GEHENNA (" Valley of Hinnom "): Originally the name of the deep valley south of Jerusalem, later a name given to the place of torment. The full form of the name (" valley of the son of Hinnom ") appears in II Kings xxiii. 10. Hinnom is otherwise unknown. From Old Testament references and from the accurate description of its position in Enoch xxvi. 1-5, it is identified with the present Wadi al-Rababah. At the end of the preexilic period Moloch-worship was carried on there, and Josiah desecrated the place (II Kings xxiii. 10)


but without permanent effect (Jer. vii. 31-32, xix. 2-6, xxxil. 35). Jeremiah announced that this valley was in future to be called " valley of slaughter," because the enemies were to kill there the fleeing inhabitants of Jerusalem and leave their bodies unburied (Jer. vii. 32, xix. 6). Isa. Ixvi. 24 states that the In the Old Testament carcasses of the men that transgressed and shall in future be before the gates of Je Apocrypha. rusalem for an amazement to every one because " their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched." Dan. xii. 2 even goes beyond Isa. lxvi. 24, and is illustra ted by the contemporaneous description in Enoch xc. 26-27, according to which after Israel's redemption an abyss filled with fire is to be opened south of Jerusalem, into which ungodly Israelites are to be thrown after submitting to judgment. According to Enoch xxvi. 1- xxvll. 3, this very valley of Ben-hinnom was conceived as the place of future judgment and punishment of impious Israelites. Thus it became customary to call the place of punishment of the Jewish wicked "valley of Hinnom." The name was retained after the idea of the place of punishment in the last day had severed itself from thatlocalityand its connotation. expanded to mean a place of punishment for all men. There is no trace that the name of the Ben hinnom valley was transferred to the place of punishment after death, for according to Enoch xc. 24-25 besides the fiery abyss near Jerusalem there was a second fiery abyss, appointed for the fallen angels and the "shepherds of the nations." In the second prechristian century there comes into view a different fate of the pious and impious in the other world, which begins after death. Enoch xxii. 10 sqq. speaks of a twofold place for the impious in Hades. The Apocalypse of Baruch, xxxvi. 11, distinguishes between the (lesser) torment of the impious before the last judgment and the greater after it. The place of the former is called Gehenna (xlix. 10). According to IV Ezra vii. 80-87, the ungodly dead are in a restless state of anxious expectation of coming torment; according to vii. 36, the iake of torment and the oven of Gehenna become manifest only at the end. Ac cording to Josephus (Ant. XVIII., i. 3; War, II., viii. 14), the Pharisees made the everlasting punishment of the ungodly begin with their death. AS to the locality of the place of punishment, different views prevailed. It was easiest to seek the place of the impious in Hades under the earth. This was the view of the Pharisees (Josephus, Ant. XVIII., i. 3) and of Josephus (War, III., viii. 5; cf. Enoch li. 1; Apocalypse of Baruch xxi. 24; IV Ezra vii. 32). According to Enoch xxii. (cf. xxi. 1, 2), this place lies outside of heaven and earth. The place of everlasting punishment after the last judgment was located by the Pharisees under the earth. In this case a connection between this place and the Ben-hinnom valley could easily be made by seeking in this valley one of the gates to hell. The old notion of the judgment-place in the Ben-hinnom valley near Jerusalem was never completely given up only that the locality was differently fixed. The thoughts about the final fate of the ungodly can be understood from Israelitic assumptions, but there can be no doubt as to foreign influences, especially Greek.

In the New Testament the Grecized form of the word is found only in the synoptic Gospels and Jas. iii. 6. By "Gehenna of fire" (R. V., margin, Matt. v. 22, xviii. 9: Mark ix. 477; In the New this "valley" is more accurately Testament. designated. The fire is called " unquenchable " (Matt. iii. 12; Mark ix. 43; Luke iii. 17) and "everlasting" (Matt. xviii. 8, xxv. 41). It is placed in opposition to the " dominion of God " or " eternal life " and denotes the state which falls to the final lot of the ungodly, and this, according to Matt. x. 28, affects both soul and body. The fire is here to be taken literally, whereas"the outer darkness" (Matt. vi. 23, etc.) is figurative. The devil and his angels are appointed for the like death by fire according to Matt. xxv. 41, the demons according to Matt. viii. 29. The same idea of the final destiny of the ungodly is also found in Heb. x. 27 sqq., xii. 29, in Jude 7; and in Rev. xix. 20, xx. 10, 14; xxi. 8. Whereas it is supposed that death is the lot of both good and bad and the different lot of each can show itself only in events which do not occur at death, Paul taught that death is the wages of sin and therefore a passing anomaly for the righteous to which he must sub mit as being in the flesh, but that it is the lasting lot of the ungodly. The Gospel and Epistles of John speak indeed of a coming day of judgment (v. 29; I John iv. 17) for which the unrighteous "rise," but in xv. 6 a punishment of apostates with fire is mentioned figuratively only, so that it can not be stated how the literal statement would read.

(G. Dalman.)

Bibliography: The best single book covering the subject is R. H. Charles, Critical Hist. of Doctrine of a Future Life, London, 1899. For detailed study of the Jewish non-canonical ideas consult the literature under Pseudepigrapha; A. Hilgenfeld, JudiscAe Apocalyptik, Jena, 1857; A. Wünsche, Die Vorstellungen vom Zuatande der Seele each dem Tode each Apokryphen, Talmud and Kirchenvtitern, in JPT, vi (1880), 355-383; J. Hamburger, Real-Encyklopedie, ii. 1252-57, Strelitz, 1883; A. Lowy, in PSBA, x (1888), 333-342; D. Castelli, in JQR, i (1889), 314-352; T. K. Cheyne, Origin and Religious Content of Psalter, pp 381-452, London, 1891; F. Schwally, Dae Leben nach deco Tode, pp. 142-147, 174-177, Giessen, 1892; R. Kabiseh, Die Eschatologie des Paulus, Göttingen, 1893; E. Haupt, Die eachatologieden Aussagen Jesu, Berlin, 1895; F. Weber, Jüdische Theologie, pp. 341-344, Leipsic, 1897; E. Stave;-Ueber den Eintlum des Parsismus auf das Judenthum, Harlem, 1898; P. Carus, Hist. of the Devil, Chicago, 1900; H. Guthe, Kurzes BibelwOrterbuch, pp. 271-274, Tübingen, 1903; DB, ii. 119-120; JE, v. 582-584. Ezra Abbot's Literature of the Doctrine of a Future Life, originally appended to W. R. Alger's Hist. of the Doctrine of a Future Life, but published separately, New York, 1871, is exhaustive for the earlier literature.


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