GEBHARDT, OSKAR LEOPOLD VON: German Lutheran; b. at Wesenberg (150 m. s.e. of St. Petersburg) June 22, 1844; d. at Leipsic May 10, 1906. He studied at Dorpat, Tübingen, Göttingen, and Leipsic and was assistant in the library of Leipsic University 1875-76, custodian and sublibrarian of the University of Halle 1876-80, librarian of the University of Göttingen 1880-84. librarian of the Royal Library, Berlin, 1884-91, and divisional director of the same institution 1891-93. From 1893 until his death he was director of the library of the University of Leipsic. He wrote or edited Gra;cus Venetua (Leipsic, 1875); Patrum Apmtolicorum opera (3 vols., 1875-77, in collaboration with A. Harnack and T. Zahn; editio minor, 1877); Evangeliorum codex Grcecus purpureus Roasanensis (1880; in collaboration with A. Harnack); Das New Testament griechisch each Tischendorfs letzer Recension and deutsch nach dem revidierten Luthertext (1881); Novum Testamentum Grace, recensionis Tischerulorfiance ultimm textus cum Tregellesiano et WeSeottiano-Hortiano coliatus (1881); The Miniatures of the Ashburnam Pentateuch (London, 1883); and Acta martyrum selects (Berlin, 1902). He was likewise the editor of the eleventh to the sixteenth edition of W. Theile's Novum Testamentum Grtece (Leipsic, 1875-1900), while with A. Harnack he established and edited the valuable Texte and Untersuahungen zur Geschichte der adtchristlichen Literatur (1882 sqq.), to which he himself contributed a number of monographs.

Bibliography: A memorial sketch is found in the ZeatraEbla# für Bibliothekewasen, June, 1908.

GEDALIAH, ged"a-lai'8: Son of Ahikam and grandson of Shaphan, and protector of Jeremiah from the people who sought to kill him because of his predictions against Jerusalem (Jer. xi. 5-8, xliii. 6). He was appointed by Nebuchadrezzar governor of Judea after the fall of Jerusalem, in accordance with the custom of Eastern monarchs to leave the government of subjected lands in charge of distinguished individuals of the conquered races. The selection of Gedaliah for this position may have


been determined by his attitude toward the rebel lion, which made him appear trustworthy to the Babylonian overlord. It may have been through Gedaliah that Nebuchadrezzar gave directions for the protection of the prophet (Jer. xxxix. 11 sqq.), and that he was released from bonds and given his full liberty by Nebuzaradan, the Babylonian general (Jer. xl. 1-6). Gedaliah fixed his residence at hfizpah, whither Jeremiah came, and also the representatives of the Jewish insurgents in order to get advice of Gedaliah. His counsel was to live quietly, since then they would be unmolested by the Babylonians. The result was that the Jews who had been fugitives among the neighboring peoples returned and placed themselves under Gedaliah's protection, and the nucleus of a new Jewish nation was gathered. But there was an element in the population which regarded sub jection and even a peaceful life under the Chaldeans as disgraceful, and these were led by Ishmael, one of the princes royal. He was prompted by Baalis, king of Ammon, to kill Gedaliah. The governor was warned of the plot by a certain Johanan, who offered to forestall its execution by the assassina tion of Ishmael. Gedaliah regarded the informa tion as a slander and rejected the offer. Three months after the fall of the city, Ishmael with ten companions visited Gedaliah, was entertained by him, and then slew him and the Jews and Chaldeans who were of his company (Jer. xli. 1-3). Ishmael slew also on the second day after a number of men from Shechem, Shiloh, and Samaria who were bringing gifts for the Temple, carried off as prisoners the residents of Mizpah, and started on his journey to Ammon. He was confronted on the way by Johanan with a strong force, and was compelled to abandon his prisoners and escape with a small band to the Ammonites.

(W. Lotz.)

Bibliography: The works on the history of the period mentioned under Ahab; and Israel, History of, especially Stade, f. 696-700, Kittel, p. 33, and Kent, The Divided Kingdom.


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