive by Henry V. of Germany in 1111, and was sharply attacked by a portion of the college of Cardinals on account of the treaty he had concluded with the emperor in relation to investiture. After the death of Paschal II. Cardinal Giovanni was unanimously elected as his successor (Jan. 24, 1118), and he adopted the name of Gelasius II. The conclave was scarcely ended when he was taken captive by the Frangipani party, but was soon released. However, the news then reached him that Henry V., upon word that the papal election had occurred without his cooperation, was approaching in rapid marches. In the fear that a treaty similar to the one exacted of his predecessor might be forced upon him, Gelasius fled hurriedly to Gaeta, where, on Mar. 9 and 10, he was consecrated priest and bishop. Upon his declining the demands of Henry in re gard to investiture, and when thereupon the latter induced the Romans to elect Mauritius Burdinus, archbishop of Braga, as antipope (Gregory VIII., q.v.), Gelasius decreed from Cp,pua on Apr. 7 the ban of excommunication against the emperor and the schismatic pope. After Henry's departure from Rome, he returned thither himself, but was very soon compelled to leave the city anew to escape the Françipani plots; he now turned to France. The contest with Henry V. was prosecuted with great energy in Germany by the pope's legate, Kuno of Proeneste. Gelasius died at Cluny Jan. 18, 1119.
Bibliography: The Epistolm are in Bouquet, Recueil, xv. 223-228, the Epistolar et privilegia, in MPL, clxiii. 487514. The early Vita by Pandulfus Aletrinus is in ASB, May, 9-13, and MPL, cWii. 475-484. Consult: J. Langen, Geschichte der rbm£schen Kirche, iv. 271-277, Bonn, 1893; Jaffé, Regesta, i. 775 sqq.; G. Richter, Annalen der deutschen Geschichte im M4tteWter, Ill., ii. 603-607, Halle, 1898; Neander, Christian Church, iv. 141, 245; Milman, Latin Christianity, iv. 125-129; Bower, Popes, ii. 453-455.
Calvin College. Last modified on 08/11/06. Contact the CCEL.